Journal of Risk and Financial Management

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1911-8066 / 1911-8074
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 982
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Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060278

The real estate market of EU countries has undergone a severe global financial crisis 2008–2009, recovered successfully later, and now experiencing significant uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic event. Significant volatility of the real estate business is once again evident, just as it was following the global financial crisis. The paper aims to provide a case study of a real estate project by giving insight into the Latvian real estate project that had been experiencing similar economic uncertainty, to demonstrate hybrid real options valuation (ROV) method to adapt real estate investments to changing circumstances and to develop the decision-making solution to similar EU real estate problems during the pandemic. The paper provides the “step-by-step” ROV application’s methodology in real estate development projects. The presented methodology is a powerful managerial risk management tool for the executives of similar real estate development projects in the EU countries struggling to make investment decisions in the pandemic and post-pandemic period. Since any estimation includes assumptions, ROV results should be interpreted and perceived as approximations only. The future works can provide robust ROV analyses and interpretations regarding the demand for real estate, showing quantitatively how competition can impact strategic investment decisions.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060274

The auctioning of frequency has to comply with a multitude of requirements in order to guarantee a transparent and efficient process. The German Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) has opted for a design that provides participants with information on the highest bid after each round for every band along with information on the bidder. We evaluate the price formation efficiency in this setup to see how fast prices become informative about the final auction value. We find that prices are partially informative right from the beginning which allows us to conclude that participants were able to learn fast from their competitors’ bidding behavior and validates the choice of the agency to implement the auction in the present format.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060276

Risk is a big concern for anyone contemplating investing in new, especially innovative ventures. However, if successful, the returns can be extraordinary, serving as an impetus for many venture capitalists to provide greater funding. Still, many new ventures never see the end of the tunnel, and success stories are scant. The venture capital market is growing, yet many investors feel on edge when investing in new and innovative ventures. This paper is based on field survey data to evaluate the importance of risk and return components of an alternative venture investment approach called diminishing Musharakah (DM). DM has roots in Islamic modes of investment that are more suited for ventures with a higher risk profile. This paper focuses on four key ingredients, i.e., due diligence (DD), flexibility (Flex), moral hazard reduction (MHR), and risk reduction (RR) inherent in this mode of investment. All these components contribute towards the end goal of any investment, i.e., value enhancement (VE). DM is based on investment modes approved by Islamic law, called Shariah, and Islamic jurisprudence, called Fiqh. The analysis and the paper’s results show that the proposed model is perceived as flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of investment possibilities. The model carries the potential to encourage venture investment through various stages of growth of a venture. The findings are based on original perception data through a field survey across a broad spectrum of banking users who were interested in alternative and Islamic modes of investment. Findings and analysis of the survey data strongly support our connotations. We propose that the Shariah-based investment model presented in this paper will bring a vast new market into play, i.e., the Islamic money market, thus providing greater venture financing possibilities. As a result, we hope that the number of successful venture investment projects will significantly increase over time as we put the proposed investment model into use.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060277

This research is the earliest attempt to understand the impact of inflation and the interest rate on output growth in the context of Pakistan using the wavelet transformation approach. For this study, we used monthly data on inflation, the interest rate, and industrial production from January 1991 to May 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected economies around the world, especially in view of the measures taken by governmental authorities regarding enforced lockdowns and social distancing. Traditional studies empirically explored the relationship between these important macroeconomic variables only for the short run and long run. Firstly, we employed the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration test and two causality tests (Granger causality and Toda–Yamamoto) to check the cointegration properties and causal relationship among these variables, respectively. After confirming the long-run causality from the ARDL bound test, we decomposed the time series of growth, inflation, and the interest rate into different time scales using wavelet analysis which allows us to study the relationship among variables for the very short run, medium run, long run, and very long run. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT), the cross-wavelet transform (XWT), cross-wavelet coherence (WTC), and multi-scale Granger causality tests were used to investigate the co-movement and nature of the causality between inflation and growth and the interest rate and growth. The results of the wavelet and multi-scale Granger causality tests show that the causal relationship between these variables is not the same across all time horizons; rather, it is unidirectional in the short-run and medium-run but bi-directional in the long-run. Therefore, this study suggests that the central bank should try to maintain inflation and the interest rate at a low level in the short run and medium run instead of putting too much pressure on these variables in the long-run.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060275

This study attempts to investigate the nexus between investor sentiment and cryptocurrencies prices. Our empirical investigation merges bivariate and multivariate wavelet tools to examine the investor sentiment nexus to inter-cryptocurrencies prices. The study outcomes show that the Sentix Investor Confidence index provides significant information in explaining long-term changes in Bitcoin and Litecoin prices. Moreover, the findings generated from the multiple wavelet coherence illustrate the simultaneous contribution of cryptocurrencies and the Sentix Investor Confidence index in explaining the Bitcoin index movement across frequencies and over horizons, especially during bubble burst periods. The study also suggests a time-dependent relationship of Bitcoin prices with alternative cryptocurrencies and the Sentix Investor Confidence index, mostly pronounced during the Bitcoin bubble. We discuss our results using GSV-based investor sentiment. Our findings remain robust and confirm the strong predictive power of investor sentiment in cryptocurrencies price movements over time and across scales.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060273

This study explores the relationship between audit committee characteristics and accounting information quality by justifying the role of the internal information environment and political connections under the theocracy state of Iran with syncretic politics. Using panel data of 558 firms from the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) for 2011–2016, we rank firms using Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and entropy method for determination of the weight of evaluating indicators. The firms are positioned into high- to low-level political connections, and two proxies for audit committee characteristics are used: independence of audit committee and financial knowledge. Furthermore, three proxies are used for an internal information environment: earning announcement speed, the accuracy of earning forecasting and lack of financial restatements. Our findings show that there is a significant and positive relationship between the audit committee and financial information quality characteristics in high-level political connections, as well as between financial knowledge and financial information quality. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest that the application of political economy theories could be appropriate for more inquiry.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060272

The purpose of this article is to show the effect of Risk Perception RP and Risk Definition RD on the Risk-Addressing Behaviour RB. To carry out this study secondary data was used from a semi-structured survey administered between February and June 2020, a period during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study identified six dimensions of risk perception and thus tested six structural models. Risk perception (ξ RP) is defined as an external latent variable in the study. It is also assumed that the risk perception variable may affect the risk definition variable (η RD). The application software SmartPLS was used to analyse data through exploratory factor analysis and partial least squares structural equation modelling on our research model. To achieve Convergent validity of the structural equation model of partial least squares, three criteria were met. In the study, Discriminant Validity was examined using the Fornell-Larcker criterion and Heterotrain-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) coefficients. Results reveal that there is no direct relationship between the RB and “religion and beliefs”, the “fear level, the experience”, the “peer influences level” and the “openness”. However, we found a positive relationship between the agreement on “knowledge” and on RB and statistically significant relationships between the agreement on the RD and the agreement on the “religion and beliefs”, the “fear level”, the “experience”, the “knowledge”, the “peer influences level” and the RB. Moreover, there is an indirect relationship when controlling for the agreement on the RD between the agreement on the RB and the agreement on the “fear level”, the “experience”, the “knowledge” and the “peer influences level”. However, there is no relationship between the agreement on the “openness” and the agreement on the RB and a statistically significant but moderate relationship between the agreement on the RD and the agreement on the RB. Although, there seems to be abundant research on RP, so far we have found only a few studies on the influencing factors of RP, as effected by RB and RD, especially in distressed times such as during this current pandemic period of COVID-19. This study adds to body of literature and sheds new light on the interaction between RP, RB and RD in a time of distress. It provides important and original information that may be useful for government agencies, businesses, individuals, and the media when setting policies, governance structures, regulations, procedures and determining how to communicate.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060271

Fairness is a key issue that requires the attention of human resource management practitioners. Having a robust methodical procedure for identifying the value of job positions in an enterprise is essential. Consequently, there is a need for a job evaluation system that ensures fair compensation for each position. A poorly defined job evaluation system creates the dilemma of mismatches between employees and their competencies for their responsibilities and, accordingly, their wages. This results in employee dissatisfaction, which ultimately exacerbates attrition, which is costly because of the loss of talented employees. This paper proposes a VIKOR algorithm as an innovative approach to job evaluations. Engineering-related positions in an international aviation company were analyzed to illustrate the appropriateness of the proposed approach for managing the job evaluation dilemma. The results indicate that 29 job grades would be appropriate for this firm. In addition, the proposed algorithm was found to be superior to other multiple-criteria decision-making techniques at managing the job evaluation dilemma.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060270

In this paper, we investigate the “static and dynamic” return and volatility spillovers’ transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the US dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over the time period 2005–2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, unidirectional volatility spillovers from developed to developing countries are highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British pound sterling (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14060268

The concept of materiality, originating in the accounting domain and applied in the auditing domain, is an essential tool for improving audit quality. A renewed interest in materiality research emerged in Australia after submitting Exposure Draft no. 243 by the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) proposing the withdrawal of AASB 1031 Materiality, which became effective in July 2015. The purpose of this paper is to review the audit literature to examine how the materiality concept is located in the regulatory framework, the standards and guidance that support the application of this concept, and research undertaken using different research methods. As our review reveals significant gaps in recent research on the subject, gaps need to be addressed. The paper concludes by proposing research propositions that fit into the audit triangle for materiality research developed in this paper.
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