Low Carbon Economy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-7000 / 2158-7019
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 159
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Ismaïla Toko Imorou, Yaya Issifou Moumouni, Djaouga Mama, Arouna Ousséni, Zakari Soufouyane, Matilo Orou Augustin, Satoguina Honorat, Yabi Ibouraïma, Djego Julien, Thomas Omer, et al.
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 117-136; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.123006

Abstract:
For the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism, the UNFCCC, through decision 12/CP17, invites countries to develop certain tools to estimate reference emission levels for forests. With this in mind, reference emission and absorption levels were estimated in five protected areas in Benin. To achieve this, two different datasets were used, namely: in situ data from the field collection campaign carried out in 2018, especially from the national forest inventory of 2007 and land use data from 2000 to 2018. In accordance with the 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance on Greenhouse Gas Inventories, the calculation of historical emissions from deforestation and degradation is done by multiplying Activity Data (AD) by Emission Factors (EF). The analysis of the results shows that at the national level, the annual deforestation rate in protected areas is 0.34% (2091 ha/year), compared to 1.09% (3153 ha/year) for the annual degradation rate. Overall, carbon emissions amount to 166.65 Mt.eq-CO2/ha, or 16.67 Mt.eq-CO2/ha/year, compared to baseline removals of about 1.14 Mt.eq-CO2/ha, or 0.11 Mt.eq-CO2/ha/year in the protected areas covered by this research. Annual emissions of 0.67 Mt.eq-CO2/ha/year from methane are also noted, compared to 0.056 Mt.eq-CO2/ha/year from nitrous oxide. Therefore, It is clear that actions to mitigate GHG emissions must be undertaken directly in Benin’s protected areas in order to strengthen forest carbon stocks.
Adrian-Nicolae Buturache, Stelian Stancu
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.121001

Abstract:
Wind energy prediction represents an important and active field in the renewable energy sector. Since renewable energy sources are integrated into existing grids and combined with traditional sources, knowing the amount of energy that will be produced is key in minimizing the operational cost of the wind farm and safe operation of the power grid. In this context, we propose a comparative and comprehensive study of artificial neural networks, support vector regression, random trees, and random forest, and present the pros and cons of implementing the aforementioned techniques. A step-by-step approach based on the CRISP-DM data mining framework reveals the thought process end-to-end, including feature engineering, metrics selection, model selection, or hyperparameter tuning. Using the selected metrics for model evaluation, we provide a summary highlighting the optimal results and the trade-off between performance and the resources expended to achieve these results. This research is also intended to provide guidance for wind energy professionals, filling the gap between purely academic research and real-world business use cases, providing the exact architectures and selected hyperparameters.
Stephanos D. V. Giakoumatos, Odysseas N. Kopsidas
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 22-41; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.121002

Abstract:
The latest years, oil and gas demand reduction incurred market turbulences as a result of oil wells exploitation uncertainties and new green policies towards sustainability that turn the stakeholders to eco-friendlier energy sources. A challenging alternative to this direction is the increment of biomass share in the overall consumed energy balance. From many standpoints of view, biomass has minor impact on the CO2-cycle balance “operating” as an offset against CO2 photosynthesis. In the present work, a practically holistic interpretation of biomass energy contribution in our societies was outlined. Expert systems were developed as a tool to biomass energy analysis and certain models were presented to approach estimation of individual parts of biomass exploitation chain. The tendency of energy crop land availability and best cultivated practices were presented as well. A schematic cost analysis of biomass utilization was performed under most common operational scenarios. Economic evaluation, future strategic planning and environmental impact from energy biomass utilization were all analyzed up to a certain point. Biomass as a renewable energy form is expected to bring about a positive cost/benefit ratio. Biomass, in general, is easier to handle, (storage-transportation), cost-effective and more beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) net emissions as results from an incorporated ad hoc developed SWOT analysis.
Ali Redha Hussain
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 73-116; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.113005

Abstract:
Reusing and recycling materials inside the domains of showy ensemble plan and generation is critical. When a Kuwaiti play wraps up its run, ensembles are tossed absent and modern ones are outlined when vital. This hone demonstrates a need for mindfulness of reusing procedures. This is often a genuine matter; tons of material materials are being squandered instead of reused. The current preparation of creating ensembles for Kuwait theatre preparations includes the conception and portraying of ensembles, the buy of modern textures, and the work of tailors for a generation. Since fitting is outsourced, there’s a deficiency of architects who can make outfits independently. The current handle does not consolidate any strategies for reusing ensembles. This combined with tall levels of material squander, comes about in critical biological issues that request quick consideration. However, in countries such as Kuwait, where the hone was commonplace earlier to the Iraqi intrusion, this can be not the case. This qualitative study looked for examining current hones among Kuwaiti costumiers and after that compared these to UK costumiers who give an illustration of existing feasible (reusing and recycling) ensemble plan hones. It pointed to explore the states of mind and discernment of Kuwaiti costumiers towards reusing and reusing as ways of lessening material squander. This paper used exploratory and participatory modes of essential investigation. Thinks were conducted to assemble essential information, an arrangement of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 4 UK and 4 Kuwaiti costumiers to inspire data on understanding their sustainable design process into making costumes. This paper will survey the discoveries of investigating ventures and exploring the generation forms utilized by ensemble originators within the UK and Kuwait. It’ll demonstrate how the Kuwaiti costumers their behaviors, coupled with their need of knowledge with utilizing reusing and reusing methodologies to make ensembles, had expanded material squander and adversely influenced the Kuwait theater ensemble plan industry.
Candace E. Ybarra, John B. Broughton, Prashanth U. Nyer
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.112004

Abstract:
This paper examines some trends in residential solar panel installations in California. First, we look at the growth in residential solar panel installations in the state and changes in consumption per account. Next, we examine aspects of the proposed changes to the net metering program in the state. Politicians, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), investor owned utility (IOU) companies and other public interest groups are currently involved in a contentious debate on the future of residential solar panel installations in the state of California. The major California IOUs, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), San Diego Gas and Electric (SDGE), and others have argued that solar panel installations favor wealthier residential customers at the expense of less wealthy customers. The basis of the argument is that under the current rate structure those with the financial resources to install solar panels are able to avoid paying their share of the fixed costs incurred by utility companies which results in a disproportionate burden on less wealthy customers. IOUs have asked for permission to charge solar customers large additional monthly fees. Some have even called for all the grandfathering protections granted to early solar adopters under the previous and current net metering programs (NEM 1.0 and NEM 2.0) to be withdrawn. Solar companies and residential solar customers have maintained that such moves would destroy the solar industry in the state, cause thousands of job losses, and most importantly, prevent the state from making progress towards its stated carbon neutrality goals. Given this ongoing debate, it is important to examine whether there exists a wealth difference between residential customers in California who have and have not installed solar panels. As an extension of this research, we also went about determining whether climatic conditions impact the solar panel adoption rates. While California is a huge state with varied climatic zones and several utility companies, we focus our analysis on residential customers of SCE who reside in Orange County. The findings and conclusions are generalizable to residential customers throughout the state.
Candace E. Ybarra, John B. Broughton, Prashanth U. Nyer
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.122004

Abstract:
This paper examines some trends in residential solar panel installations in California. First, we look at the growth in residential solar panel installations in the state and changes in consumption per account. Next, we examine aspects of the proposed changes to the net metering program in the state. Politicians, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), investor owned utility (IOU) companies and other public interest groups are currently involved in a contentious debate on the future of residential solar panel installations in the state of California. The major California IOUs, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), San Diego Gas and Electric (SDGE), and others have argued that solar panel installations favor wealthier residential customers at the expense of less wealthy customers. The basis of the argument is that under the current rate structure those with the financial resources to install solar panels are able to avoid paying their share of the fixed costs incurred by utility companies which results in a disproportionate burden on less wealthy customers. IOUs have asked for permission to charge solar customers large additional monthly fees. Some have even called for all the grandfathering protections granted to early solar adopters under the previous and current net metering programs (NEM 1.0 and NEM 2.0) to be withdrawn. Solar companies and residential solar customers have maintained that such moves would destroy the solar industry in the state, cause thousands of job losses, and most importantly, prevent the state from making progress towards its stated carbon neutrality goals. Given this ongoing debate, it is important to examine whether there exists a wealth difference between residential customers in California who have and have not installed solar panels. As an extension of this research, we also went about determining whether climatic conditions impact the solar panel adoption rates. While California is a huge state with varied climatic zones and several utility companies, we focus our analysis on residential customers of SCE who reside in Orange County. The findings and conclusions are generalizable to residential customers throughout the state.
Ali Redha Hussain
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 73-116; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2021.123005

Abstract:
Reusing and recycling materials inside the domains of showy ensemble plan and generation is critical. When a Kuwaiti play wraps up its run, ensembles are tossed absent and modern ones are outlined when vital. This hone demonstrates a need for mindfulness of reusing procedures. This is often a genuine matter; tons of material materials are being squandered instead of reused. The current preparation of creating ensembles for Kuwait theatre preparations includes the conception and portraying of ensembles, the buy of modern textures, and the work of tailors for a generation. Since fitting is outsourced, there’s a deficiency of architects who can make outfits independently. The current handle does not consolidate any strategies for reusing ensembles. This combined with tall levels of material squander, comes about in critical biological issues that request quick consideration. However, in countries such as Kuwait, where the hone was commonplace earlier to the Iraqi intrusion, this can be not the case. This qualitative study looked for examining current hones among Kuwaiti costumiers and after that compared these to UK costumiers who give an illustration of existing feasible (reusing and recycling) ensemble plan hones. It pointed to explore the states of mind and discernment of Kuwaiti costumiers towards reusing and reusing as ways of lessening material squander. This paper used exploratory and participatory modes of essential investigation. Thinks were conducted to assemble essential information, an arrangement of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 4 UK and 4 Kuwaiti costumiers to inspire data on understanding their sustainable design process into making costumes. This paper will survey the discoveries of investigating ventures and exploring the generation forms utilized by ensemble originators within the UK and Kuwait. It’ll demonstrate how the Kuwaiti costumers their behaviors, coupled with their need of knowledge with utilizing reusing and reusing methodologies to make ensembles, had expanded material squander and adversely influenced the Kuwait theater ensemble plan industry.
Ali Cheshmehzangi
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2020.111001

Abstract:
It is widely accepted the lifeblood of urban economy and growth is energy. Urban transport, infrastructure, industry, and dwellings dominate energy consumption in the built environment. Nevertheless, energy efficiency in urban growth is a key factor that is widely questioned and little understood. As a result, this paper aims to question challenging matters of urban growth and energy by reviewing China’s recent transition in urban energy demand. This study offers a better understanding of urban energy management and energy demands of rapidly urbanizing countries, by using China as a leading example. Since the 1980s, after the unprecedented rapid urbanization and growth in China, there are major goals to tackle the emerging matters of urban energy management and growing energy demands. These national-level challenges are imposing serious threats to how cities grow and are managed in the coming decade or so. In light of this, and the face of rapid urbanization and urban growth, this paper investigates China’s current trends of urban energy management and energy demands. Finally, this paper explores current approaches to urban development in China and will offer an overview of China’s requirement to tackle its current energy challenges. The findings of this study are highlighted as part of a brief review of China’s recent five-year-plans and are then developed further in the light of what energy targets mean for cities and urban management.
Mai Kim Lien, Nguyen Dieu Huyen, Nguyen Thanh Cong, Nguyen Van Minh
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 25-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2020.112002

Abstract:
Currently, the development of the carbon market is considered as an urgent requirement because it contributes to creating certain economic values and protecting the environment and sustainable development of a country. In addition, this instrument can also enhance diplomatic relations through scientific, technological and financial investments among countries all over the world. Vietnam is assessed as having potential to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 9% compared to the Business-As-Usual scenario by 2030 using domestic resources (equivalent to 83.9 million tons of CO2eq). The above-mentioned 9% contribution can be increased by up to 27% (equivalent to 250.8 million tons of CO2eq) if the country can receive the international support through bilateral and multilateral cooperation as well as the implementation of new mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. The paper gives an overview of a number of domestic carbon markets in some countries and assesses the potential for developing Vietnam’s carbon market.
Boya Liu
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 81-101; https://doi.org/10.4236/lce.2019.103006

Abstract:
Air pollution in China is causing significantly negative health effect. The issue is fueled by China’s transition to an aging society with a climbing population of elders characterized by great physiological and social vulnerability. Despite the existing investigation on the health effect of air pollution, evidence in China is lack based on the empirical ground, particularly for the elderly. In this study, I examine how air pollution level affects the hospital visits of the elderly in China. Combining data from China Health and Retirement longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and city-level Air Quality Index (AQI) of 2011 and 2013, we conduct individual random effect Probit and fixed-effect Logistic model to eliminate endogeneity from sorting problems and harvesting issues. Results show that increasing air pollution level resulted in negative health effects on the elders, and significantly raised their hospital visits. These effects are more serious for males, aged individuals, low-educated, smoker, and the poor people. The findings indicate the potential benefit of air pollution reduction and provide policy implications for both environmental regulation and health service management.
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