Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology

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ISSN / EISSN : 24107360 / 24113913
Current Publisher: V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (10.26565)
Total articles ≅ 113
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Varduhi Margaryan
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 125-135; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-09

Abstract:
Formulation of the problem. The study and assessment of air temperature fluctuations, especially in conditions of expected climate change, is of particular relevance and haste. At the same time, the assessment of temporary changes in air temperature is important as a guarantee of stable development and a long-term economic development. The purpose of the article. The purpose of this work is to find out, analyze and evaluate the patterns of the dynamic changes in air temperature in Gyumri city. To solve this problem, the results of actual observations of the air temperature of the Gyumri weather station, stored at the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia «Service for Hydrometeorology and active influence on atmospheric phenomena» have been collected, refined and analyzed. Methods. In the course of research we analyzed and clarified appropriate literary sources, using mathematical-statistical, extrapolation, complex, analyze and correlation methods. Results. A multifactorial correlation relationship was obtained between the average annual air temperature and its absolute maximum and minimum values of Gyumri city. A close correlation was also obtained between the average annual air temperature and its absolute maximum and minimum values of Gyumri city, between the average annual and extreme values of the surface air temperature and the absolute maximum and minimum values of the soil surface of Gyumri city. This makes it possible to calculate the value of any temperature characteristic, while having the other one. Note that in winter the average air temperature values do not differ much from the average soil surface temperature values. This difference grows and reaches its maximum in summer (July – August). As a result of the research, it turned out that according to the actual data on the air temperature in Gyumri city, there was a tendency for the average annual values and absolute maximum of the air temperature to rise, while the absolute minimum values showed a downward trend (in the absolute sense). That is, in the study area in the warm season, an increase in aridity is expected on climate drainage, and in the cold season – a softening. In the work we tried to define the monthly average values of air temperature in Gyumri in 2030, 2070, 2100, using the extrapolation method. The result shows that if the changing process continues, the annual average values of air temperature will increase with comparison to current normal: in 2030 – 0.09 ºC (1.37 %), in 2050 – 0.27 ºC (4.12 %), in 2070 – 0.48 ºC (7.32 %), in 2100 – 0.85 ºC (13 %). This pattern is also characteristic of other regions of the republic. Therefore, it is necessary to implement integrated measures to adapt to the effects of air temperature changes and take this into account when working out programs for social, environmental and economic development.
В’Ячеслав Валерійович Стеценко, Валерія Валеріївна Зайченко
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 54-62; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-04

Abstract:
Relevance of the problem. Petrovsky deposit is promising area for the extraction of magnetite ores. Detailed research on this deposit was carried out in the 80 years of the last century, but with the deepening and expansion of the pit data from previous studies have lost their relevance. In 2016-2018 years, in the north-eastern part of the deposit, an in-mine exploration in the direction of the eastern wing of the Petrovsky synclinal fold was carried out.Analysis of previous research. Petrovsky deposit of ferruginous quartzites is located in the remote southwestern part of the area of the Right Bank magnetic anomalies. Two groups of rocks were defined in the geological structure of the deposit: the crystalline rocks of the Precambrian base and the loose Cenozoic deposits that were on the top of them. Rocks of the Precambrian Age are highly metamorphosed and dislocated ones of the crystalline base and are represented by Archean and Lower Proterozoic formations. Lower Proterozoic formations are represented by the Ingul-Ingulets series which is divided by the (bottom up): zelenorichenska, artemivska, radionivska suites. The Artemivska suite is productive in the territory under investigation.In the structural plan, the Petrovskiy deposit is a compressed synclinal fold, the western wing of which is taper out, and the eastern wing extends in the northern direction. In connection with this, the object of research was the eastern wing.Purpose and tasks of research. The main purpose of the study was identification of the mineralogical variability of ferruginous quartzites, the allocation of mineralogical varieties of ores according to their chemical composition and to determine the regularities of expanding of these varieties within the productive strata of the eastern wing. These tasks were resolved using chemical analysis of rocks data, calculation of magnetic module MM and oxidation module MO, and the construction of a diagram in the coordinates of magnetization-oxidation of iron (MM-MO).Presentation of the main material of the article. Within the eastern wing of the Petrovsky synclinal fold, the eight mineralogical varieties of the ore were identified: silicate quartzites with magnetite, silicate-magnetite quartzites, magnetite-silicate quartzites, magnetite quartzites with hematite, hematite-magnetite quartzites, magnetite-hematite quartzites, hematite quartzites with magnetite. In the boundaries of the work area of a regular change of varieties of ores from hematite quartzites with magnetite in the central parts to silicate quartzites with magnetite on the periphery was established. In the same direction the regularities of changing the content of Fetot., Femagn. and sulfur (S) were elaborated. However, the authigenic-mineralogical zonality of the productive strata of the eastern wing of the syncline structure of the deposit was disturbed as a result of the overprint of metasomatic processes caused by the formation of bodies of aegirine and...
V. Grytsevych, Khrystyna Yevgenivna Podvirna, Mariana Igorivna Senkiv
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 91-100; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-07

Abstract:
Formulation of the problem. Infrastructure can be a factor of certain industries’ development in the service sector. Conversely, the development of the service sector may stimulate infrastructure development. Analysis of recent research and publications. Most of the research is devoted to issues of infrastructure and services separately, but not to the mutual influence of infrastructure and services. Selection of previously unsettled parts of the general problem. For studying the peculiarities of the mutual influence of the motor transport network and specific types of tourism in the Western region of Ukraine the motor transport infrastructure was considered as part of general infrastructure and tourism industry as part of service sector. Formulating the purpose of the paper. The purpose of the paper is the human and geographical analysis of the motor transport network of the Western region of Ukraine and spreading of the most developed types of tourism in the region in order to identify the features of their geospatial interdependence. Presentation of the main research material. The network of public automobile roads in the Western region of Ukraine is rather dense, which corresponds to the level of development of the tourism industry in the oblasts. There is a territorial gravity of the subjects of the hotel business and tourist flows to the places of a developed network of automobile roads. In order to analyze the motor transport and tourism spheres for correspondences between them, two classification criteria of types of tourism are selected: according to the way of travel and the purpose of travel. The types of tourism identified for each criterion can be linearly ordered in accordance with the predominant category of automobile roads. Conclusions. Automobile type of tourism uses the ways of travel on all available automobile roads. Cycling type is localized on all types of automobile roads, except international motorways. Pedestrian tourism tends to places where there are no roads of any class at all. Business tourism tends to the administrative and business centers that are on the priority automobile roads. Cognitive tourism tends to the natural, historical and cultural objects, while health tourism tends to the specialized health centers, mainly resorts. Pilgrim and nostalgic tourism occupy mostly lower levels of the hierarchy of automobile roads, although some nostalgic travels can be found in large cities. Fishing and, especially, hunting tourism tends to areas with no automobile roads.
Daria Olegivna Pankratenkova
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 159-167; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-12

Abstract:
The aim of the research is to analyze the problem of anthropogenic influence on the sea coasts, to develop and improve the constructive-geographical foundations of rational nature management for the conservation and possible renewal of natural resources on the north-west coast of the Black Sea. Methods. The main methods used in the preparation process and writing of the article are systematization methods, retrospective, analytical, comparative geographical and historical. Scientific novelty of the article. The fact that the coastal zone of the Black Sea coast is experiencing uncontrolled anthropogenic impacts; this research has improved and developed constructive-geographical foundations for their rational management. Practical value. Developed scientific recommendations are universal. They are very important for the implementation of integrated management of the coastal zone in the country, the optimization of nature management and the preservation of the natural systems on the north-west coast of the Black Sea, in particular, and the entire World Ocean, as a whole. Research results. Intensive development of the coast and consumer economic activity over the past decades has led to the degradation of natural systems. Rational use of natural resources of the coastal zone of the sea assumed the development of foundations that comprehensively take into account the physical-geographical and socio-economic processes, as well as the laws of their development that determine the current state and dynamics of changes in natural systems during their operation. On the basis of a detailed study of domestic and foreign publications related to this topic, the activities of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in different countries of the world were analyzed. The foundations and principles for introducing ICZM in Ukraine are highlighted. It has been established that for the development of any projects in the coastal zone of the sea, it is necessary to have a scientific natural rationale from scientists obtained in the process of detailed research. These provisions can be the scientific basis of the relevant legislative framework for the optimization of nature management and spatial planning on the north-west coast of the Black Sea. Well-developed and improved scientific provisions are suitable for correcting the current situation in the direction of higher efficiency on coastаl control. These constructive-geographic foundations can become the basis and the main algorithm for practical implementation of environmental legislation in Ukraine.
Т. Pavlovska, Taras Heorhiiovych Pohrebskyi, Gennadii Serhiiovych Golub, Volodymyr Ivanovych Poruchynsky
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 148-158; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-11

Abstract:
Introduction. Currently, the spatial and temporal evolution of urban settlement systems has become an important object of the research at the regional, national and global levels. After all, urbanization is a rather complicated process. On the one hand, it is characterized by an increase in the size of the urban population, level of comfort and standard of living, modernization of all spheres of society's life. On the other hand, urbanization is accompanied by tensions regarding the use of basic natural resources, inconsistency in the demands of life comfort from the pace of development of housing and communal services and the planning structure of cities, etc. The study of the spatial and temporal evolution of the urban settlement systems is an important task on the regional, national and global levels. Therefore, the identification of resettlement patterns, the dynamics of urban processes and qualitative characteristics of the urban population, in particular, Volyn region are very relevant and deserve attention of modern geodemographers. The aim of the article is to analyze the settlement of the existing urban population and its dynamics in Volyn region. Research methodology. The following research methods are used: comparative-geographical, mathematical-statistical, method of geoinformation modeling (using MapInfo Professional 8.0 SCP). The results of the research reflect the current urban tendencies in Volyn region, in particular, the unevenness of the settlement of the urban population through natural and economic factors. During the research period, the dynamics of the number of urban residents increased as a result of migration growth, and the percentage of urbanization in Volyn region stabilized. Currently, the number of urban population and the urbanization of Volyn region, in addition to natural reproduction of the population and intra-regional migration, have a significant impact on interregional and interstate migration flows. Since urbanization reflects contemporary socio-economic trends in the development of society, the issue of urban lifestyles remains among perspective research. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The course, trends and dynamics of urbanization processes in Volyn and other Ukrainian regions have become an important task on the way to improving the effectiveness of spatial planning, especially in terms of territorial and administrative reform in Ukraine.
Valeriya Ovcharuk, Oleg Miloslavovich Prokofiev, Olena Ivanivna Todorova, Natalia Sergiyvna Kichuk
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 136-147; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-10

Abstract:
Introduction. In the period of global and regional climate change in almost all the regions of our planet there is an increase in cases of extreme natural phenomena, which definitely include floods of various origin. Over the past decades, according to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), in many countries of the world there has been a record high number of natural disasters which affected about 2.7 billion people, that is more than one third of the world's population. The purpose of article is to analyze historical data and study the current state and trends in the frequency of catastrophic floods. Methods. To estimate the trends in the chronological series of the maximum runoff of rivers the methods of statistical analysis and spatial generalization have been used. Results. On the basis of literature sources and taking into account current data, frequency of flooding in the period from 900 to 2010 in the territory of Kyivan Rus and modern Ukraine has been estimated. Analyzing the results obtained, it can be noted that the largest number of floods was observed in the period from 1501 to 1600 years (11 cases), from 1601 to 1700 years (13 cases), and in the modern period from 1901 to 2000 (10 cases); 900-1000 and 1701-1800 years can be considered as the periods with the smallest number of cases. Since the beginning of the new millennium catastrophic and high floods have been observed in Europe almost every year. In order to estimate the repeatability of catastrophic floods at the rivers in Ukraine, the chronological series of the maximum runoff of spring water have been made up in accordance with the data of hydrological stations, which have the largest and preferably continuous periods of observations from their beginning until 2015 inclusive. The analysis has shown that in Ukraine the spring floods in 1932 and 1970 are classified as catastrophic. The analysis of trends in the chronological series of annual maxima in conditions of climate change showed their heterogeneity across the territory of Ukraine: on the left bank of the Dnieper and in the Siverskyi Donets basin there is a tendency towards earlier periods of snowmelt and the occurrence of the spring floods, and on the other territory, on the contrary, there is a tendency of increase in cases of winter floods instead of the spring high water. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the use of observational data up to 2015 inclusive, and its practical significance is determined by the opportunity to use the results when justifying hydrotechnical projects in order to minimize the consequences of catastrophic floods on rivers.
A. Splodytel
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 234-242; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-51-17

Abstract:
Purpose. The problem of environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most important problems of the present and the near future. The compounds of these elements are characterized by high toxicity, mobility and ability to bio-accumulation. The aim of the study was to establish the main regularities of trace elements of the national natural park (NNP), to determine the indicators of their mobility for assessment of state of environment.Scientific novelty. The article discusses the features of distributing of heavy metals in the components of landscapes of the territory of the national natural park for realization of control and settlement of his concentration in accordance with the set norms.Results. The analysis of the landscape-geochemical conditions of the territory of the national natural park “Nyzhniosulskyi” has been performed. Consistent patterns of heavy metals distribution in the modern soil of the territory of NNP “Nyzhniosulskyi” have been determined. The analysis of landscape-geochemical conditions of the territory indicates that they generally contribute to the migration of chemical elements with land runoff as well as their significant vertical redistribution. The differentiation of landscape-geochemical conditions causes the fixation and accumulation of a significant number of natural and man-made chemical elements on the landscape-geochemical barriers (mechanical, redox, acid-alkaline, sorption, sorption-gley). This prevents from intense pollution of the vast majority of landscape regions in the park by polluting substances migrating from agricultural lands, which is confirmed by the results of the analysis of pollution sources and volumes. It was shown, that processes of transformation and migration of heavy metals compounds in the soil profile are determined by physical and chemical properties of soils.The analysis of the content of heavy metals in the soils of NNP “Nyzhniosulskyi” has shown that , the distribution of heavy metals is uniformly dispersive, but the variations in the content of certain heavy metals can range from ± 7% to ± 25%-35%. The greatest bioaccumulation capacity is expressed in biogenic microelements – manganese and cuprum. The analysis of heavy metals content in the landscape regions of NNP “Nyzhniosulskyi” has confirmed its dependence on available sources of technogenic contamination as well as the high degree of compliance of the nature of heavy metals distribution to the general laws of these processes in the soils of the relevant types. Most heavy metals get into the Sulyn aquatorium mainly during spring flood with snow melt water. The excess of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ in water has been noted in comparison with the current threshold level value regulations.According to the results of the landscape-geochemical analysis of the NNP “Nyzhniosulskyi”, it can be stated that the territory from the ecological point of view is poorly contaminated and can be used for the development of recreational activities in compliance with a number of requirements.Practical significance. The results of this study have been introduced into practice of the NNP “Nyzhniosulskyi” in organizing and conducting research work, for planning tourist and recreational activities, forming tourist routes, and organizing recreational infrastructure.
Liudmyla Mykolaivna Niemets, Nataliia Volodymyrivna Husieva, Taras Heorhiiovych Pohrebskyi, Oksana Volodymyrivna Bartosh, Maryna Oleksandrivna Lohvynova
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 140-157; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-51-10

Abstract:
Purpose. The article discusses the realities, problems and perspectives of internally displaced persons in Ukraine. The aim of the study is to justify the realities, problems and possible solutions to the problems of integration of Ukrainian IDPs into local communities. Scientific novelty. The article discusses theoretical and methodological approaches to understanding the adaptation and integration of IDPs, forms of integration, the category of interaction between forced migrants and the local population. The level of integration of IDPs into local communities in Ukraine has been investigated. Results. Self-assessment of IDPs for their full integration into local communities as of December 2018 is 50%. The self-assessment of IDPs of their integration into local societies by regions of Ukraine has been analyzed. The most integrated are the migrants of the southern, central and northern regions (Mykolaiv, Kherson, Kirovohrad, Poltava, Cherkasy, Sumy) – 70%, the least integrated IDPs in the eastern regions (Luhansk, Donetsk) – 43%. The dynamics of self-assessment of IDPs of their integration into local societies was analyzed during March 2017 – December in 2018 and it is certain that during 2018 the self-assessment of full integration of IDPs tended to increase (increased from 38% to 50%). An objective assessment of the integration of IDPs into local societies, where the majority of IDPs (63%) are partially integrated, is presented. The dynamics of assessing the integration of IDPs into local societies during 2017-2018 has been studied. and it was found that the level of full integration in 2018 was almost 2 times less than in 2017 (24-27% versus 45-58%). The conditions for successful adaptation of IDPs are defined, the main ones being housing (87%), permanent income (77%) and employment (48%). The level of trust of IDPs to the local population in the current places of residence of IDPs, the frequency of IDPs' requests to local residents for help in everyday life, the level of belonging of IDPs to the society in their current and past place of residence. Problems of integration of IDPs are identified. The biggest obstacle to attracting IDPs into the life of the territorial community is the lack of own housing, the problem of obtaining social services and the problem of employment. For successful integration of IDPs into host communities, a number of activities are proposed, among which are the formation and implementation of organizational and management principles for the effective integration of IDPs, the restructuring of social cohesion, the strengthening of socio-economic security and resilience of host societies to IDPs, the development of regional (local) programs and plans, taking into account the needs of IDPs and others. Practical significance. The results of this study can be used by the Ukrainian authorities at the state and regional levels to solve the problems of IDPs in Ukraine.
Ivan Platonovich Kovalchuk, Oksana Ivanivna Mykytchyn, Andrii Ivanovich Kovalchuk
Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series Geology. Geography. Ecology pp 124-139; doi:10.26565/2410-7360-2019-51-09

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to analyze anthropogenic transformation of river-basin geosystems of the outer Subcarpathian region by geoinformational modeling tools using various methods of quantitative estimation of anthropogenic pressure; comparison of modeling results on the basis of administrative-territorial and natural units, selection of optimal structural units for the study of anthropogenic changes in basin geosystems. Research methods. The features of estimation methods of anthropogenic transformation level of territorial complexes, based on various conceptual approaches to the study of anthropogenic changes in the components of the environment were investigated. In particular, the article compares methods of F.M. Milkov, P.G. Shyshchenko, E. Klementova and V. Geinige, P.P. Borschevsky, M.V. Boyarin, I.P. Kovalchuk, N.M. Ridey and D.L. Shofolov, A.M. Tretyak and others and by the means of geoinformation modeling of river-basin geosystems (namely, the case study of the outer Subcarpathian Dniester tributaries) shows the degree of representativeness of the results produced by each of them. It is noted that the technique by P.G. Shyshchenko allows to more accurately reflect the state of anthropogenic transformation of the river-basin system’s natural conditions Results. A range of digital cartographic models was developed to evaluate and compare anthropogenic transformation level of the two Carpathian basin systems and to identify similar and distinctive features of the state and the transformation level of the basin systems’ natural environment andstability of agricultural and forest landscapes in the studied basin geosystems. In particular, the study has revealed that the anthropogenic transformation of the outer Carpathian river basins is rising downstream. In the upper parts of the basins, it manifests itself in deforestation, while in the lower parts agricultural influence dominates. In addition, the index of anthropogenic transformation is rising with an increase in the order of sub-basins. The worst conditions of agro-landscapes are observed in the reclaimed valleys of the main rivers and their tributaries (due to the considerable level of plowing in the plain parts of the basins due to low fertility of soils, high levels of their acidity, degradation processes and chemical pollution). Stable territories are inherent exclusively in sub-basins which remain in their natural state or bear only traces of human activity. Settlements, which influence adjacent areas, are characterized by unsustainable land use. As for anthropogenic transformation, in the basin geosystem of the Berezhnytsia river its indicators increase upwards due to an increase in the share of arable land. On the contrary, in the basin of Bystrica much more land is occupied by industrial facilities, which affect the components of the geosystem the hardest. In this regard, the largest values of nature anthropogenic transformation indicators are found in the northern part of the basin and upstream of the city of Nadvirna and the town of Bykiv. Scientific significance. Case study of the administrative regions and the river basin located within them reveals the advantages of studying the geoenvironmental state of the territories according to their natural geographic taxonomic units, which allows to determine the most strained areas in geosystems. Particular attention is paid to the choice of optimum sized geospatial objects during the study of diverse basin systems. River sub-basins of the third order (according to the classification scheme of A. Strahler) were chosen to this purpose. Their size corresponds to that of the combined territorial communities’ area. The importance of formation a database that reflects on the state of the geospatial entities under study is emphasized. For this purpose, it is appropriate to convey the structure of land use, represented by indices of different land cover and land use types (protected areas, forest covered areas, swamps and wetlands, meadows, gardens and vineyards), arable land, land under rural and urban development, natural objects modified by human activities (reservoirs , ponds, channels), land utilized by industry and transport in each investigated object. The article shows that the best solution to this problem is provided by the processing of high-resolution spatial (in panchromatic and multispectral) remote sensing data. The most appropriate in this case are QuickBird satellite imagery, designed to create and update topographic maps and plans, to make inventories of forests and agricultural lands and to assess their condition, therefore allowing mapping of land use types that are not identified in statistical inventories. Practical significance. The results of this work will be helpful in selecting the specific technique allowing the most complete representation of anthropogenic transformation of natural objects; in choosing the most optimal spatial units to carry out the analysis and, accordingly, to fill in the database. The developed models reveal the most anthropogenically loaded parts of river-basin geosystems of the outer Subcarpathian region, which is essential for the extrapolation of the obtained results to other right tributaries of the Dniester River.
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