Asian Research Journal of Agriculture

Journal Information
EISSN : 2456-561X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 278
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N’Ganzoua Kouamé René, N’Dakou Koua Ambroise, Kouame Amany Guillaume, Konate Zoumana, Bakayoko Sidiky
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430132

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to improve the production and yield of cassava cultivated by tillage. The experiment was conducted in the field for 13 months (June 2019-july 2020) in Abongoua in the department of Bongouanou (East-central Côte d'Ivoire). After the cleaning of a 900 m2 surface of a fallow of more than 5 years, and cleared of all plant debris, soil samples were taken with an auger in the 40 cm surface in each corner and in the center of the experimental plot to constitute the composite sample for laboratory analysis. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replicates in which four elementary plots were distributed. Three treatments T1 (tilled soil), T2 (mounded soil) and T3 (ridged soil) compared to a control treatment T0 (no-till soil) were applied in each microplot. The cuttings were directly sown at a rate of 12 cuttings per treatment. The data of the different parameters collected underwent an analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed with SAS software version 9.4 and the means were separated using the Newman and Keuls test at the 5% probability threshold. The results showed an acidic soil with a sandy texture and a good supply of nutrients, particularly major elements, trace elements and clay-humus complex. Good growth and development of agro-morphological parameters as well as yield were obtained with treatments T3 (ridged soil), T2 (mounded soil) and T1 (tilled soil) in decreasing order of importance compared to the control treatment (T0). In conclusion, the study clearly showed that the type of tillage, particularly the ridged tillage technique, improves the agro morphological parameters, productivity and yield of cassava. What we recommend to farmers for a good yield of cassava in the area.
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 45-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330129

Abstract:
This paper presents a review of the literature on food and nutrition security in Kenya’s arid counties. It also provides strategies that can be adopted to improve food and nutrition security in the counties. Due to their aridity, they are associated with low economic, health, literacy and food and nutrition security indicators. They bear the brunt of food and nutrition insecurity and a proportionately higher percentage of their population faces starvation, whenever droughts occur. Stunting and wasting in the region’s children averages 28 and 14%, respectively. The figures compare poorly with the national averages of 4% and 11%, respectively. As the indices are related to quantity, diversity and quality of food intake, there is need to reduce food and nutrition insecurity in these Counties. Past efforts to reduce food and nutrition insecurity have failed, due to lack of long-term commitment from the National-level of Government, the use of inefficient farming technologies and low level of mechanization. Poverty, low and unpredictable rainfall for rain-fed agriculture, inconsistent livestock marketing of poor quality livestock, high crop production costs, high food prices also contribute to food and nutrition insecurity of the region. To improve food and nutrition security, it is recommended that the National-level of Government cedes the implementation of food production programmes to County Governments, while it strengthens food production policies, diversification of livelihoods and supports resilience-building. Other recommendations include innovating solar and wind-power devices to run machinery for food production, processing and preservation. Improvements in water harvesting, storage and pumping with wind and solar-powered equipment can also be explored. These improvements should eventually reduce dependence on food importation, which raises food prices, and de-incentivizes local farmers. Diversification of livelihoods, good governance and the application of appropriate technologies in food production, value addition and cooperation of the two levels of Government, are likely to gradually improve access and availability of quality and affordable food. The potential result is an improving food and nutrition security situation in Kenya’s arid Counties.
, M. B. Umar, M. Abubakar, A. L. Abdulhakeem, I. Y. Lailai
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330128

Abstract:
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the importation ban on rice production in Bade Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria. Methodology: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 110 respondents. The study used a structured questionnaire and oral interview to collect data from rice farmers on socioeconomic characteristics, change in input utilization, access to factors of production, adoption of new ideas and practices, and change in rice production. Data were analyzed using means, frequency counts, percentages, correlation analysis and z-test. The study was conducted between February and June in the year 2021. Results: The findings revealed that 36.6% of the respondents were within the age range of 31-40 years while the mean age was 38.62 years. The majority (90.1%) were males and the majority (80.2%) were married. Only 14.9% of the respondents did not acquire formal education. There was a great increase in the utilisation of herbicides (mean=4.47), water pumps (mean=4.58), fertilizers (mean =4.62) and seeds (mean =4.79). Access to credits (mean =1.27), pesticides (mean =1.56), knapsack sprayers (mean =1.71), water pumps (mean =1.76), fertilizers (mean =1.81) and farmlands (mean =1.89) was high but access to subsidies (mean =0.70) and extension services (mean =0.69) was low. There was significant positive correlation between age (r=0.56, p=0.00), income, (r=0.43, p= 0.00), size of farm holding, (r=0.30, p= 0.02), household size (r=0.23, p= 0.02), change in input utilisation (r=0.22, p=0.03) and change in rice production. A significant difference existed between the quantity of rice produced before the ban and after the ban (z=-4.54, p˂0.05). Conclusion: The importation ban policy of the Federal Government of Nigeria caused a substantial increase in paddy rice production. The study recommended that the government proactive measure on rice importation ban should be sustained to make the country self-sufficient in rice production.
E. G. Ibrahim, M. A. Gube-Ibrahim, D. O. Adekeye, N. J. Numonaya
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330127

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the mineral concentration and proximate composition of four different leafy vegetable collected in from Farin Gadan Market Jos Plateau State Nigeria and extracted using double acid extraction method. Heavy metals concentration was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and proximate composition was determined by Association of, Official Analytical chemistry (AOAC,1999) method. Results showed that the highest level of lead was found in Jute (0.045 ±0.004) while Lettuce (0.001 ±0.007) had the lowest level of lead. The leafy vegetables in this study may have been polluted with lead through pollutants in irrigation water, farm soil or due to pollution from the highway traffic. Chromium and cadmium were observed to be low in all the leafy vegetables analyzed, which is still within the safe limit set by FAO/WHO. Zinc had the highest concentration (2.802± 0.012) in bitter leaf, proximate analysis indicated significant variability in the constituents contained in the leafy vegetables studied (Carbohydrate, Ash content, crude protein, crude fats, crude fibre and moisture content in descending order). The highest moisture content was found in Lettuce (7.791%) and the highest crude protein in Bitter leaf (12.88%). The concentrations of the toxic heavy metals are within the tolerable limits of some regulatory authorities. However, there is need for continuous monitoring of heavy metal and proximate analysis in leafy vegetables because, leafy vegetables are the main sources of food supplements for humans in many parts of the world and are considered as bio-indicators of environmental pollution.
M. H. Rahman, R. Sultana, M. M. A. Sarkar, S. Islam, M. A. K. Azad, S. Sivasankar
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 11-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330126

Abstract:
This papar examined the cost and revenue as well as impact of mutant rice on fourteen region of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Jashore, Cumilla, Bogura, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Dhaka, Khulna, Chattagram, Rangamati, Barishal and Faridpur. A total of 560 farmers were randomly selected to fulfill the objectives where 280 farmers were mutant growers and 280 were non- mutant growers. A pre-designed interview schedule was used to collect the necessary data. Descriptive statistics, profit function and livelihood assets were used to analyzed the collected data. The study revealed that total variable cost of rice cultivation was BDT.40589 and BDT.43927 per hectare for mutant and non mutant, respectively which was around 71 percent of total cost of production. On an average, the total cost of production was BDT.59584 per hectare, where 29 percent was fixed costs and 71 percent was variable cost. For Binadhan-7 cultivation per hectare average net return was found highest in Dinajpur region i.e. BDT.70919 and the lowest in Jashore region i.e. BDT.33703. BCR on total cost basis was found 1.90 which was the highest in Sylhet 2.56 and the lowest 1.51 in Jashore region for Binadhan-7 production. In case of non-growers BCR on total cost basis was found 1.43 which was lower than Binadhan-7 production in the study areas indicating Binadhan-7 growers earn much than the non growers. The asset pentagon approach showed that there is a noteworthy increases in capitals of sampled farm households and the highest for financial capital that was 20.05 percent and the lowest was for natural capital i. e., 5.38 percent. Among the list of preferences, the highest was 88.93 percent for short duration and it was ranked I, the lowest was high yielding i.e. 81.43 percent which was ranked as V. Among the constraints, the highest constraint reported by the farmer was labour crisis as well as high price of labour i.e. 80.71 percent and it was ranked I and the lowest ranked V was lack of quality seed at proper time i.e. 48.93 percent in Binadhan-7 cultivation. Finally it is remarked that short duration high yielding variety Binadhan-7 plays a vital role in the monga mitigation of the northern areas of Bangladesh.
Dan Chépo Ghislaine, Fagbohoun Jean Bedel, Fankroma Martial
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330125

Abstract:
African eggplant Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga is a vegetable-fruit widely consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. However, observations have shown that the cortex was removed from the pulp during culinary preparations for various reasons. The objective of this study is to contribute to the valorization of this eggplant by showing the nutritional interest of the cortex and the pulp. The samples used in this study were collected in a market garden located south of Abidjan. After separating the cortex from the pulp, they were ground into powder and used for physicochemical analysis. The results concerning physicochemical parameters showed that the ripe pulp (Pm) compared to the ripe cortex (Cm) contained more total sugars (165±0.7 versus 107±0.70 mg/100 g DM). Whereas, the unripe pulp Pnm contained significant amounts of polyphenols and tannins compared to the unripe cortex (636±0.25 versus 328±0.04 mg/100g DM for total polyphenols; 577±0.09 versus 171±0.21 mg/100 g DM for tannins). Oxalate contents decreased in ripe parts of the fruit (Pnm: 332±2.52 and Cnm: 131±1.00 mg/100g DM in unripe eggplant versus Pm: 157.75±1.52 and Cm: 55±0 .00 mg/100g DM in ripe eggplant). Also, Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga could play an important role in human nutrition because of their nutrients content, thus contributing to better health.
Zannatul Ferdaous Bony, , Zabid Al Riyadh, Satya Ranjan Saha, Mohammad Zakaria
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i230123

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted from May 2017 to February 2018 at the research farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University to evaluate the performance and profitability of three seasonal (Broccoli, Cabbage and Okra) and two annual crops (ginger and turmeric) in lemon-based agroforestry systems. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated thrice. For seasonal crops the treatments were sole field (T0), 50 cm distance from tree base (DTB) with ginger (T1), 50 cm DTB with turmeric (T2), 100 cm DTB with ginger (T3) and 100 cm DTB with turmeric (T4). For annual crops (ginger and turmeric) the treatments were sole field (T0) and four distance regimes (50, 100, 150 and 200 cm) from the lemon tree base in agroforestry systems. The results of the study revealed that the yield of seasonal crops decreased and the yield of annual crops and perennial trees increased in agroforestry than respective sole cropping systems. The yield performance of crops component was significantly decreased with the decreasing distance towards tree base in agroforestry systems. The economic analysis showed that the net return, benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and land equivalent ratio (LER) was higher in the lemon-based agroforestry system than sole cropping. Therefore, the cultivation of cabbage, broccoli, okra, ginger and turmeric under lemon-based agroforestry systems are economically profitable.
, Edoardo Buso, Matteo Tonon
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i230120

Abstract:
Plasmopara viticola, the aetiological agent of grapevine downy mildew (DM), is the most important pathology afflicting viticulture and requires a great number of fungicide treatments to avoid severe yield losses and quality decreasing. To date, great efforts have been made to reduce the use of plant defensive products. Resistant cultivars, new agrochemicals and, finally, epidemiological models have been elaborated to better manage plant phytoiatric treatments. Nowadays, models are widely used because they allow the cultivation of traditional varieties, limiting agrochemicals. Using such models, implemented in a DSS (Decision Support System), results in a lower risk of grapevine damage by diseases and pests and, in many cases, in a lower input of active substances. Thanks to the information reported in a DSS, users could become more conscious of the relations between weather conditions, pathogen’s cycle, and infections risk, which is an issue not yet well understood by lots of winegrowers. For this instance, DSSs have been established as important tools for the achievement of more sustainable agricultural practices. Hence, understanding their working principles might be really important. In fact, in this way, technicians and farmers can adopt the suitable system to fit their own agricultural reality, aiming at a better vineyard management under a sustainable point of view.
Kakon Chakma, , Jarrin Yeasmin Senthi, Saidur Rahman
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i230119

Abstract:
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the socio-economic features of rural women, determine their participation extent in rice farming activities, and find out relationship between socio-economic features and extent of participation. This survey-based research was conducted in a village called Jahidpur in the Sunamganj district. 80 farm families involved in rice farming were selected by using simple random sampling method. Data were collected from women respondents through direct interviews using questionnaires. To determine participation extent, a rating scale of 5 points was used. Around 22 tasks were categorized into 5 aspects namely pre-planting, planting, intercultural operation, harvesting, and post-harvesting. The report revealed that rural women's participation was maximum in post-harvesting activities. However, no participation was found in some field-level tasks such as seedbed preparation, transplanting, nutrient management, plant protection management, irrigation, and harvesting. A major part of the rural women had medium level participation in rice farming activities 61.25% compared to a low participation rate of 38.75% but nobody had high level participation. Some socio-economic characteristics such as age, farming experience, agricultural knowledge had a significant positive relationship whereas education had a significant negative relationship with rural women's participation in rice farming activities. Tradition (100%), food security (95%), and poverty reduction (92.5%) were the main three reasons for women’s participation while male-dominated society (100%), restricted social interaction (95%), and limited access to resources (86.5%) acted as top three barriers. Rural women's involvement in rice farming was not at a satisfactory level and proper strategy implementation is required for further increasing the participation extent in rice farming activities.
, C. K. Benaragama, G. D. K. Kumara, K. H. Sarananda, C. A. K. Dissanayake
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture pp 44-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130118

Abstract:
1- Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been identified as a safe chemical tested successfully in extending shelf life while maintaining quality of plant products. 1-MCP, at very low concentrations, usually blocks ethylene receptors and then inhibits the action of ethylene delaying further ripening and senescence. Several studies have been conducted elsewhere for delaying ripening of different banana cultivars such as Cavendish, Prata, Tella Chakkerakeli, Beragan and Kolikuttu. Physiological reactions related with ripening of banana are delayed by inhibition of ethylene perception, while ethylene synthesis of banana fruit can be regulated at suppressed levels of ACS and ACO by 1-MCP. The effectiveness of 1-MCP on bananas varies with the maturity of the fruit. Fumigation, the conventional application method, has some limitations, particularly long exposure duration, uneven ripening and green ripening in bananas. Application of 1-MCP in aqueous form is recently developed to minimize these limitations. Micro-bubbling and controlled release packaging technologies are effective tools of application of 1-MCP on bananas. This review compiles and critically analyses the existing knowledge on the technological use of 1-MCP, clarifies inconsistencies in different publications.
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