Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2519-559X / 2616-4809
Published by: Watu Youth Village (10.4102)
Total articles ≅ 63
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Emmanuel O. Ojah, Emmanuel O. Oladele, Philip Chukwuemeka
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v5i1.103

Abstract:
Background: Bacteria as etiological agents have been reported to cause many diseases and have increased the rate of mortality globally. Their resistance to conventional medicine has made medicinal plants a credible alternative in the management of diseases caused by bacterial infection. In the recent times many research efforts have been directed towards the exploration of phytoconstituents with antibacterial potentials. Medicinal plants are widely used as antibacterial agents because of their high therapeutic performance, low toxicity, and affordability.Aim: This work was designed to identify secondary metabolites present in root extracts of ethno-medicinally utilised Portulaca oleracea L. and evaluate their antibacterial activities.Setting: The roots of P. oleracea L. were obtained from the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, Nigeria and authenticated in the Forest Research Herbarium, where voucher samples were deposited with specimen voucher number FIH-112030.Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard qualitative tests and the antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated using agar well diffusion method whilst the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by micro-dilution method. The screening was assessed against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, which are responsible for the transmission of common diseases in Nigeria. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with GraphPad Prism 8.0 and results were expressed as mean ± s.d. Duncan’s New Multiple range test were applied at 0.05 level of significance (p < 0.05).Results: Phytochemical screening of P. oleracea L. showed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, and saponins. All extracts showed a high level of minimum inhibition concentration against the pathogens except K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and P. aeruginosa. Generally the antibacterial activity of extracts increased with decrease in polarity as compared with ciprofloxacin. The mean (± s.d.) values were significantly different by Duncan’s multiple range tests with p < 0.05.Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea L. has been identified for the first time as a good antibacterial agent, which corroborates the ethno-medicinal uses of the plant.
Oluwamodupe C. Ejelonu, Simeon O. Oluba, Bankole O. Awolokun, Olusola O. Elekofehinti, Isaac G. Adanlawo
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v5i1.101

Abstract:
Background: Obesity is a medical condition that occurs as a result of excess body fat which increases the risk of several metabolic disorders. Non-availability of efficient classical treatment for obesity has led to propose alternative treatment using plant material.Aim: To investigated the effect of saponin-rich extract of Lindackeria dentata (SLD) on obesity and some specific genes involved in inflammation and insulin resistance in the high-fat diet (HFD) on mice.Setting: The plant leaves were collected from farmland in Igede Ekiti, South-western Nigeria and authenticated at a herbarium unit of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.Methods: Saponin-rich extracts from Lindackeria dentata leaves were extracted using standard procedures, HFD was given to some selected mice for 12 weeks whilst monitoring blood glucose and body weight (bw) of the mice. Obese mice were treated orally with SLD 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg bw for 3 weeks, sacrificed, organs were collected and some biochemical assays were performed. Expression of some genes and histopathological study of the pancreas were also carried out using a standard scientific protocol.Results: Saponin-rich extract of Lindackeria dentata treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) bw and adipose fat deposit, and caused partial restoration of pancreatic islet expansion (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) coupled with accentuated regulation of leptin, insulin and IL-10 gene (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) when compared with control groups.Conclusion: The present data clearly showed that SLD could be a good intervention in the treatment of obesity and its attendant metabolic disorders.
Shaheed Roos,
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v5i1.115

Abstract:
Background: Salvia dolomitica Codd. and Salvia namaensis Schinz. are indigenous to southern Africa and are used as medicinal plants in folk medicine.Aim: This study aimed to assess the effects of different levels of water deficit treatments on the growth, concentration of secondary metabolites, and anti-Fusarium oxysporum activity of S. dolomitica and S. namaensis.Setting: Experiments were carried out on the Bellville campus of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town.Methods: Four weeks old seedlings of the two species were subjected to 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-day water deficit regimes. Secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, alkaloids, and flavanols were assessed using spectroscopic methods. The anti-fungal activities of crude extracts obtained from plants were evaluated in a micro-dilution bioassay.Results: In all treatments, the plant height, crown width, number of stems and leaves, and fresh and dry weights reduced with increased water deficits. Acetone extracts from all treatments showed anti-fungal activity. However, extracts from the treatment with moderate water deficit (6-day watering interval) recorded significantly (P 0.01) better inhibition of F. oxysporum at the 18 h post incubation than the commercial fungicide, Mancozeb.Conclusion: This research has revealed that mild to moderate water deficit level favours the accumulation of alkaloids in S. dolomitica. Meanwhile, mild to severe water deficit significantly lowered flavanol content in S. namaensis. There was a correlation between the increase in total alkaloid contents and the enhanced anti-fungal activity of extracts of S. dolomitica. The present findings pave the way for optimised cultivation of medicinal plants and development of bioactive natural products.
Abosede Adu, Anthony Ojekale, Bamidele John,
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v5i1.91

Abstract:
Background: Vernonia amygdalina is a green leafy vegetable that grows in tropical Africa and popularly cultivated in the southern part of Nigeria for its economic, nutritional and ethnomedicine value.Aims: This study analysed the influence of copper-induced abiotic stress on the deoxyribonucleic acid and secondary metabolites of V. amygdalina.Setting: Analyses of plant material were carried out in the Department of Botany, Lagos State University.Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) amplification were performed. Copper (Cu) concentration in leaves and stem of V. amygdalina was determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), secondary metabolites were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the effect on DNA amplification and profiling was analysed using gel electrophoresis.Results: After 41 days of cultivation, the stem of V. amygdalina significantly bioaccumulated 37 mg/L, 50 mg/L and 215 mg/L of Cu after spiking with 400 mg/L, 1000 mg/L and 2000 mg/L, respectively, whilst the leaves accumulated 52 mg/L, 100 mg/L and 350 mg/L of Cu, respectively. Copper-impregnated soil influenced phytochemicals of the plants by causing inconsistent increase and decrease in specific compounds such as levomenthol, methyl stearate and glycerine. Deoxyribonucleic acid bands of the stem and leaf of V. amygdalina from control site showed no band shift, whilst band shift occurred in the stem and leaf of the Cu-spiked V. amygdalina.Conclusion: This study revealed the leaves of V. amygdalina having higher Cu accumulation capacity than the stems. Also, Cu alters the quality and quantity of phytochemicals in plant parts.
Mohammed O. Amali, Soliu A. Atunwa, Quadri A. Omotesho, Eniola O. Oyedotun, Akeem I. Olapade
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.97

Abstract:
Background: Combretum micranthum G. Don. (Combretaceae) is an ethnomedicinally valuable, undomesticated and indigenous shrub of West Africa. However, its anxiolytic potential have not been reported despite its ethanolic extract being used ethnomedicinally in the management of anxiety disorders.Aim: To determine the acute toxicity effect and assess the behavioural effects and anxiolytic potential of C. micranthum G. Don. leaves in mice.Settings: This study is an experimental design to evaluate the ethnomedicinal claim of Combretum micranthum G. Don using animal models of anxiety.Methods: Fifty-six male and female mice, ranging in weight between 20 g and 30 g were randomly distributed into three main groups. The first group of mice (n = 6) was assigned for toxicity assessment (LD50) study using the guideline of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The second group of mice for behavioural study (n = 25) was further divided into five sub-groups. Sub-groups I, II and III were orally administered 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of C. micranthum (CmEE), respectively, whilst IV and V were intraperitoneally administered 1 mg/kg diazepam and normal saline 0.5 mL, respectively. They were thereafter evaluated for novelty-induced behaviours: locomotion, rearing and grooming using Open Field Test (OFT). The third group of mice (n = 25) was treated similar to the pattern used in behavioural study and evaluated for anxiolytic activity of CmEE using elevated plus maze (EPM) model. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (S.E.M) and analysed using Student’s-t test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student–Newman– Keuls (SNK) test with values of p < 0.05 considered significant.Results: The percentage yield of ethanolic leaf extract of C. micranthum was 14.28% weight/weight (w/w). Combretum micranthum showed no toxicity when administered orally to mice (LD50 ≥ 2000 mg/kg). Groups administered 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of CmEE exhibited decreased locomotion (p < 0.05) when compared with saline group. There was significant decrease in rearing at 2000 mg/kg but increase in grooming in mice administered 2000 mg/kg of CmEE was recorded. The groups administered 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of CmEE showed increased percentage time spent in the open arm in a dose-dependent pattern (33.3%, 41.6% and 55.4%, respectively) when compared with the saline group. There were significant dose-dependent decreases in the indices of open arm avoidance at 1000 (48.9) and 2000 mg/kg (41.4) of CmEE.Conclusion: Combretum micranthum is non-toxic and preliminary data indicated that it possesses anxiolytic potential. However, it is recommended that further assays using other specific models of anxiety to determine its probable mechanism(s) of action should be explored.
Siza Mthi, Jean Rust, Mandla Yawa,
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.100

Abstract:
Background: South Africa is recognised as one of the most biodiverse countries in terms of fauna and flora in the sub-Saharan region. More than 40% of farmers in remote rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province use medicinal plants for the treatment of different livestock ailments.Aim: The aim of the study was to identify and document plant species used for the treatment of tick-borne diseases in the Amathole and O.R. Tambo district municipalities of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire was employed to obtain detailed information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used including parts, mode of preparation and mode of administration from 48 respondents between November 2013 and February 2014. The collected plant species were identified scientifically at the Stutterheim Dohne Herbarium, where voucher numbers were obtained and herbarium specimens were deposited. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis.Results: A total of nine medicinal plant species belonging to eight families and represented by nine genera were identified. The most dominant inhabitants were trees (55.6%), followed by herbs (33.3%) and shrubs (11.1%). The most frequently used plant families for tick-borne diseases were Xanthorrhoeaceae, Ebenaceae, Proteaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Vitaceae, Loganiaceae and Iridaceae, and from these plant families, leaves (44.4%) were the most commonly used plant parts.Conclusion: The data display that people in rural areas have preserved some knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of tick-borne diseases. However, further studies on plants used for the treatment of tick-borne diseases can be advanced towards validation and standardisation by evaluating parameters such as efficacy, safety and toxicity, quality (phytochemicals) and dosage standards.
, Kevin O. Ondoo, Ernest G. Maina, Fred Rugenyi
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.94

Abstract:
Background: With increasing concern over food insecurity, there is the need to incorporate wild edible plants in our meals as they can provide adequate level of nutrition when consumed as food.Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the proximate composition, elemental composition, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profile of Lantana trifolia.Setting: This study was carried out in Juja, Kenya where the samples were collected, prepared and stored at the Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.Methods: The proximate and elemental compositions of the leaves, stalk and root samples were evaluated by using standard procedures, whilst the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated by using Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method. The secondary metabolites present in the crude methanolic extracts of the whole plant were determined by using GC-MS.Results: The proximate and elemental analyses of the plant revealed that L. trifolia can be a good source of essential elements, proteins, crude fibre and carbohydrates. The protein, fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents in the leaves were found to be higher compared with the stalks and roots, whilst the ash and moisture contents were found to be higher in the roots. The concentrations of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in the leaves were found to be 8860.75 ± 565.27, 11 003.10 ± 143.24, 1520.25 ± 26.85 and 39.66 ± 15.68 mg/kg, respectively, compared with the roots and stalks, which were lower.Conclusion: The concentration of total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds and GC-MS profile of the methanolic extracts revealed that L. trifolia can be a good source of secondary metabolites, some of which have reported to be free radical scavengers. Hence, L. trifolia can not only be used as a source of important secondary metabolites, but its nutritional content suggests that the plant can be used to combat nutrient deficiency amongst many communities who lack adequate resources, because it thrives in the wild.
, Ezzeldin M. Abdurahman, Umar H. DanMalam, Muhammed U. Kawu, Ali M. Zakariya, Ayodeji E. Ayeni
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.102

Abstract:
Background: Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O’Rorke) Baill. has been widely prescribed in African traditional medicine system for the management of hernia, yellow fever, gastrointestinal, liver conditions and sterility, as well as for some other ethno-medicinal uses.Aim: The study was to investigate the safety margins of ethanol extract of I. gabonensis root barks (EEIGRB) in Wistar rats.Setting: This research is a toxicology investigation.Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity studies conducted on the EEIGRB, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) methods.Results: The acute toxicity studies revealed that LD50 was 5000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute study, significant increase in body weights (p 0.05) was observed at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in the weeks 2, 3 and 4 compared with week 0. There were no statistically significant (p 0.05) changes in the haematological, hepatic and renal indices except for significant reduction (p 0.05) in serum concentrations of sodium and creatinine at 400 mg/kg of EEIGRB compared with control group. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney revealed that at 200 mg/kg, there was a slight hepatic necrosis in the liver and a slight tubular necrosis in the kidney, whereas at 400 mg/kg, there was a moderate foci necrosis in the liver and a slight glomerular distortion occurred in the kidney.Conclusion: The results indicate that EEIGRB was found to be practically safe after acute administration, and there were histomorphological alterations in the liver and kidney after prolonged administration in the sub-acute dosages.
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