Cancer Biology & Therapy

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ISSN / EISSN : 1538-4047 / 1555-8576
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.1080)
Total articles ≅ 4,854
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Latest articles in this journal

Chuangui Li, Zhen Sun, ,
Published: 16 October 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2123675

Abstract:
Application of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-exos) in cancer treatment has been widely studied. Here, we elaborated the function of BMSC-exos containing microRNA-187 (miR-187) in prostate cancer. Differentially expressed miRs and genes were screened with microarray analysis. The relationship between CD276 and miR-187 in prostate cancer was evaluated. Following miR-187 mimic/inhibitor or CD276 overexpression transfection, their actions in prostate cancer cell biological processes were analyzed. Prostate cancer cells were then exposed to BMSC-exos that were treated with either miR-187 mimic/inhibitor or CD276 overexpression for pinpointing the in vitro and in vivo effects of exosomal miR-187. miR-187 was poorly expressed while CD276 was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer. Additionally, restoring miR-187 inhibited the prostate cancer cell malignant properties by targeting CD276. Upregulation of miR-187 led to declines in CD276 expression and the JAK3-STAT3-Slug signaling pathway. Next, BMSC-exos carrying miR-187 contributed to repressed cell malignant features as well as limited tumorigenicity and tumor metastasis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that BMSC-derived exosomal miR-187 restrained prostate cancer by reducing CD276/JAK3-STAT3-Slug axis.
Zhiyuan Zhou, Xiaofeng Wu, Riming Zhan, Xiangyong Li, Dazhao Cheng, Li Chen, Tianyu Wang, Hua Yu, Guihong Zhang,
Published: 12 October 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2133332

Abstract:
Our previous studies have demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E7 oncoprotein promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Moreover, recent studies have found that exosomes can mediate EMT of NSCLC cells and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is related to the progression of NSCLC. Here, we further investigated the role of exosomal EGFR in HPV-16 E7-induced EMT of NSCLC cells. Our results showed that the exosomes derived from the stable HPV-16 E7-overexpressing A549 and NCI-H460 NSCLC cells (E7 Exo) significantly increased migration, invasion, and proliferation abilities of NSCLC cells as compared with the exosomes derived from empty vector-infected NSCLC cells (ev Exo). Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that E7 Exo dramatically enhanced EMT of NSCLC cells and promoted the growth of subcutaneous NSCLC xenografts. Additionally, HPV-16 E7 enhanced the expression of EGFR and p-EGFR in both NSCLC cells and exosomes. Furthermore, the inhibition of EGFR activation or exosome secretion suppressed E7 Exo-induced migration, invasion, and EMT of NSCLC. Moreover, 12 kinds of differentially expressed miRNAs between E7 Exo and ev Exo (fold change≥2, P ≤ .05) were screened out, of which 7 miRNAs were up-regulated while 5 miRNAs were down-regulated in A549 E7 Exo. Taken together, our findings suggest that exosomal EGFR is involved in HPV-16 E7-induced EMT of NSCLC cells, which may play a key role in the progression of HPV-related NSCLC.
Lauren T. Maloney, Emile Latour, Yiyi Chen, Douglas Rice, Alison Grossblatt-Wait, Nima Nabavizadeh, Charles R. Thomas, Kristina H. Young, Joshua M. Walker, John Holland, et al.
Published: 6 October 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2126250

Abstract:
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) demonstrates excellent local control in early stage lung cancer, however a quarter of patients develop recurrence or distant metastasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) supports metastasis and treatment resistance, and angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) indirectly suppresses TGF-β signaling. This study investigates whether patients taking ARBs while undergoing SBRT for early stage lung cancer exhibited improved overall survival (OS) or recurrence free survival (RFS) compared to patients not taking ARBs. This was a single institution retrospective analysis of 272 patients treated with SBRT for early stage lung cancer between 2009 and 2018. Patient health data was abstracted from the electronic medical record. OS and RFS were assessed using Kaplan–Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare unadjusted survival between groups. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). Of 247 patients analyzed, 24 (10%) patients took ARBs for the duration of radiotherapy. There was no difference in mean age, median tumor diameter, or median biologic effective dose between patients taking ARBs or not. Patients taking ARBs exhibited increased OS (ARB = 96.7 mo.; no ARB = 43.3 mo.; HR = 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10 to 0.62, P = .003]) and increased RFS (median RFS, ARB = 64.3 mo.; No ARB = 35.1 mo.; HR = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.10 to 0.63, P = .003]). These effects were not seen in patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or statins. ARB use while undergoing SBRT for early stage lung cancer may increase OS and RFS, but ACEI use does not show the same effect.
Li Ma, Jianwei Wang, Yongping Zhang, Fang Fang, Jing Ling, Xinran Chu, Zimu Zhang, Yanfang Tao, Xiaolu Li, Yuanyuan Tian, et al.
Published: 28 September 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2125748

Abstract:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly cancerous and aggressive hematologic disease with elevated levels of drug resistance and relapse resulting in high mortality. Recently, bromodomains and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors have been extensively researched in hematological tumors as potential anticancer agents. MZ1 is a novel BET inhibitor that mediates selective proteins degradation and suppression of tumor growth through proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTAC) technology. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role and therapeutic potential of MZ1 in AML. In this study, we first identified that AML patients with high BRD4 expression had poor overall survival than those with low expression group. MZ1 inhibited AML cell growth and induced apoptosis and cycle arrest in vitro. MZ1 induced degradation of BRD4, BRD3 and BRD2 in AML cell strains. Additionally, MZ1 also initiated the cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), which showed cytotoxic effects on NB4 (PML-RARa), K562 (BCR-ABL), Kasumi-1 (AML1-ETO), and MV4-11 (MLL-AF4) cell lines representing different molecular subtypes of AML. In AML mouse leukemia model, MZ1 significantly decreased leukemia cell growth and increased the mouse survival time. According to the RNA-sequencing analysis, MZ1 led to c-Myc and ANP32B genes significant downregulation in AML cell lines. Knockdown of ANP32B promoted AML cell apoptosis and inhibited cell growth. Overall, our data indicated that MZ1 had broad anti-cancer effects on AML cell lines with different molecular lesions, which might be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML patients.
Rushikesh S. Joshi, Amelie Boichard, ,
Published: 28 September 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2128608

Abstract:
Next-generation sequencing data is fundamentally changing the clinical management of patients with cancer. The most frequent genomic alterations in malignancy are mutations and amplifications, with a subset of tumors having multiple amplifications – “amplificators”. We sought to understand the molecular correlates of high tumor amplification burden in a pan-cancer context. Using both national registries and a single-institution dataset, our results demonstrate that cancers with TP53 mutations (as compared to those with wild-type TP53) exhibited significantly higher tumor amplification burden across all datasets. Amplifications, generally associated with overexpression, may be potentially actionable secondary consequences of TP53 mutations.
Qingxia Fang, Jingyang Lin, Liang Gao, Ruolang Pan,
Published: 25 September 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2127603

Abstract:
Defects in tRNA expressions and modifications had been linked to various types of tumorigenesis and progression in recent studies, including colorectal cancer. In the present study, we evaluated transcript levels of mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase YARS2 in both colorectal cancer tissues and normal colorectal tissues using qRT-PCR. The results revealed that the mRNA expression level of YARS2 in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in normal intestinal tissues. Knockdown of YARS2 in human colon cancer cell-line SW620 leads to significant inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. The steady-state level of tRNATyr, OCR, and ATP synthesis were decreased in the YARS2 knockdown cells. Moreover, our data indicated that inhibition of YARS2 is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels which sensitize these cells to 5-FU treatment. In conclusion, our study revealed that targeting YARS2 could inhibit colorectal cancer progression. Thus, YARS2 might be a carcinogenesis candidate gene and can serve as a potential target for clinical therapy.
Hanpu Zhang, Chenyuan Li, Shichong Liao, Yi Tu, Shengrong Sun, Feng Yao, ,
Published: 22 September 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2125260

Abstract:
The tumor recurrence and drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) threatened patients a lot. The mechanism should be further explored. The information of expression status and survival were available in public databases. The Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining displayed the level of related proteins. CCK-8, colony-formation assays, transwell assay and wound healing assay were performed to illustrate the ability of tumor growth, invasion and migration. In vivo model was established to verify our cell experiments. In our study, we revealed that proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 12 (PSMD12) was high expressed in HCC tissues and positive related to the survival. In vitro experiments suggested that PSMD12 knockdown attenuated tumor cell growth, invasion and migration. Moreover, PSMD12 interference blocked the activation of MEK-ERK pathway. The ERK inhibitor could alleviate the tumor-promoting effect in PSMD12-overexpression cells. In addition, kinesin family member 15 (KIF15) was also observed to be highly expressed in HCC and be harmful to the survival. The public database, the images of immunohistochemistry and the western blot illustrated that PSMD12 and KIF15 was positive correlated. KIF15 knockdown impaired tumor progression and tumor-promoting effect of PSMD12. The xenograft models supported the results of cell experiments. In conclusion, PSMD12 could activated MEK-ERK pathway via KIF15 upregulation, thereby promoting tumor progression. Graphical abstract
Shihui Zhang, Yunyun Chen, Qiong Hu, Tingting Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Yijian Zhou, Yuxuan Wei, Hongzhou Zhao, Junkai Wang, Yaxin Yang, et al.
Published: 21 September 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2126248

Abstract:
Elevated SOX2 protein levels correspond to the poor prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Poor prognosis is closely correlated with the loss or disruption of cellular polarity; however, the relationships between SOX2 protein and polarity proteins in ESCC remain elusive. Herein, we found that the knockdown of SOX2 significantly decreased miR-142-3p expression and can regulate the translation of LLGL2 protein, a member of the Scribble complex. LLGL2 protein levels in ESCC are negatively correlated with miR-142-3p and SOX2 levels. Moreover, LLGL2 protein expression increased upon SOX2 knockdown in ESCC cell lines, and mutating the binding site for this miRNA in the LLGL2 3’-UTR disrupted its ability to inhibit LLGL2 expression. When LLGL2 was overexpressed, ESCC cell proliferation and invasion were inhibited in vitro and in vivo, which could be elucidated based on changes in gene expression after RNA sequencing, targeted proteomic analysis and bioinformatic assays. However, SOX2 protein did not directly bind to the promoter of miR-142-3p after ChIP sequencing. Together, these findings indicate that a SOX2 regulatory axis governs ESCC proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and apoptosis, thereby providing a potential avenue for future therapeutic intervention.
Shu-Cheng Liu, You-Han Cao, Li-Bo Chen, Ran Kang, Zhong-Xin Huang,
Published: 23 August 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2102360

Abstract:
LncRNAs can be transported to tumor cells where they exert regulatory effects by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC)-derived exosomes. Here, we aimed to investigate the functional mechanism of BMSC-derived exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 in the progression of bladder cancer (BC). Methods of BMSC were identified by detecting surface markers through flow cytometry. Exosomes from BMSC were identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and western blot analysis of exosome markers. Cellular internalization of BMSC-derived exosomes (BMSC-Exo) into BC cells was detected by confocal microscopy. CCK-8, colony formation, flow cytometry, wound healing, and transwell assays were adopted to estimate cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion abilities, respectively. Interplay between miR-17 and lncRNA PTENP1 or SCARA5 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter, RNA pull down, and/or RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. Tumor xenograft assay was conducted in nude mice to study the role of exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 in BC progression in vivo. We showed exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 can be delivered into and suppress the malignant phenotypes of BC cells. LncRNA PTENP1 was identified as a sponge of miR-17, and SCARA5 was identified as a target gene of miR-17. The exosomes derived from PTENP1-overexpressing BMSC (BMSCOE-PTENP1-Exo) abolished the promotive effects of miR-17 overexpression or SCARA5 knockdown on the malignant phenotypes of BC cells. Moreover, exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 was demonstrated to inhibit BC tumor growth in nude mice by miR-17/SCARA5 axis. In conclusion, BMSC-derived exosomal PTENP1 suppressed the BC progression by upregulating the expression of SCARA5 via sponging miR-17, offering a potential novel therapeutic target for BC therapy.
Brandon N. VanderVeen, Thomas D. Cardaci, Sierra J. McDonald, Sarah S. Madero, Christian A. Unger, Brooke M. Bullard, Reilly T. Enos, Kandy T. Velázquez, Jason L. Kubinak, Daping Fan, et al.
Published: 13 August 2022
Cancer Biology & Therapy, Volume 23, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2108306

Abstract:
Fluorouracil/5-flourouracil (5FU) is a first-line chemotherapy drug for many cancer types; however, its associated toxicities contribute to poor quality of life and reduced dose intensities negatively impacting patient prognosis. While obesity remains a critical risk factor for most cancers, our understanding regarding how obesity may impact chemotherapy’s toxicities is extremely limited. C56BL/6 mice were given high fat (Obese) or standard diets (Lean) for 4 months and then subjected to three cycles of 5FU (5d-40 mg/kg Lean Mass, 9d rest) or PBS vehicle control. Shockingly, only 60% of Obese survived 3 cycles compared to 100% of Lean, and Obese lost significantly more body weight. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the enzyme responsible for 5FU catabolism, was reduced in obese livers. Total white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were reduced in Obese 5FU compared to Lean 5FU and PBS controls. While adipocyte size was not affected by 5FU in Obese, skeletal muscle mass and myofibrillar cross section area were decreased following 5FU in Lean and Obese. Although adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression was not impacted by 5FU, distinct perturbations to skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression and immune cell populations (CD45+ Immune cells, CD45+CD11b+CD68+ macrophages and CD45+CD11b+Ly6clo/int macrophage/monocytes) were observed in Obese only. Our evidence suggests that obesity induced liver pathologies and reduced DPD exacerbated 5FU toxicities. While obesity has been suggested to protect against cancer/chemotherapy-induced cachexia and other toxicities, our results demonstrate that obese mice are not protected, but rather show evidence of increased susceptibility to 5FU-induced cytotoxicity even when dosed for relative lean mass.
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