NeuroRehabilitation

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ISSN / EISSN : 1053-8135 / 1878-6448
Published by: IOS Press (10.3233)
Total articles ≅ 2,307
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L.W. Braga, S.B. Oliveira, A.S. Moreira, M.E. Pereira, V.S. Carneiro, A.S. Serio, L.F. Freitas, H.B.L. Isidro, L.M.N. Souza
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 391-400; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-228020

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase in number of patients seeking neuropsychological rehabilitation months after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: Identify the cognitive and psychiatric disorders in patients with long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID (PASC) and explore the association between disease severity during the acute phase and persistent neuropsychological manifestations. METHODS: 614 adults were assessed an average of eight months post-infection. Participants were, on average, 47.6 y.o., who sought rehabilitation for neuropsychological problems. Patients were evaluated using the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), Phonemic Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing tests (NEUPSILIN) for executive functions, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: The BNIS score was significantly below reference values in all subscales, especially affect and memory. Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing subtest results were also lower. Patients with PASC tested high for anxiety/depression, but there was no statistically significant relationship between HADS and BNIS scores. Neuropsychological evaluations showed no differences in cognitive or psychiatric profiles between hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological results suggest executive function problems and high incidence of anxiety/depression, irrespective of acute-phase severity, underscoring a need for neurorehabilitation programs while providing data for public policy initiatives.
Tae-Woo Kang, Nam-Gi Lee, Hyun-Ju Park
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 425-432; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210297

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The aging process is related to cerebrovascular dysfunction and physiological changes, such as reduced pulmonary function. This ultimately induces cognitive impairment or dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between aging-related pulmonary function, cognition, motor function, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in older adults with dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 69 older adults diagnosed with dementia. Aging-related pulmonary function and cognition were measured using a hand-held spirometer and the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), respectively. To assess motor function and ADLs, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-meter walk test (10-MWT), 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), and modified Barthel index (MBI) were used to measure balance, walking speed, physical functional capacity (or walking tolerance), and ADLs, respectively. All data were analyzed using the Pearson’s product correlation coefficient (r). RESULTS: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as measures of aging-related pulmonary function correlated only with the 6-MWT (FVC: r = 0.483, p = 0.002; FEV1: r = 0.512, p = 0.001). In cognitive function, MMSE-K was associated with BBS (r = 0.283, p = 0.022) and MBI (r = 0.454, p = 0.000). Additionally, there were significant correlations (r = 0.425–0.671, p = 0.000) between all motor function and ADLs measures in older adults with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that aging-pulmonary function was related to a lower physical functional capacity, and hence, suggested that the reduced pulmonary function were unable to walk for longer distance in older adults with dementia.
Addison Williams Andrews, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Crystal Ramsey, Jhonelle Francis, Whitney Jaffe
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 477-483; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210315

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The clinimetric properties of the Wheelchair Propulsion Test (WPT) have not been developed thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: To determine inter-rater reliability and reference values for the Wheelchair Propulsion Test (WPT) for active wheelchair users and to compare WPT performance between various types of manual wheelchairs at different paces. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Participants propelled a manual wheelchair 10 m while time and the number of pushes were recorded. Trials were performed in three different manual wheelchairs (a lightweight wheelchair (LW), an ultralightweight wheelchair (ULW), and the participant’s personal, customized wheelchair) at a comfortable pace and a fast pace. RESULTS: The ICC values ranged from 0.861 to 0.999 for both speed and number of pushes. Comfortable wheelchair propulsion speed ranged from 1.51 (0.31) m/s to 1.65 (0.33) m/s depending on the wheelchair utilized. Across both pace conditions, participants were significantly faster when using their personal wheelchair compared to the ULW (P < 0.001) and LW (P < 0.001). Push frequency was significantly greater during the fast pace condition compared to the comfortable pace condition (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reference values for the WPT in active wheelchair users have been identified. Participants who utilize their personal wheelchair demonstrate faster wheelchair propulsion speeds complemented by greater push frequencies.
Mazlina Mazlan, Julia Patrick Engkasan
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 501-503; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-228019

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Persons with primary brain tumour can suffer from depression. Depression may hinder rehabilitation intervention leading to further deterioration of patient’s health and functioning. OBJECTIVE: The Cochrane Review aimed to assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of pharmacological treatment of depression in people with a primary brain tumour. METHODS: A Cochrane Review by Beevers et al. was summarized with comments. RESULTS: The review did not find any eligible studies from the 2090 studies screened which included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is no high-quality evidence as to whether pharmacological treatments for depression in people with primary brain tumours are either effective or harmful.
Simone B. Schmidt, Melanie Boltzmann, Jens D. Rollnik
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 485-491; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210228

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Falls are highly frequent among neurological patients during rehabilitation and subsequent risk assessments are crucial to prevent falls. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the predictive values of the Hessisch Oldendorf Risk of Falling Scale (HOSS, “Hessisch Oldendorfer Sturzrisiko Skala”) for two timeframes: the first month of rehabilitation and from the second month to the end of rehabilitation. METHODS: Scale performances were assessed for 512 patients during inpatient neurological rehabilitation by calculating the sensitivity and the specificity. HOSS items were entered into a binary logistic regression model. Fall rates were calculated and used for correlation analyses and group comparisons. RESULTS: Initial HOSS assessment showed a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 60.7%. The HOSS re-assessment resulted in a sensitivity of 67.3% and a specificity of 69.5%. Only a non-somnolent state was identified to increase the risk of falling in both timeframes. Patients with a moderate impaired functional status (Barthel-Index between 20 and 50 points) showed the highest fall rates. CONCLUSION: The predictive validity of the HOSS decreases during the rehabilitation course. This might be caused by an altered relevance of the HOSS items during the re-assessment compared to the initial assessment for which the HOSS was developed for.
, Joan Saurí, Blanca Cegarra, Vince Istvan Madai, Dietmar Frey, John D. Kelleher, Katryna Cisek, Eloy Opisso, Josep María Tormos, Montserrat Bernabeu
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 453-465; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210293

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major worldwide cause of serious long-term disability. Most previous studies addressing functional independence included only inpatients with limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel classes of patients having similar temporal patterns in motor functional independence and relate them to baseline clinical features. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study, data were obtained for n = 428 adult patients with ischemic stroke admitted to rehabilitation (March 2005–March 2020), including baseline clinical features and follow-ups of motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) categorized as poor, fair or good. Growth mixture models (GMMs) were fitted to identify classes of patients with similar mFIM trajectories. RESULTS: GMM identified three classes of trajectories (1,664 mFIM assessments): C1 (11.2 %), 97.9% having poor admission mFIM, at 4.93 years 61.1% still poor, with the largest percentage of hypertension, neglect, dysphagia, diabetes and dyslipidemia of all three classes. C2 (23.1%), 99% had poor admission mFIM, 25% poor discharge mFIM, the largest percentage of aphasia and greatest mFIM gain, at 4.93 years only 6.2% still poor. C3 (65.7%) the youngest, lowest NIHSS, 37.7% poor admission mFIM, 73% good discharge mFIM, only 4.6% poor discharge mFIM, 90% good at 4.93 years. CONCLUSIONS: GMM identified novel motor functional classes characterized by baseline features.
Seira Taniguchi, Nicholas D’Cruz, Miho Nakagoshi, Toshinori Osaki, Alice Nieuwboer
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 445-452; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210301

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Although most patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) present difficulties of bed mobility, the contributing factors to impaired bed mobility in PD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare bed mobility and muscle strength between PD patients and healthy controls, and investigate the determinants of bed mobility in PD. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PD and ten age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Time and pattern to get out of bed to their preferred side at usual speed, muscle torque in lower extremities and motor symptom burden were also measured. RESULTS: PD exhibited significantly slower speed in bed mobility and lower torque in the hip adductor/abductor/flexor muscle than HC. Slower movement time in PD was correlated with weaker hip adductor torque on the more affected side (Rs = –0.56, p < 0.05) and with higher score in arm rigidity both sides (Rs≥0.79, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the categorised movement patterns and movement time in PD (p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced hip adductors torque and severe arm rigidity are associated with slowness of getting out of bed, implying that these components could be used as targets for rehabilitation practice to improve bed mobility in PD.
Qiaoling Meng, Qingxin Zeng, Qiaolian Xie, Cuizhi Fei, Bolei Kong, Xuhua Lu, Haibin Wang, Hongliu Yu
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 367-390; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210300

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: As an emerging exoskeleton robot technology, flexible lower limb exoskeleton (FLLE) integrates flexible drive and wearable mechanism, effectively solving many problems of traditional rigid lower limb exoskeleton (RLLE) such as higher quality, poorer compliance and relatively poor portability, and has become one of the important development directions in the field of active rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: This review focused on the development and innovation process in the field of FLLE in the past decade. METHOD: Related literature published from 2010 to 2021 were searched in EI, IEEE Xplore, PubMed and Web of Science databases. Seventy target research articles were further screened and sorted through inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: FLLE is classified according to different driving modes, and the advantages and disadvantages of passive flexible lower limb exoskeletons and active flexible lower limb exoskeletons are comprehensively summarized. CONCLUSION: At present, FLLE’s research is mainly based on cable drive, bionic pneumatic muscles followed and matured, and new exoskeleton designs based on smart material innovations also trend to diversify. In the future, the development direction of FLLE will be lightweight and drive compliance, and the multi-mode sensory feedback control theory, motion intention recognition theory and human-machine interaction theory will be combined to reduce the metabolic energy consumption of walking.
Julian Takagi-Stewart, Ashleigh M. Johnson, Mallory B. Smith, Jin Wang, Lyscha A. Marcynyszyn, Douglas F. Zatzick, Carolyn A. McCarty, Frederick P. Rivara, Monica S. Vavilala
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 467-476; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210324

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Post-concussion return-to-learn (RTL) guidelines include implementation of school accommodations. Yet, little is known about physician recommendations for school accommodations and their impact, particularly among youth experiencing persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS). OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between physician recommended school accommodations and student outcomes among youth experiencing PPCS. METHODS: Data from a randomized comparative effectiveness trial was used. Physician recommended school accommodations (≤90 days post-injury) were collected via chart abstraction. Grade point average was extracted from school records. Reports of problems at school, concussion symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were collected by survey (at baseline, three months, and 12 months post study entry). RESULTS: Of 200 participants (Mage = 14.7, 62% female), 86% were recommended school accommodations. Number of recommended school accommodations was positively associated with number of school problems at three months (aRR 1.18, 95% CI:1.12–1.24) and 12 months (aRR 1.11, 95% CI:1.05–1.18). No significant associations were found between recommended school accommodations and GPA, HRQOL, anxiety symptoms, or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians recommend more school accommodations for students experiencing more school problems post-concussion. Appropriate implementation of RTL recommendations made by physicians by fostering partnerships among physicians, students, and schools may be needed to achieve student-centered RTL.
Yusuke Hayashi, Kota Yamazaki, Kouichi Takeda, Shujiro Ueda, Saiko Mikawa, Kozo Hatori, Kaoru Honaga, Tomokazu Takakura, Akito Hayashi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara
Published: 17 June 2022
NeuroRehabilitation, Volume 50, pp 409-416; https://doi.org/10.3233/nre-210289

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The assessment of gait function is important for stroke rehabilitation. Gait function of patients with stroke often depends on the type of orthosis. There are however few gait assessments that assess the type of orthosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of our newly developed Ambulation Independence Measure (AIM), which assesses the gait function, type of orthoses and physical assistance, for acute stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 73 acute stroke patients participated in this prospective study. The AIM discriminates 7 levels of gait ability on the basis of the amount of physical assistance required and orthoses that are used during walking. Interrater reliability, concurrent validity with the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and predictive validity were examined. RESULTS: The weighted kappas of AIM at the start of gait training (baseline) and discharge were 0.990 and 0.978, respectively. The AIM scores were significantly correlated with the FAC scores at both baseline (r = 0.808) and discharge (r = 0.934). Multiple regression analyses showed that the AIM at baseline was a stronger predictor of the FAC at discharge (R2 = 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: The AIM has excellent reliability, concurrent validity, predictive validity, and good responsiveness in acute stroke patients.
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