Journal of Personality Disorders

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ISSN / EISSN : 0885-579X / 1943-2763
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1521)
Total articles ≅ 1,806
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Robert S. Biskin, Joel Paris, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Devin Mills, Lise Laporte, Nancy Heath
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 764-775; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_500

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) typically has an onset in adolescence. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) could be associated with its subsequent development. The aim of this study was to examine whether NSSI among adolescents in the community is associated with a risk for BPD in emerging adulthood. Sixty-nine adolescents (11-13 years old) with a history of NSSI and 61 matched controls were assessed for NSSI and then reassessed between ages 18 to 20 years. Findings showed that continuation of NSSI over time was associated with higher ratings of BPD symptomatology and greater impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both of these relations were mediated by deficits in emotion regulation. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in NSSI may need to be assessed for problems regulating emotions and to be provided with early interventions to help prevent continuation of NSSI.
Amanda A. Uliaszek
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 641-656; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.641

Abstract:
Research examining life stress as a precipitant, co-occurrence, and consequence of psychopathology often has implications for two explanatory models: stress exposure, where stress causes symptoms, and stress generation, where symptoms cause stress. Preliminary evidence suggests that both processes are evident in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study examined 101 adults who self-reported at least three symptoms of BPD at prescreen, with 30% of the sample meeting full diagnostic criteria for BPD. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to examine the relationships between BPD symptomatology and four forms of life stress. Stress exposure and stress generation were not supported for either form of chronic life stress. Results supported stress generation in both dependent and interpersonal episodic life stress, and stress exposure for interpersonal episodic life stress. These findings evidenced small effects only. Findings point to the impact of interpersonal stress on changes in symptomatology over time.
Robert S. Biskin, Joel Paris, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Devin Mills, Lise Laporte, Nancy Heath
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 764-775; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.764

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) typically has an onset in adolescence. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) could be associated with its subsequent development. The aim of this study was to examine whether NSSI among adolescents in the community is associated with a risk for BPD in emerging adulthood. Sixty-nine adolescents (11-13 years old) with a history of NSSI and 61 matched controls were assessed for NSSI and then reassessed between ages 18 to 20 years. Findings showed that continuation of NSSI over time was associated with higher ratings of BPD symptomatology and greater impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both of these relations were mediated by deficits in emotion regulation. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in NSSI may need to be assessed for problems regulating emotions and to be provided with early interventions to help prevent continuation of NSSI.
Paul A. Pilkonis, Kelly L. Johnston, Nathan E. Dodds
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 750-763; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.750

Abstract:
We previously developed a three-item screener for identifying respondents with any personality disorder (PD) using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The current goal was to examine the convergent validity of the IIP-3 with other PD screeners and diagnostic tools and to investigate its relationship to measures of adult attachment and emotion regulation. The sample consisted of participants from five studies (total N = 852), with data from collateral informants available for a subsample (N = 353). Despite its brevity, the IIP-3 showed moderate to strong relationships with other longer PD screeners, with PD symptom scores from the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV), and with a global rating of PD severity. It was most sensitive to the stylistic aspects of PD typical of the traditional DSM cluster B (dramatic, expressive) PDs. These results emerged with data from both participants and informants, although correlations using informant data were generally smaller.
Scott Sasso, Nicole M. Cain, Kevin B. Meehan, Ruifan Zeng, Philip S. Wong
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 691-707; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.691

Abstract:
Previous research has shown that narcissism is associated with interpersonal difficulties and maladaptive affective responses to social rejection. In the current studies, the authors examined two phenotypes of pathological narcissism, narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and their impact on individuals' affective responses in two distinctive social rejection paradigms. Participants from Study 1 (N = 239), recruited from a multicultural university and Amazon's Mechanical Turk, completed Cyberball, a computerized social rejection paradigm. Participants from Study 2 (N = 238) were recruited from a multicultural university and participated in an in vivo group rejection paradigm in a laboratory. Results indicated that following the rejection in both studies, narcissistic vulnerability positively predicted explicit negative affect and state anger. In addition, the positive relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and explicit negative affect was moderated by greater implicit negative affect in Study 2. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
Arta Konjusha, Christopher J. Hopwood, Adrian L. Price, Oliver Masuhr, Johannes Zimmermann
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 788-800; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.788

Abstract:
It is common for people with mental health problems to report feelings of emptiness. However, the association of subjective emptiness with specific disorders and its unique role within dimensional taxonomies of personality pathology is not well understood. The present study assesses the transdiagnostic value of subjective emptiness using a recently developed self-report measure in a mixed sample of 157 participants. The authors investigated the associations of emptiness with clinically relevant variables, including borderline personality disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Subjective emptiness showed strong positive relationships with all criteria. Regression models controlling for impairments of personality functioning, maladaptive personality traits, and current symptom distress supported the incremental validity of emptiness for specific disorder constructs and suicidality. These findings indicate that emptiness represents a facet of psychopathology that can be particularly useful for the classification of mental disorders, and in particular internalizing disorders involving self-dysfunction and detachment.
Tianwei V. Du, Katherine M. Thomas, Donald R. Lynam
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 708-729; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.708

Abstract:
Personality disorders are rooted in maladaptive interpersonal behaviors. Previously, researchers have assessed interpersonal behaviors using self-ratings of one's own behaviors and third-person ratings of dyadic interactions. Few studies have examined individuals' perceptions of others' interpersonal behaviors. Using a sample of 470 undergraduate students, the authors examined patterns of interpersonal perception as well as influences of these patterns on psychological functioning. Findings showed that people tend to like interpersonal behaviors that are similar to their own and become bothered by behaviors that are the opposite of their own. Such a pattern is particularly characteristic on the warmth dimension and is consistent across different levels of closeness of the relationship. The authors also found small but significant effects of interpersonal perception on personality and general psychological functioning, above and beyond effects of individuals' own interpersonal traits. Such findings highlight the importance of including perceptions of others in investigating interpersonal dynamics when understanding personality disorders.
Amanda A. Uliaszek
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 641-656; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_487

Abstract:
Research examining life stress as a precipitant, co-occurrence, and consequence of psychopathology often has implications for two explanatory models: stress exposure, where stress causes symptoms, and stress generation, where symptoms cause stress. Preliminary evidence suggests that both processes are evident in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study examined 101 adults who self-reported at least three symptoms of BPD at prescreen, with 30% of the sample meeting full diagnostic criteria for BPD. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to examine the relationships between BPD symptomatology and four forms of life stress. Stress exposure and stress generation were not supported for either form of chronic life stress. Results supported stress generation in both dependent and interpersonal episodic life stress, and stress exposure for interpersonal episodic life stress. These findings evidenced small effects only. Findings point to the impact of interpersonal stress on changes in symptomatology over time.
Karen Hillmann, Corinne Neukel, Marlene Krauch, Angelika Spohn, Knut Schnell, Sabine C. Herpertz, Katja Bertsch
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 672-690; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.672

Abstract:
Empirical studies have identified deficits in cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but results remain heterogeneous and not much is known about the role of childhood trauma. The current study assessed cognitive and affective ToM in 80 patients with BPD and 41 healthy controls in a false-belief cartoon task. Childhood trauma was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Patients with BPD responded slower in all experimental conditions in false-belief situations, but not when false beliefs were resolved; made more errors in the cognitive ToM condition; and reported worse affective states more often in and after false-belief situations. No significant correlations between ToM and childhood trauma could be found. The current study revealed deficits in cognitive and affective ToM in patients with BPD that may be related to a more negative affective state raised by the false-belief stories.
Robert Gregory, Susan D. Sperry, Daniel Williamson, Rachael Kuch-Cecconi, Garry L. Spink Jr.
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 776-787; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.776

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with high risk of suicidality and high rates of health care utilization; however, the prevalence and characteristics of BPD among inpatients admitted for suicidality are unknown. In the present study of 72 adult psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide risk, BPD was highly prevalent (n = 31; 43.1%), but 68% were misdiagnosed by admitting providers. Compared to patients without BPD, those with BPD were significantly younger, were prescribed more psychiatric medications, were more depressed, and had greater suicide ideation. Patients with BPD were also three times as likely to be readmitted to a psychiatric hospital at 30, 90, and 180 days postdischarge for an average of almost 9 days of inpatient care per patient for the first 180 days. In this sample, BPD was highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and associated with frequent readmissions, findings that highlight the importance of improved recognition and access to specialized treatments.
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