World Journal of Mechanics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160049X / 21600503
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 301
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Masayuki Oishi, Yoshihiro Kubota, Osamu Mochizuki
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 69-82; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.106006

Abstract:
Typically, soil samples must be crushed into particles for laboratory research. Thus, an efficient mechanism to ensure a uniform particle size is essential. We previously developed a rod mill device that performs well, but video analysis indicated that the shear forces applied by the rod were more effective than the compressive forces applied by the mill. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unclear. This study focused on clarifying the relationship between compressive load and abrasion when crushing dried and hardened soil particles. Soil pellets of the same size were prepared, and model experiments were performed, where vertical compression and abrasion were applied to the pellets until they fractured. The results showed that soil pellets were fractured easily when an abrasive load was continuously applied in the circumferential direction. Additionally, the load required to fracture the soil pellets was much lower than the required vertical compressive load. The rod mill device was previously thought to fracture soil aggregates by gradually stripping soil particles away from the surface. However, our experimental results clarified that the fracture process started at the center and subsequently induced the entire pellet’s sudden failure.
Metaga Jeremi Sogoba, Badié Diourté, Moussa Magara Traoré
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.101001

Abstract:
This study is concerned with 12-MW capacity turbochargers on diesel power generators. These are generators equipped with 18 cylinders. Our previous studies [1] showed that the processing of vibration signature collected from a power generator is very complex, insomuch the dominant vibration remains the one originating from explosion frequency in the diesel generator cylinders, with a fairly high number of cylinders. This vibration drowns out all other possible vibrations, which can expose defects. The study at hand is focused on turbochargers with 20,940 rpm, while the rotation speed in the diesel engine is 600 rpm only. With the turbocharger rotating at very high speed, it results in severe mechanical constraints on the rotor shaft in the turbocharger and its related organs (turbine blades). The wear of turbine blades can result in breakdowns in the turbocharger. This article is an attempt to early detect defaults in turbine blades based on vibration signature that can be experimentally determined. We noted in our investigations that a diesel engine and its turbochargers do not bear the same mechanic loads. While the diesel engine is the seat of violent shocks brought about by explosions in cylinders, the turbochargers are driven by the action of exhaust gas from explosions, without being affected by explosion shocks. The study found that explosion frequency in the diesel engine cylinders, which disrupted the vibration signals in the diesel engine and alternator, did not impact on the vibration signals in the turbocharger. We experimentally determined, following several campaigns of measurements, a vibration signature on the turbochargers under study, which corresponds to a defect in turbine blades.
Kuate Nkounhawa Pascal, Ndapeu Dieunedort, Kenmeugne Bienvenu, Beda Tibi, Pascal Kuate Nkounhawa, Dieunedort Ndapeu, Bienvenu Kenmeugne, Tibi Beda
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 11-25; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.102002

Abstract:
In the realization of mechanical structures, achieving stability and balance is a problem commonly encountered by engineers in the field of civil engineering, mechanics, aeronautics, biomechanics and many others. The study of plate behavior is a very sensitive subject because it is part of the structural elements. The study of the dynamic behavior of free vibration structures is done by modal analysis in order to calculate natural frequencies and modal deformations. In this paper, we present the modal analysis of a thin rectangular plate simply supported. The analytical solution of the differential equation is obtained by applying the method of separating the variables. We are talking about the exact solution of the problem to the limit values. However, numerical methods such as the finite element method allow us to approximate these functions with greater accuracy. It is one of the most powerful computational methods for predicting dynamic response in a complex structure subject to arbitrary boundary conditions. The results obtained by MEF through Ansys 15.0 are then compared with those obtained by the analytical method.
Shuping Chen
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 27-38; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.103003

Abstract:
The formation conditions and time sequences for various types of wrench-related fractures are not clear. Based on a parabola-type failure criterion, this paper has gotten new insights on those questions. In a simple shear, the occurrence of either tensional fractures or Riedel shears is controlled by the ratio (Rtc) of tensile strength to cohesion. In a pure shear, the occurrence of either second order tensional fractures or second order Riedel shears is controlled by the ratio (Rtci) of tensile strength to cohesion, given a constant inner frictional coefficient. Where the Rtc or the Rtci is less than a certain value, the en echelon tensional fractures will occur first. Where the Rtc or the Rtci is bigger than the certain value, the Riedel shears will occur first. Where the Rtc or the Rtci is equal to the certain value, the en echelon tensional fractures and the Riedel shears will occur simultaneously. The understandings will enhance the research on wrench related fractures and will be of significance in petroleum exploration and development, because fractures are both important accumulation spaces and key migration paths for oil and gas.
Adelani A. Oyeniran, Duabari S. Aziaka
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 39-52; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.104004

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impact of residual stresses on fatigue damage of offshore wind turbine monopiles by numerical analysis approach using ABAQUS software, a finite element analysis (FEA) tool. Three monopile models with the same dimension (within standard range) have been developed in ABAQUS and partitioned circumferentially into equal rings. Longitudinal partitions have been rotated through 180° as obtainable in practice. Characteristic loads typical of a real life offshore wind turbine environment have been applied to all three models, with tensile and compressive residual stresses applied as additional loads at the critical weld region to the first and second models while the third model had no additional load. With zero boundary conditions applied in all six degrees of freedom, the simulation has been run for 107 cycles of wind and wave loads as recommended in standards in each case. Stress results obtained from the critical weld region in the three models showed that the presence of tensile residual stresses equal to the material yield stress contributed a maximum 0.05% to fatigue damage of the monopile when compared with results from the model with no residual stress while the presence of compressive residual stresses with the magnitude of the yield stress of the material caused a gain of 0.06% in fatigue life by similar comparison, indicating negligible contribution of residual stresses to the stress build up in the critical weld region, thus suggesting that the magnitude of the residual stress as high as the yield stress of the material of the monopile is not large enough to cause the monopile to open up in the axial direction.
Ahti Rahikainen
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 83-94; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.107007

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M. Kumssa Gemechu, B. Tessema S., Gemechu M. Kumssa, S. B. Tessema
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 10, pp 53-67; doi:10.4236/wjm.2020.105005

Abstract:
Understanding how stars form in molecular clouds is one of the ongoing research areas in astrophysics. Star formation is the fundamental process to which our current understanding remains incomplete due to the complexity of the physics that drives their formation within molecular clouds. In this article theoretical modelling of the lowest possible mass of the cloud needed for collapse and the core accretion rate has been presented for the molecular cloud collapsing under its gravity. In many of previous studies the critical mass of star forming cloud under its gravity has been modelled using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. However, we test the effect of thermodynamic efficiency factor together with other physical processes in describing the critical mass, and controlling or triggering the rate of mass falling onto the central core. Assuming that, the ratio of radiation luminosity to gravitational energy released per unit time of the collapsing MC is less than unity. Following this conceptual framework we have formulated the critical mass and the core accretion rate of the self-gravitating molecular cloud.
Frederick H. Silver, Ruchit G. Shah, Dominick Benedetto, Abhinav Dulur, Thomas Kirn
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 9, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/wjm.2019.91001

Stanisław Olszewski, Stanisł, Aw Olszewski
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 9, pp 113-145; doi:10.4236/wjm.2019.95009

Abstract:
We point out that a suitable scale of time for the Schrödinger perturbation process is a closed line having rather a circular and not a conventional straight-linear character. A circular nature of the scale concerns especially the time associated with a particular order N of the perturbation energy which provides us with a full number of the perturbation terms predicted by Huby and Tong. On the other hand, a change of the order N—connected with an increased number of the special time points considered on the scale—requires a progressive character of time. A classification of the perturbation terms is done with the aid of the time-point contractions present on a scale characteristic for each N. This selection of terms can be simplified by a partition procedure of the integer numbers representing N-1. The detailed calculations are performed for the perturbation energy of orders N=7 and N=8 .
Aleksandr V. Bogdanovich
World Journal of Mechanics, Volume 9, pp 95-104; doi:10.4236/wjm.2019.95007

Abstract:
The results of the tests for a friction pair “a cylindrical specimen made of 0.45% carbon steel—a counter specimen-liner made of polytetrafluoroethyleneF4-B” during sliding friction are presented. The test results at different levels of contact load are analyzed using the Archard’s equation and are presented as a friction fatigue curve. The concept of the frictional stress intensity factor during sliding friction is introduced, and an expression that relates the wear rate to this factor and is close in shape to the Paris equation in fracture mechanics is proposed.
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