Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian

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ISSN / EISSN : 1693-2021 / 2549-7278
Total articles ≅ 149
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Febtri Wijayanti, Nfn Carolina
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 149-164; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.149-164

Abstract:
The low bargaining power of small farmers put them into a disadvantage position. This is experienced by coffee farmers in Southwest Sumba District, as an underdeveloped area, which by their social economic limitation relies solely on middleman, while their coffee actually has higher value. This study examines these problems to find the best solution by utilizing local resources through an inclusive approach. Qualitative research was conducted through a case study in a disadvantaged village in Southwest Sumba District, which has intervened with appropriate technology to comprehensively handle coffee processing. The results of the study explain that the problem of coffee farmers stems from the obstacles and challenges that are typically faced by people in disadvantaged areas. Those roblems are: barriers access to inputs, market, financial, and socio-cultural factors; challenges in coordination; and inability to meet standardization consistently and to bear risks. These six problems become the basis for the design of the inclusive business concept that is proposed to be applied by utilizing existing physical and social infrastructure modalities in the village. The inclusive coffee business unit development strategy has the potential to assist coffee farmers in gaining access to inputs and optimizing output, but should be supported by cross-sectoral cooperation between the government institution, research and development institution, business, and the community. Efforts to develop this business model need to be carried out sustainably along with empowering farmers and increasing awareness of the stakehoder to work together in an integrated manner.
, Ruth Mevianna Aurora, Doni Yusri, Sofyan Sjaf, Simon Barus
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 189-205; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.189-205

Abstract:
As an expansion area, North Labuhanbatu District has a purpose to improve the social welfare. Meanwhile one of the significant sector in the community is agriculture. Agriculture provides the highest income for the society and has a potency to further develop and establish the area. However, the development should relevant with environment characteristic essentially. Based on preliminary survey, there are 5 agricultural commodities growing in this area namely palm oil, rubber, rice field, cocoa, and coconut which spread over the 8 sub-districts. The increasing of population triggers land use changes particularly in agriculture. Therefore analysis of land suitability for agriculture is fundamental hence policy direction can be applied in each sub-district based on agriculture commodities which suitable with their characteristic accordingly. The evaluation of land suitability is conducted by comparing the physical characteristics with the existing of land suitability criteria which prossessed by ArcGIS software. Land suitability in North Labuhanbatu is identified with 4 clases: S1 (very suitable), S2 (moderately suitable), S3 (marginally suitable), and N (not suitable). Furthermore, there are 4 limiting factors in this study: water availability, root media, nutrient retention, and erosion hazards. The result shows that rubber, rice field, and coconut have very suitable (S1) land to be planted.Therefore the recomendation is to develop agroforestry landscape practices for sustainable livelihoods in Labura District.
Abdur Rofi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 165-175; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.165-175

Abstract:
The Creating Shared Value (CSV) program as an alternative to the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program provides options that allow companies to increase competitiveness while stimulating inclusive growth in reducing the poverty of farming families. This study examines the CSV program by looking at farmers' interests and the impact of the CSV program on banana commodities in Tanggamus Regency, Lampung Province. This study uses primary data obtained from surveys of 60 partner and non-partner farmers and in-depth interviews with 18 people involved in the existing business model. This research was conducted in March-April 2020. The data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the CSV program had been implemented in the location. In this CSV program, farmers get assistance from the company and certainty of selling banana products at an agreed price. However, not all farmers are interested in the program for various reasons, including due to limited land, limited time available, and farmers who do not want to be bound by work agreements. The impact of the CSV program on the banana commodity on household farmers' income has not been significant because bananas are not the primary source of livelihood for household farmers. The policy implication is that the CSV program can be an alternative to CSR programs. However, the success of this program also needs to consider the profile and the sources of livelihoods of farmers to ensure that farmers' interest and involvement can be more optimal.
Eni Kustanti, Agus Rusmana, Purwanti Hadisiwi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 177-187; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.177-187

Abstract:
Efforts to improve the competency of agricultural extension workers have been carried out through education and training by the Agency for Agricultural Extension and Human Resources Development. Improving the competence of agriculture extension workers through the utilization of communication media has not been used intensively by the government. The purpose of this study is to know the level of influence of communication media utilization on the competence of agricultural extension workers. The study was used a quantitative approach through an online survey of 203 agricultural extension workers at the Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology from 33 provinces. The results showed that the utilization of communication media and characteristics of individual had a significant effect on the competence of agricultural extension workers. Environmental support factors have a significant effect on the utilization of communication media and have an indirect effect on the competence of agricultural extension workers. The most and significant influence on the competence of agricultural extension comes from the utilization of communication media which is 4.38. Meanwhile, the significant factor affecting the utilization of communication media is only in the form of environmental support of 0.34. Therefore, to improve the competence of agricultural extension workers, utilization of communication media in the dissemination of agricultural information should be increased. Furthermore, to increase the utilization of communication media in the dissemination of agricultural information, the environmental support of extension activities, such as literacy training on the use of variation communication media, should be improved.
Aswan Adi, Dwi Rachmina, Y Bayu Krisnamurthi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 207-218; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.207-218

Abstract:
Rice is the main and strategic commodity in East Kalimantan Province as primary food source. Rice production in this province was relatively low, around 66.57% of its consumption need, or at 33.43% deficit in 2019. This deficit will continue to increase if East Kalimantan becomes the country's capital city in 2025 due to arrival of new residents. Therefore, a proper policy to improve the balance of rice production and consumption need should be designed. This study aimed to develop rice availability balance model and formulate policy recommendation to fullfil the rice needs in the country's capital city candidate. The method used was dynamic system approach as rice balance availability determined by supply and demand sub-system. The study results showed that the model developed could describe the rice availability balance in East Kalimantan and had good validity level. Based on the simulation results on the existing condition in 2025, the rice availability in East Kalimantan as the country's capital city was only 44.80% of the consumption need. A recommended policy scenario to improve the rice balance in this provionce is the combination of policies on production and consumption sides, namely minimal rice planting index at 1.9 (irrigation) and 1.2 (without irrigation), minimum rice yield at 4.67 tons per ha (irrigation) and 3.50 ton per ha (without irrigation), open up new rice field at 1,000 ha, no rice field conversion, conversion rate from unhusk paddy to rice yield at 64%, and maximum per capita rice consumption at 80 kg/year.
Boanerges Putra Sipayung, Theodorus Fobia, Werenfridus Taena, Umbu Joka
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 135-148; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.135-148

Abstract:
Village funds allocation has been provided to village government by central government starting in 2015. The provision of village funds aims at ingreasing equitable development in urban areas. This study aims to design a model of implementation of village funds management and farmer empowerment, with a case of Manusasi Village, Timor Tengah Utara Distict, bordering with Timor Leste. This research was conducted in August-September 2020. The methods used in this research were quantitative descriptive analysis and SEM based on variance, namely Partial Least Square (PLS). The sampling method used in this study was accidental sampling, with the chosen sample of 75 households from the total popultation 258 huosehold farmers. Results of this study indicated that planning had a significant effect on the evaluation process of village funds. The multiplier effect value of village funds in Manusasi Village was 1.39. There was no direct effect between physical capital, social capital, and human capital on the empowermeny of farming community in Manusasi Village. An important component of the implementation model of village fund management and farmer empowerment is the socialisation of the use of village funds which aims to increase public knowledge about village funds and build partnerships with universities or other institutions as sources of experts. The role of experts is to help improve village fund management and improve the quality of programs and planning.
Endro Gunawan, Bambang Irawan
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 109-134; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n2.2021.109-134

Abstract:
In order to reduce poverty in the agricultural sector, the Ministry of Agriculture implements the BEKERJA program, which is an effort to empower poor farmers in farming multi-commodities, including laying hens, vegetables, fruit and plantation crops. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the program on increasing farmers' income and reducing poverty. This research was conducted in 11 provinces covering 38 districts which were the location of the BEKERJA program in 2018 and 2019. The data used were primary data collected through in-depth interviews of farmers participating in the program. The results of quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis concluded that the program was quite successful in enhancing agricultural business activities among poor farmers, but it had not been able to increase farmers' income significantly. The number of poor farmers participating in the program only decreased by 1.48%. There are many challenges faced in empowering poor farmers, and therefore a strong commitment is needed to reduce poverty in the agricultural sector. To increase the effectiveness of these poverty reduction efforts, the empowerment of poor farmers in the future should be carried out as the following: (1) commodities developed are focused on the laying hens and vegetables farming, (2) farmers empowerment and provision of agricultural facilities should be continued at least until the farming activities is financially profitable, (3) technical guidance for cultivation should be strengthen, (4) beneficiaries of the program should be prioritized to young farmers, and (5) development a special program that is focussed for the poor farmers.
Bambang Sayaka, Yonas Hangga Saputra, Dewa K.S. Swastika
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 45-67; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.45-67

Abstract:
Indonesia is the largest garlic importer in the world. The government has implemented a program to reduce importation of this product called the garlic mandatory-planting for importers. Implementation of this policy in the fields faced several chalanges. This study aimed to assess the realization of the mandatory-panting policy on national garlic production enhancement. Specifically, the study was intended to evaluate garlic international trade, to assess mandatory-planting policy, and to examine opportunities and challenges of garlic mandatory-planting. Result of this study concluded that the mandatory-planting had no significant impact as the importers’ planted areas were far below the targets. The mandatory-planting policy was encountered by lack of quality seed, limited land, lack of farmers’ interest for growing garlic, long harvest period, low yield, and not competitive selling price. It is suggested that the Ministry of Agriculture replace mandatory-planting with mandatory-purchase, expanding the planted-area to suitable areas, increasing import tariff, and production increase but evading the self-sufficiency policy. AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara importir bawang putih terbesar di dunia. Pemerintah melaksanakan program untuk menurunkan impor dengan menerapkan kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir bawang putih. Pelaksanaan kebijakan ini di lapangan ternyata mengalami banyak tantangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis realisasi kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir terhadap peningkatan produksi bawang putih nasional. Secara khusus penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengevaluasi perdagangan internasional bawang putih, meneliti kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir, dan mengkaji peluang dan tantangan wajib tanam. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa kebijakan wajib tanam bagi importir bawang putih tidak optimal dampaknya antara lain karena realisasi tanam jauh di bawah sasaran. Berbagai hambatan dalam program wajib tanam antara lain kekurangan benih bermutu, lahan terbatas, petani kurang berminat, waktu panen cukup lama, produktivitas rendah, dan harga jual tidak bersaing. Disarankan agar kebijakan wajib tanam diganti dengan wajib beli bagi importir, penanaman di wilayah yang sesuai, peningkatan tarif impor, dan peningkatan produksi tanpa harus meneruskan program swasembada bawang putih.
Nfn Saptana, Kurnia Suci Indraningsih, Nfn Ashari, Maesti Mardiharini
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 69-87; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.69-87

Abstract:
The use of backyard land (pekarangan) by community has not been optimal yet. As a component of food diversification effort, Ministry of Agriculture has developed a program called Sustainable Food-Reserved Garden (SRFG) that empowers Women Farmer Group (WFG) to be able to provide a diverse and nutritious food for their families continuously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate SFRG activities that include an assessment of policy concepts, implementation, output, and outcomes. Coverage of this study was at national level with indepth analysis was conducted in two selected provinces, namely East Java and West Kalimantan. Data collection in these two provinces used survey and interview to 39 WFGs. Data was analysed using descriptive and a statistical methos using Partial Least Square (PLS). Results of this study showed that the SFRG program performances in the two provinces were mostly moderate to good. However, if there were no supporting policies and programs, the SFRG program was predicted will not be sustainable. Several factors affecting the sustainability of SFRG were (i) availability of planting media; (ii) availability of water sources and their efficient use; (iii) market institutions (mini markets, village markets) and business partnerships with collectors and supermarket; and (iv) processing of results that can increase value-added and SFRG networks. The policy implications for the sustainability of SFRG program are determined by the implementation aspects, supporting aspects, promotion aspects, and the synergy between programs across sectors. Abstrak Pemanfaatan lahan pekarangan yang dilakukan masyarakat dinilai belum optimal. Sebagai komponen dari upaya diversifikasi pangan, Kementerian Pertanian mengembangkan program Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari (KRPL) yang merupakan kegiatan Kelompok Wanita Tani (KWT) di lahan pekarangan untuk menghasilkan aneka pangan bergizi untuk keluarganya secara berkelanjutan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan evaluasi program KRPL yang mencakup aspek konsep kebijakan, implementasi, output dan outcome. Cakupan penelitian bersifat nasional, dengan pendalaman dilakukan di dua provinsi terpilih, yaitu Jawa Timur dan Kalimantan Barat. Pengumpulan data di kedua provinsi tersebut dilakukan dengan metoda dan wawancara terhadap 39 KWT. Analisis dilakukan secara diskriptif kualitatif dan analisis statistik dengan menggunakan Partial Least Square (PLS). Implementasi program KRPL menunjukkan kinerja sedang hingga baik. Meskipun demikian, jika tidak ada kebijakan dan program pendukung maka program KRPL terancam tidak berkelanjutan. Faktor-faktor yang paling berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan program KRPL adalah (a) ketersediaan media tanam; (b) ketersediaan sumber air dan pemanfaatannya secara efisien; (c) adanya kelembagaan pasar (kios desa, pasar mini, pasar desa) dan kemitraan usaha (pedagang pengumpul, pedagang keliling); dan (d) pengolahan hasil yang dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan jejaring KRPL. Implikasi kebijakan untuk keberlanjutan program KRPL sangat ditentukan oleh aspek pelaksanaan, aspek pendukung, dan aspek promosi, serta sinergi antar program lintas sektor.
Nyak Ilham, Sudi Mardianto, Nfn Sumedi
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, Volume 19, pp 33-44; https://doi.org/10.21082/akp.v19n1.2021.33-44

Abstract:
Brazil is a major exporter of chicken meat in the world and is currently is trying to enter the Indonesian market. If chicken meat from Brazil succeeds in entering the Indonesian market, the national chicken industry will be affected. This study aimed to compare the competitiveness of the national and Brazilian poultry production costs. The information used was obtained from various sources, such as national dan international scientific journals reports, and media, and data from Statistics Indonesia. The information were analyzed descriptively. In 2017-2019 broiler production costs in Brazil were from IDR 9,530 to IDR 12,060, while in Indonesia were from IDR 15,465 to IDR 17,750 per kg live weight. The low production cost of Brazilian poultry was supported by this country being the main corn producer and vegetable oil in the world, a relatively large business scale, and supported by the government. In order for Indonesia to be able to compete, the national poultry industry needs to explore the potential of local feed materials other than corn, such as cassava, palm kernel meal, crude palm oil, rice bran, as well as Black Soldier Flies as protein source. The government role needs to be focused on monitoring the quality and quantity of DOC and disease control through vaccination and application of biosecurity to reduce mortality and increase productivity. In addition, the use of Closed House System technology in cooperation with the partner breeders is expected to increase domestic poultry business scale and efficiency. Abstrak Brasil merupakan eksportir utama daging ayam di dunia dan saat ini sedang berusaha memasuki pasar Indonesia. Apabila daging ayam dari brazil berhasil masuk ke pasar Indonesia, maka industri ayam nasional akan terpengaruh. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan daya saing produk unggas nasional dan Brasil dari sisi biaya produksi. Informasi yang digunakan diperoleh dari berbagai sumber, seperti jurnal ilmiah, laporan, dan media lain lingkup nasional dan intenasional, serta data dari BPS. Informasi yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif. Pada ytahun 2019-2019 biaya produksi ayam broiler di Brasil berkisar antara Rp9.530 – Rp12.060, sedangkan di Indonesia berkisar Rp15.465 - Rp17.750 per kg berat hidup. Rendahnya biaya produksi ini disebabkan Brasil merupakan produsen utama jagung dan minyak nabati dunia, skala usaha relatif besar, dan didukung oleh kebijakan pemerintah. Agar Indonesia dapat bersaing, hal utama yang perlu dilakukan adalah menggali potensi bahan baku pakan lokal selain jagung, seperti ketela pohon, bungkil inti sawit, crude palm oil, dan dedak padi, serta Black Soldier Flies. Peran pemerintah perlu ditingkatkan dalam pengawasan kualitas dan kuantitas DOC dan pakan yang beredar, pengendalian penyakit melalui vaksinasi dan penerapan biosecurity untuk menekan angka mortalitas dan meningkatkan produktivitas. Selain itu, penggunaan teknologi kandang tertutup pada peternak mitra dapat meningkatkan skala dan efisiensi usaha.
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