Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control

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EISSN : 2536-9342
Total articles ≅ 436
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A. M. Nofal, Mohamed Abd El-Rahman, T. M. Abdelghany, Mahmoud Abd El-Mongy
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00450-1

Abstract:
Background Plant disease administration is difficult due to the soil-borne nature of the phytopathogens. Biological control of plant disease is a safe mode to avoid the problems related to fungal diseases that affect crops productivity. Results Twenty-three Trichoderma isolates were isolated from soil, surrounding healthy tomato roots from different regions in the Egyptian Governorate of Menoufia. Using a dual culture method to test the efficiency of Trichoderma isolates, the most effective isolate identified as Trichoderma atrovirde with percentage inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (92.11%) and scanning electron microscope examination documented the mycoparasitic nature of T. atrovirde to F. oxysporum. Treatments with 10% filtrate T. atrovirde improved the growth aspects of tomato plants than the control plants or infected only, as well as the increase in phenol content (15.09 ug. g-1dry weight) and decreased disease incidence percentage (8%) than the plants infected only (60%). Conclusions This study clearly demonstrated that T. atrovirde had a significant inhibition against F. oxysporum. Greenhouse assays displayed the protective role of T. atrovirde inoculation directly against pathogen or indirectly related to the defense mechanism in the plant. So, this study recommends using T. atrovirde for biological control of wilt disease in tomato plants.
Gamal Omar, Ahmed Ibrahim, Khalid Hamadah
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00447-w

Abstract:
Background The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, is the most destructive pests of the cotton plant in Egypt. Due to the several problems of insecticides, the present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity effect of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, against the different stages of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Results The fungal isolates exhibited a toxic effect against the treated stages, egg, larva, and pupa. According to the obtained data of LC50, B. bassiana was more potent in inducing toxicity than M. anisopliae. However, eggs of P. gossypiella were less susceptible to the EPF than the other stages. Based on total mortality, LC50 was 4.97×1011, 6.03×1012 spores/ml for egg; 8.25×108, 6.03×109 spores/ml for neonate; 2.52×108, 1.29×1010 spores/ml for early 4th instar larvae; and 6.79×108, 8.36×109 spores/ml for pupae after treatment with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively. Conclusions Entomopathogenic fungi exhibited an activity in inducing mortality against different stages of P. gossypiella.
Gurav Shrishail Gopal, Balaiah Venkateshalu, A. M. Nadaf, P. N. Guru, Sateesh Pattepur
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00444-z

Abstract:
Background Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the bio-efficacy and cumulative effect of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), viz., Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Zare and Gams, and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and different botanical oils against grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). M. hirsutus infestation during berry formation has left no option other than chemical management. However, the pesticide application during this stage leads to residues. Thus, safer and sustainable biological need was tested for their effectiveness against M. hirsutus. Results Dipping bioassay technique was used to determine the cumulative mortality. When L. lecanii was used as sole (at 6 and 4 g/l), significant mortality was observed (51.63 and 50.18%). However, the maximum cumulative nymphal mortality was achieved when the combination of EPF formulations was used, i.e., 57.64% with B. bassiana + L. lecanii (6 g/l + 6 g/l). Their effectiveness was at par with the same combination but with minimal concentration, i.e., 4 g/l + 4 g/l (56.29%). Concerning the botanical oils evaluated, neem oil at 15 ml/l achieved a higher mortality of 81.36%. Consecutive effective treatment was a combination of neem oil and pongamia oil (at 10 + 10 ml/l) with 79.65% mortality. However, the standard dosage of neem oil (at 10 ml/l) and IIHR neem soap (at 10 g/l) also recorded the significant mortality of 78.09 and 77.67%, respectively. When compared, the neem oil was found significantly superior in sole and compatible combination than pongamia oil. Conclusions Lecanicillium lecanii and neem oil (sole and in combination with other compatible bioagents) proved significantly better for the management against M. hirsutus with an efficacy of 90.21 and 96.67 % mortality, respectively against the standard chemical control (more than 97%).
Azadeh Jamalzadeh, Mostafa Darvishnia, Gholam Khodakaramian, Eydi Bazgir, Doostmorad Zafari
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00442-1

Abstract:
Background Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can be used as a safe and sustainable agricultural measure to increase plant yield. In this study, cultivable rhizospheric, endophytic, and epiphytic bacteria associated with canola were isolated on nutrient agar medium. The SDS-PAGE method was used for grouping the bacterial strains. Bacterial strains with more than 80% similarity in their protein patterns were placed in the same species and selected as a representative for partial 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence analysis. Results It was found that the bacteria used in this study belonged to Pseudomonas, Frigoribacterium, Sphingomonas, Sphingobacterium, Microbacterium, Bacillus, and Rhodococcus genera. Three PGP bioactivities including siderophore production, nitrogen fixation ability, and phosphate solubilization were evaluated for 18 Pseudomonas representative strains. All tested strains were able to produce siderophore, although only 5 strains could fix nitrogen and none was able to solubilize phosphate. Greenhouse experiments showed that 4 bacterial strains (i.e., 8312, 642, 1313W, and 9421) significantly affected canola seed germination and seedling growth. Bacterial strain 8312, which was identified as Pseudomonas sp., showed the highest effect on the growth of the canola plant. These results indicated the potential of strain 8312 to be used as a biofertilizer in canola cultivation. Conclusions The results of this research indicated that canola-related bacteria were diverse during the flowering stage. One isolate had a significant effect on all canola plant growth factors in the greenhouse. Hence, it is recommended to investigate this strain further in field infestation experiments.
Quratul Ain, Ata Ul Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem, Ghulam Shabbir
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00445-y

Abstract:
Background Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the key pest of onions that causes economic yield losses in commercial onion production in Pakistan. In this study, potential of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, as a bio agent was evaluated to manage buildup of thrips population on onion crop. Results Efficacy tests for EPF were conducted against T. tabaci infesting 3 different onion varieties (Phulkara, Swat 1, and Virio 7). Commercial formulations of B. bassiana strain GHA and M. anisopilae strain ESC-1, were evaluated at 4 different concentrations (108, 109, 1010, and 1011 conidia/ml) under field conditions for 2 years. The efficacy was assessed 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after spray application of the whole onion plant. Efficacy expressed as T. tabaci (nymphs and adults) percent population reduction in comparison to controls. Maximum corrected percent population reduction was observed in onion plants treated with B. bassiana 1011 conidia/ml, i.e., 86.62, 84.59, and 86% in Phulkara, Swat 1, and Virio 7 onion varieties respectively, after 10 days of spray application. While onion plants treated with M. anisopliae 108 conidia/ml showed minimum corrected percent population reduction, i.e., 69.42, 68.45, and 69.11% in Phulkara, Swat 1, and Virio 7 onion varieties respectively, after 10 days of spray. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana could significantly reduce thrips population and could provide a better long-term management of T. tabaci on onion. B. bassiana had a high toxic effect against offspring production of the T. tabaci under field conditions than M. anisopliae.
Hammad Abdelwanees Ketta, Omar Abd El-Raouf Hewedy
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00441-2

Abstract:
Background Root rot pathogens reported to cause considerable losses in both the quality and productivity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). It is an aggressive crop disease with detriment economic influence caused by Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani among other soil-borne fungal pathogens. Destructive plant diseases such as root rot have been managed in the last decades using synthetic pesticides. Main body Seeking of economical and eco-friendly alternatives to combat aggressive soil-borne fungal pathogens that cause significant yield losses is urgently needed. Trichoderma emerged as promising antagonist that inhibits pathogens including those inducing root rot disease. Detailed studies for managing common bean and pea root rot disease using different Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. asperellum, T. atroviridae, T. lignorum, T. virens, T. longibrachiatum, T. cerinum, and T. album) were reported both in vitro and in vivo with promotion of plant growth and induction of systemic defense. The wide scale application of selected metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp. to induce host resistance and/or to promote crop yield, may represent a powerful tool for the implementation of integrated pest management strategies. Conclusions Biological management of common bean and pea root rot-inducing pathogens using various species of the Trichoderma fungus might have taken place during the recent years. Trichoderma species and their secondary metabolites are useful in the development of protection against root rot to bestow high-yielding common bean and pea crops.
, Madhu Kamle, Rituraj Borah, Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Bharti Sharma
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00440-3

Abstract:
Background Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used in agriculture for a long time because of its insecticidal proteins which make it a valuable environment-friendly biopesticide. However, its use is not only limited to insecticidal properties. Current and previous studies indicate its potential as a biofertilizer for promoting plant growth, the development of transgenic plants, and others. It is the presence of δ-endotoxins, especially cry protein, which attributes the insecticidal property to the bacteria. Besides, there are some vegetative and secreted insecticidal proteins that exert their toxic activity towards specific species. Main body of abstract The present review briefly provides an overview of the Bt uses and application as a biocontrol agent against insect pest for sustainable agriculture. Historical development of Bt as biocontrol, classification of various cry proteins, their mechanisms of actions against different insect-pest, and incorporation of cry genes in the plant for developing transgenic Bt plants such as Bt cotton, potato, and maize. Applications of Bt as biofertilizer and the various bioformulations as biopesticide are also described. Short conclusion Uses of harmful pesticides and chemical cause various health issues and environmental problem; therefore, the Bt served as the best alternative to overcome the above issue. Also, we aim to explore the potential as plant growth-promoting potential and solubilization of minerals and the uses as a biofertilizer, keeping the high specificity and environmental safety of Bt. Its various formulations are commercially available and considered an efficient alternative to chemical pesticides.
Sharanabasappa S. Deshmukh, S. Kiran, Atanu Naskar, Palam Pradeep, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, K. N. Sharath
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-4; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00439-w

Abstract:
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has become a major threat in maize cultivation since its invasion to India in 2018. The humpbacked fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), was recorded as a laboratory parasitoid of FAW, for the first time in India. Initially, 30–40 maggots of M. (M) scalaris emerged out from the dead pre-pupa and pupa of laboratory-reared FAW. The fly laid up to 15 eggs on the outer surface of 6th instar larva or pre-pupa of the FAW. The incubation period was 1–2 days. The fly had 3 larval instars which lasted 3–4 days and a pupal period of 10–11 days. The adults survived for 6–7 days.
R. M. El-Ashry, Mohamed A. S. Ali, Ahmed E. A. Elsobki,
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00438-x

Abstract:
Background Acceptable alternative eco-friendly tools in the present study were tested to control the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on greenhouse-cultivated vegetables. The nematicidal effect of rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas and Serratia), egg parasitic fungus (Purpureocillium lilacinum), abamectin (Streptomyces avermitilis), and 3 botanicals (colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis; moringa, Moringa oleifera; marigold, Tagetes erecta L.) singly or in combination was tested against M. incognita, in comparison with emamectin benzoate. Results In vitro treatments revealed that egg hatching and juvenile mortality were influenced by the type of bioagents, plant species of botanicals, and exposure time. All the tested bioagents and botanicals displayed nematicidal potential via their ovicidal and larvicidal action on egg hatching and J2 mortality of M. incognita. Three and 5 days post-treatment, abamectin and emamectin benzoate were more effective than P. lilacinum, Serratia and Pseudomonas, and C. colocynthis in inhibiting egg hatching: 96.31 and 94.88%; 95.79 and 94.05%; 94.11 and 94.46%; 85.54 and 87.28%; 88.87 and 84.30%, respectively. On the other hand, after 10 days, P. lilacinum gave the highest inhibition percentage (99.00%), followed by abamectin (89.25%). However, the difference was insignificant compared with the inhibition percentage of rhizobacteria, Serratia and Pseudomonas (88.69%; p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, juvenile mortality was 100.0, 96.80, and 91.60% after 10 days of treatment, respectively. However, botanicals showed a lower effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality. Under greenhouse conditions, potential antagonism towards M. incognita by application the mixture of biocontrol agents and botanicals was more effective in controlling M. incognita than single treatments. Conclusions The combination of abamectin and/or emamectin benzoate with P. lilacinum and rhizobacteria was the most effective against M. incognita, followed by rhizobacteria and P. lilacinum, not only in decreasing galls and reproduction of M. incognita but also in increasing plant growth of tomato parameters than the control. The application of various bioagents including abamectin might be a potential antagonism strategy against phytonematodes in protected agricultural areas.
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, Volume 31, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s41938-021-00434-1

Abstract:
Background The aims of the present study were to isolate and identify native entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana from the Egyptian soil and to evaluate the artificial establishment of B. bassiana as endophytes in rice plants through seeds immersion. Results Ten soil samples were collected from different cultivated fields at the Ismailia Governorate. Only one sample was positive with a ratio of 10%. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the isolate obtained from the soil sample belongs to B. bassiana and was registered under the accession no. MN337282. To test the endophytic colonization of B. bassiana, rice seeds were soaked by B. bassiana with a concentration of 5 × 107 spores/ml, to test when B. bassiana become an endophyte in rice plants. The plants were examined for endophytic presence of B. bassiana, 30 days post treatment. PCR amplification using fungal specific primers for a conserved region of β-tubulin gene yielded identical 360 bp products from both B. bassiana and rice treated plants. Conclusion The results showed that seeds immersion with a conidial suspension proved to be a good method to introduce B. bassiana into rice leaves to protect the rice plants against stem borers.
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