Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian

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ISSN / EISSN : 1693-2021 / 2549-7278
Total articles ≅ 138
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Eni Kustanti, Agus Rusmana, Purwanti Hadisiwi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 177-187; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.177-187

Abstract:
Efforts to improve the competency of agricultural extension workers have been carried out through education and training by the Agency for Agricultural Extension and Human Resources Development. Improving the competence of agriculture extension workers through the utilization of communication media has not been used intensively by the government. The purpose of this study is to know the level of influence of communication media utilization on the competence of agricultural extension workers. The study was used a quantitative approach through an online survey of 203 agricultural extension workers at the Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology from 33 provinces. The results showed that the utilization of communication media and characteristics of individual had a significant effect on the competence of agricultural extension workers. Environmental support factors have a significant effect on the utilization of communication media and have an indirect effect on the competence of agricultural extension workers. The most and significant influence on the competence of agricultural extension comes from the utilization of communication media which is 4.38. Meanwhile, the significant factor affecting the utilization of communication media is only in the form of environmental support of 0.34. Therefore, to improve the competence of agricultural extension workers, utilization of communication media in the dissemination of agricultural information should be increased. Furthermore, to increase the utilization of communication media in the dissemination of agricultural information, the environmental support of extension activities, such as literacy training on the use of variation communication media, should be improved.
Abdur Rofi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 165-175; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.165-175

Abstract:
The Creating Shared Value (CSV) program as an alternative to the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program provides options that allow companies to increase competitiveness while stimulating inclusive growth in reducing the poverty of farming families. This study examines the CSV program by looking at farmers' interests and the impact of the CSV program on banana commodities in Tanggamus Regency, Lampung Province. This study uses primary data obtained from surveys of 60 partner and non-partner farmers and in-depth interviews with 18 people involved in the existing business model. This research was conducted in March-April 2020. The data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the CSV program had been implemented in the location. In this CSV program, farmers get assistance from the company and certainty of selling banana products at an agreed price. However, not all farmers are interested in the program for various reasons, including due to limited land, limited time available, and farmers who do not want to be bound by work agreements. The impact of the CSV program on the banana commodity on household farmers' income has not been significant because bananas are not the primary source of livelihood for household farmers. The policy implication is that the CSV program can be an alternative to CSR programs. However, the success of this program also needs to consider the profile and the sources of livelihoods of farmers to ensure that farmers' interest and involvement can be more optimal.
Aswan Adi, Dwi Rachmina, Y Bayu Krisnamurthi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 207-218; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.207-218

Abstract:
Rice is the main and strategic commodity in East Kalimantan Province as primary food source. Rice production in this province was relatively low, around 66.57% of its consumption need, or at 33.43% deficit in 2019. This deficit will continue to increase if East Kalimantan becomes the country's capital city in 2025 due to arrival of new residents. Therefore, a proper policy to improve the balance of rice production and consumption need should be designed. This study aimed to develop rice availability balance model and formulate policy recommendation to fullfil the rice needs in the country's capital city candidate. The method used was dynamic system approach as rice balance availability determined by supply and demand sub-system. The study results showed that the model developed could describe the rice availability balance in East Kalimantan and had good validity level. Based on the simulation results on the existing condition in 2025, the rice availability in East Kalimantan as the country's capital city was only 44.80% of the consumption need. A recommended policy scenario to improve the rice balance in this provionce is the combination of policies on production and consumption sides, namely minimal rice planting index at 1.9 (irrigation) and 1.2 (without irrigation), minimum rice yield at 4.67 tons per ha (irrigation) and 3.50 ton per ha (without irrigation), open up new rice field at 1,000 ha, no rice field conversion, conversion rate from unhusk paddy to rice yield at 64%, and maximum per capita rice consumption at 80 kg/year.
Febtri Wijayanti, Nfn Carolina
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 149-164; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.149-164

Abstract:
The low bargaining power of small farmers put them into a disadvantage position. This is experienced by coffee farmers in Southwest Sumba District, as an underdeveloped area, which by their social economic limitation relies solely on middleman, while their coffee actually has higher value. This study examines these problems to find the best solution by utilizing local resources through an inclusive approach. Qualitative research was conducted through a case study in a disadvantaged village in Southwest Sumba District, which has intervened with appropriate technology to comprehensively handle coffee processing. The results of the study explain that the problem of coffee farmers stems from the obstacles and challenges that are typically faced by people in disadvantaged areas. Those roblems are: barriers access to inputs, market, financial, and socio-cultural factors; challenges in coordination; and inability to meet standardization consistently and to bear risks. These six problems become the basis for the design of the inclusive business concept that is proposed to be applied by utilizing existing physical and social infrastructure modalities in the village. The inclusive coffee business unit development strategy has the potential to assist coffee farmers in gaining access to inputs and optimizing output, but should be supported by cross-sectoral cooperation between the government institution, research and development institution, business, and the community. Efforts to develop this business model need to be carried out sustainably along with empowering farmers and increasing awareness of the stakehoder to work together in an integrated manner.
, Ruth Mevianna Aurora, Doni Yusri, Sofyan Sjaf, Simon Barus
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 189-205; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.189-205

Abstract:
As an expansion area, North Labuhanbatu District has a purpose to improve the social welfare. Meanwhile one of the significant sector in the community is agriculture. Agriculture provides the highest income for the society and has a potency to further develop and establish the area. However, the development should relevant with environment characteristic essentially. Based on preliminary survey, there are 5 agricultural commodities growing in this area namely palm oil, rubber, rice field, cocoa, and coconut which spread over the 8 sub-districts. The increasing of population triggers land use changes particularly in agriculture. Therefore analysis of land suitability for agriculture is fundamental hence policy direction can be applied in each sub-district based on agriculture commodities which suitable with their characteristic accordingly. The evaluation of land suitability is conducted by comparing the physical characteristics with the existing of land suitability criteria which prossessed by ArcGIS software. Land suitability in North Labuhanbatu is identified with 4 clases: S1 (very suitable), S2 (moderately suitable), S3 (marginally suitable), and N (not suitable). Furthermore, there are 4 limiting factors in this study: water availability, root media, nutrient retention, and erosion hazards. The result shows that rubber, rice field, and coconut have very suitable (S1) land to be planted.Therefore the recomendation is to develop agroforestry landscape practices for sustainable livelihoods in Labura District.
Boanerges Putra Sipayung, Theodorus Fobia, Werenfridus Taena, Umbu Joka
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 135-148; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.135-148

Abstract:
Village funds allocation has been provided to village government by central government starting in 2015. The provision of village funds aims at ingreasing equitable development in urban areas. This study aims to design a model of implementation of village funds management and farmer empowerment, with a case of Manusasi Village, Timor Tengah Utara Distict, bordering with Timor Leste. This research was conducted in August-September 2020. The methods used in this research were quantitative descriptive analysis and SEM based on variance, namely Partial Least Square (PLS). The sampling method used in this study was accidental sampling, with the chosen sample of 75 households from the total popultation 258 huosehold farmers. Results of this study indicated that planning had a significant effect on the evaluation process of village funds. The multiplier effect value of village funds in Manusasi Village was 1.39. There was no direct effect between physical capital, social capital, and human capital on the empowermeny of farming community in Manusasi Village. An important component of the implementation model of village fund management and farmer empowerment is the socialisation of the use of village funds which aims to increase public knowledge about village funds and build partnerships with universities or other institutions as sources of experts. The role of experts is to help improve village fund management and improve the quality of programs and planning.
Endro Gunawan, Bambang Irawan
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 109-134; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.109-134

Abstract:
In order to reduce poverty in the agricultural sector, the Ministry of Agriculture implements the BEKERJA program, which is an effort to empower poor farmers in farming multi-commodities, including laying hens, vegetables, fruit and plantation crops. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the program on increasing farmers' income and reducing poverty. This research was conducted in 11 provinces covering 38 districts which were the location of the BEKERJA program in 2018 and 2019. The data used were primary data collected through in-depth interviews of farmers participating in the program. The results of quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis concluded that the program was quite successful in enhancing agricultural business activities among poor farmers, but it had not been able to increase farmers' income significantly. The number of poor farmers participating in the program only decreased by 1.48%. There are many challenges faced in empowering poor farmers, and therefore a strong commitment is needed to reduce poverty in the agricultural sector. To increase the effectiveness of these poverty reduction efforts, the empowerment of poor farmers in the future should be carried out as the following: (1) commodities developed are focused on the laying hens and vegetables farming, (2) farmers empowerment and provision of agricultural facilities should be continued at least until the farming activities is financially profitable, (3) technical guidance for cultivation should be strengthen, (4) beneficiaries of the program should be prioritized to young farmers, and (5) development a special program that is focussed for the poor farmers.
Ening Ariningsih, Helena J. Purba, Julia F. Sinuraya, Kartika Sari Septanti, Sri Suharyono
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 89-108; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.89-108

Abstract:
The declining Indonesian cocoa production since 2010 has led to the country being displaced from the third to the sixth position of the world's largest cocoa producer. The Indonesian cocoa industry also faces the problem of low-quality cocoa. This paper aims to analyze various development problems and constraints, and formulate strategies to increase Indonesian cocoa production and quality. The study was conducted in 2019 through a desk study and enriched with survey results in two selected provinces, namely Bali and South Sulawesi, conducted from June to September. A descriptive qualitative analysis was employed. Results of this study indicated that the decline in production was due to three main factors: (1) the decrease in the area of mature plantations and the increase in the area of non-productive plants; (2) the decline in cocoa productivity due to lack of crop maintenance and pest and disease attacks; and (3) the occurrence of land conversion of cocoa plantation to other purposes. The low quality of cocoa beans was mainly due to the improper cocoa bean post-harvest processes, especially fermentation. The strategy to increase production and quality of cacao beans is through improvement of seeds, cultivation system, harvest practices, and post harvest handling. Therefore, it is necessary to harmonize policies and its implementation from upstream to downstream by involving all relevant parties and at the same time promoting partnerships between farmers and cocoa processing industries. Abstrak Sejak tahun 2010 produksi kakao Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan sehingga menyebabkan tergesernya Indonesia dari posisi ketiga menjadi keenam produsen kakao terbesar dunia. Selain itu, industri kakao Indonesia juga dihadapkan pada masalah mutu kakao yang rendah. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis berbagai masalah dan kendala pengembangan serta merumuskan strategi peningkatan produksi dan mutu kakao Indonesia. Penelitian dilakukan melalui desk study berbagai data sekunder dan hasil-hasil penelitian terkait, serta diperkaya dengan survei di lokasi penelitian terpilih, yaitu Provinsi Bali dan Sulawesi Selatan. Kajian dilakukan tahun 2019 dengan kegiatan survei pada bulan Juni hingga September. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat berbagai masalah dan kendala dalam pengembangan kakao di Indonesia, yang menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan rendahnya mutu kakao. Penurunan produksi tersebut disebabkan tiga hal pokok: (1) menurunnya luas areal tanaman menghasilkan, sedangkan luas areal tanaman tidak menghasilkan semakin meningkat karena tidak adanya peremajaan; (2) menurunnya produktivitas kakao karena kurangnya pemeliharaan tanaman dan serangan hama dan penyakit; dan (3) terjadinya konversi lahan perkebunan kakao menjadi usaha pertanian dan nonpertanian. Rendahnya mutu biji kakao terutama disebabkan proses pascapanen yang kurang baik, khususnya fermentasi. Strategi untuk meningkatkan produksi dan mutu biji kakao adalah melalui perbaikan perbenihan, sistem budi daya, panen, dan pascapanen. Untuk itu diperlukan harmonisasi kebijakan dan implementasinya mulai dari hulu hingga hilir dengan melibatkan semua pihak terkait, serta dalam waktu yang sama mendorong kemitraan antara petani kakao dan industri pengolahan kakao.
Dian Ulfa, Adi Suyatno, Yohana Sutiknyawati Kusuma Dewi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 19-32; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.19-32

Abstract:
A partnership pattern in the broiler farming business, in term of enhancing capital capacity, can help smallholder breeders in maintaining business continuity in the midst of competition with livestock companies. Through this partnership all livestock production inputs are financed by the core party and are expected to increase the performance index (PI) of the breeders’ business. The purpose of this study was to understand the pattern and performance of partnerships in the broiler chicken farming and to determine the classification of PI achieved by the broiler farming bussinesses in Kubu Raya Regency, West Kalimantan Province. The study was carried out from December 2018 to January 2019. Data collection used a structured survey method and data was analyzed descriptively. Results of this study showed that the integrated partnership breeders were classified as good based on its PI score 347, the independent partnership breeders was classified as average with PI score 316, and in non-independent independent farmers was classified as very good with PI score 368. Based on this study, it is recommended that the implementation of the partnership pattern by the core company and plasma in broiler farming businessess needs a guidance and supervision from the government in order to increase the equality, mutually strengthtening and beneficial for both parties involved. AbstrakPola kemitraan dalam usaha peternakan ayam broiler, dari sisi penguatan kapasitas permodalan, dapat membantu peternak rakyat dalam menjaga keberlangsungan usaha ditengah persaingan dengan perusahaan–perusahaan peternakan. Melalui kemitraan ini seluruh sarana produksi ternak (sapronak) dibiayai oleh pihak inti, serta diharapkan dapat meningkatkan indeks performa (IP) dari usaha peternakan rakyat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pola dan kinerja kemitraan pada usaha peternakan ayam broiler di Kabupaten Kubu Raya Provinsi Kalimantan Barat, serta untuk mengetahui klasifikasi IP yang dicapai dari implementasi berbagai pola kemitraan yang ada. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada Bulan Desember 2018 sampai Januari 2019. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode survey terstruktur dan data dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peternak kemitraan terintegrasi masuk dalam klasifikasi baik dengan rata-rata nilai IP 347, peternak kemitraan mandiri masuk klasifikasi cukup dengan IP 316, dan peternak mandiri non kemitraan masuk dalam klasifikasi sangat baik dengan IP 368. Dari hasil penelitian ini disarankan penerapan pola kemitraan oleh perusahaan inti dan plasma pada usaha peternakan ayam broiler memerlukan pembinaan dan pengawasan dari pihak pemerintah untuk meningkatkan kesetaraan, saling memperkuat dan menguntungkan bagi kedua belah pihak yang bermitra.
Bambang Sayaka, Yonas Hangga Saputra, Dewa K.S. Swastika
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 45-67; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.45-67

Abstract:
Indonesia is the largest garlic importer in the world. The government has implemented a program to reduce importation of this product called the garlic mandatory-planting for importers. Implementation of this policy in the fields faced several chalanges. This study aimed to assess the realization of the mandatory-panting policy on national garlic production enhancement. Specifically, the study was intended to evaluate garlic international trade, to assess mandatory-planting policy, and to examine opportunities and challenges of garlic mandatory-planting. Result of this study concluded that the mandatory-planting had no significant impact as the importers’ planted areas were far below the targets. The mandatory-planting policy was encountered by lack of quality seed, limited land, lack of farmers’ interest for growing garlic, long harvest period, low yield, and not competitive selling price. It is suggested that the Ministry of Agriculture replace mandatory-planting with mandatory-purchase, expanding the planted-area to suitable areas, increasing import tariff, and production increase but evading the self-sufficiency policy. AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara importir bawang putih terbesar di dunia. Pemerintah melaksanakan program untuk menurunkan impor dengan menerapkan kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir bawang putih. Pelaksanaan kebijakan ini di lapangan ternyata mengalami banyak tantangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis realisasi kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir terhadap peningkatan produksi bawang putih nasional. Secara khusus penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengevaluasi perdagangan internasional bawang putih, meneliti kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir, dan mengkaji peluang dan tantangan wajib tanam. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir bawang putih tidak optimal dampaknya antara lain karena realisasi tanam jauh di bawah sasaran. Berbagai hambatan dalam program wajib tanam antara lain kekurangan benih bermutu, lahan terbatas, petani kurang berminat, waktu panen cukup lama, produktivitas rendah, dan harga jual tidak bersaing. Disarankan agar kebijakan wajib tanam diganti dengan wajib beli bagi importir, penanaman di wilayah yang sesuai, peningkatan tarif impor, dan peningkatan produksi tanpa harus meneruskan program swasembada bawang putih.
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