EISSN : 2371-1671
Published by: Canadian Science Publishing (10.1139)
Total articles ≅ 336
Latest articles in this journal
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1409-1445; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0055
The origins of this report, and of the Mental Health and Policing Working Group, can be traced to the unique situation Canadians have faced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The unique circumstances of this global outbreak, which have for many Canadians resulted in serious illness and death, intensified economic uncertainties, altered family and lifestyle dynamics, and generated or exacerbated feelings of loneliness and social dislocation, rightly led the Royal Society of Canada’s COVID-19 Taskforce to consider the strains and other negative impacts on individual, group, and community mental health. With the central role that police too often play in the lives of individuals in mental and (or) emotional crisis, we were tasked with exploring what can be reasonably said about the state of our current knowledge of police responses to persons with mental illness.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1390-1408; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0011
This paper reviews the challenges posed by the physics of the interaction of high-peak power femtosecond lasers with ultrathin foil targets. Initially designed to produce warm solid-density plasmas through the isochoric heating of solid matter, the interaction of an ultrashort pulse with ultrathin foils is becoming more and more complex as the laser intensity is increased. The dream of achieving very hot solid density matter with extreme specific energy density faces several bottlenecks discussed here as related to the laser technology, to the complexity of the physical processes, and to the limits of our current time-resolved instrumentations.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1539-1569; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2020-0109
Canada has expanded its marine protected area (MPA) coverage in line with the Aichi Biodiversity Target of protecting 10% of its marine territory by 2020. In 2018, a consultation process was launched to designate an Area of Interest surrounding the Eastern Shore Islands area off the coast of Nova Scotia, as the potential 15th Oceans Act MPA in Canada ( DFO 2021a ). This region has a fraught history with external conservation interventions and, consequently, there was a significant level of local mistrust in the process. This study explored the role of information in the consultation process and how it interplayed with the historical context, political pressures, trust, and mistrust among stakeholders and rightsholders. Drawing on interviews, a detailed desktop analysis, and participant observation at consultation meetings, this paper describes what worked well and what could be improved with respect to the sources of information used and the channels through which stakeholders and rightsholders accessed it. This case study demonstrates that while preferences for information sources and channels are context specific and varied, they are inherently personal and influenced by shared histories, trust, and individual beliefs.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1610-1620; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0085
Defined as the ability to think and move quickly and easily, the importance of agility as an essential element in the move forward for leaders of schools and systems postpandemic, as a result of the impact of COVID-19 on children, is examined. The smartness of a leader’s continuous interactions with the multi-faceted features of their environment, the very nature of the ever-evolving educational landscape of today, is of tremendous value for the leadership of tomorrow. Through the prioritization of strategic objectives in balanced measure, connectivity through relationships and partnership building, proactivity for effective change management, ingenuity in the optimization of resources over time, and the cultivation of systemness throughout the organization—as aspects of agility—educational leaders have the bona fide chance of a lifetime to transform school systems in the pursuit of achievement, equity, and well-being for the benefit of all students, staff, and school communities. Additional considerations, including barriers to agility, are also addressed as are recommendations for leaders of schools and systems as they navigate the shifts in organizational terrain caused by the disruption.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1621-1627; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0083
The COVID-19 pandemic has engendered a critical moment in education. Questions of equity, engagement, and interaction have been brought into sharper focus as students’ homes became their classrooms. There is a demonstrated need for interdisciplinary thinking, enabling students to work with the resources they have at hand, and helping learners orient themselves in place and time. Defining Moments Canada/Moments Déterminant Canada, using the interdisciplinary framework of curatorial thinking, encourages students to make sense of information, more effectively create a meaningful story, and build a stronger sense of social responsibility and awareness. This framework is operationalized using the S.A.S.S. pedagogy—Selecting, Archiving, Sense-Making, and Sharing—through which students find their personal way into a research question and demonstrate their learning while considering narrative intent, evidence limitations, and their own role as a historical actor. This integrative, critical, and interdisciplinary focus is an approach to a (post)pandemic world that prioritizes creative student responsiveness to upcoming challenges.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1693-1713; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0096
Many children and youth in Canada are identified as vulnerable due to educational, environmental, and social factors. They are more likely to be negatively affected by events that cause significant upheaval in daily life. The changes imposed by COVID-19, such as physical distancing, school closures, and reductions in community-based services all have the potential to weaken the systems of support necessary for these children to learn and develop. Existing inequities in educational outcomes experienced by vulnerable children prior to the pandemic have been greatly exacerbated as cracks in our support structures are revealed. Many children and youth have experienced disengagement, chronic attendance problems, declines in academic achievement, and decreased credit attainment during the pandemic, with the impact far deeper for those already at-risk. This chapter examines what is known to date regarding the impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable children and youth and provides recommendations to guide postpandemic planning. Vulnerable children, youth, and their families require access to reliable high-speed internet, effective and inclusive learning spaces, and a range of coordinated social services. All stakeholders need to develop and fund initiatives that address these critical areas to ensure that educational opportunities for all children and youth can be realized.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1510-1533; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0001
This paper outlines the testing and monitoring procedure of a scale model Warren truss constructed of 2 inch × 4 inch (38 mm × 89 mm) members and bolted connections within a laboratory environment. Several forms of deflection monitoring and strain monitoring instrumentation were utilized throughout this laboratory testing phase of a longer-term research program. Instruments included: an automatic total station, linear variable differential transducers, light detection and ranging, electric strain gauges, and distributed optical fibre sensors. The distributed point load-testing regime included two configurations: ( i) the original truss configuration and ( ii) the installation of intermediate columns beneath the truss. Objectives of this phase included identifying instrument capabilities, limitations, and overall reliability/effectiveness with respect to representing the behaviour of the truss system. In addition, members of interest and critical monitoring locations along the Warren truss were determined. The purpose of this laboratory endeavour was to determine an optimized structural-health monitoring program prior to implementation in a heritage timber Warren truss structure within the infrastructure inventory of the Department of National Defence (DND). An options analysis of monitoring techniques was conducted whereby the effectiveness of each instrumentation type was evaluated according to relevant metrics/factors to determine an effective monitoring technique for this heritage building and other similar DND truss structures.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1495-1509; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2020-0098
Introduction: Early childhood overweight and obesity, as a result of unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary life, is a growing global public health concern, particularly in Canada. There are limited data on how socioeconomic factors influence dietary habits of young children living in developed countries. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to examine the existing literature on how socioeconomic settings influence food consumption patterns of children 2–5 years old in developed countries. The inclusion criteria were relevant articles in the English language between 2007 and 2019. Results: From the initial 1854 articles, only 12 articles from Europe, Canada, and the United States met the inclusion criteria. There are differences in eating patterns of preschool-aged children based on parental education, whereas income level did not have a clear influence on dietary patterns. The existing studies suffer from a variety of limitations that limit a cohesive conclusion. Conclusion: Studies with children 2–5 years old are scarce. Parental education seems to influence the dietary habits of young children, whereas the role of income is not clear. There is a need for further high-quality research, preferably longitudinal studies, to inform health promotion initiatives and preventive strategies to facilitate healthy growth and development in young children.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1168-1183; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2020-0074
The biodiversity crisis is a pressing global issue. In Ontario, Canada, species at risk are protected under the Endangered Species Act (2007) . The current government amended that legislation through the More Homes, More Choice Act (2019), leaving species at risk with an uncertain future. This paper uses the Niagara Region as a case study and relies on interviews and data collection about listed species to illuminate the possible implications for the new amendments. The results indicate a total of 71 species at risk that exist in the Region, with as many as 37 species that could be delisted and stripped of protection under the recent changes. There is also concern around the prioritization of the economics over science in the amendments. While uncertainty surrounding the implementation of the amendments to the Ontario Endangered Species Act exists, there is agreement that species at risk should be protected.
FACETS, Volume 6, pp 1146-1167; https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2020-0069
Environmental issues and related policy instruments are becoming increasingly politicized in the Canadian context, but it is unclear whether biodiversity conservation and protected areas are similarly politicized. Here, we suggest that the political characteristics of protected areas do not lend themselves easily to politicization, but data from the Canadian Protected and Conserved Areas Database indicate that at the federal level, and provincially in Alberta, the rate of protected areas establishment is becoming increasingly tied to electoral politics, suggesting some politicization. We situate these trends within federal electoral politics between 2006 and the present, outlining the differing approaches of the Harper Conservatives and the Trudeau Liberals and showing how both administrations instrumentalized the environment and protected areas for their own electoral benefits. We find similar trends in Alberta with the Progressive Conservative, New Democratic Party, and United Conservative Party governments. However, while there is increasing polarization in practice, there has been less polarization of the electoral rhetoric surrounding protected areas. This politicization represents a barrier to conservation in Canada as it can lead to greenwashing, poor accountability, or the creation of an anti-conservation constituency. At the same time, politicization can raise the profile of conservation in public discourse, leading to greater public interest and engagement.