Low Carbon Economy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-7000 / 2158-7019
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 154
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Stephanos D. V. Giakoumatos, Odysseas N. Kopsidas
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 22-41; doi:10.4236/lce.2021.121002

Abstract:
The latest years, oil and gas demand reduction incurred market turbulences as a result of oil wells exploitation uncertainties and new green policies towards sustainability that turn the stakeholders to eco-friendlier energy sources. A challenging alternative to this direction is the increment of biomass share in the overall consumed energy balance. From many standpoints of view, biomass has minor impact on the CO2-cycle balance “operating” as an offset against CO2 photosynthesis. In the present work, a practically holistic interpretation of biomass energy contribution in our societies was outlined. Expert systems were developed as a tool to biomass energy analysis and certain models were presented to approach estimation of individual parts of biomass exploitation chain. The tendency of energy crop land availability and best cultivated practices were presented as well. A schematic cost analysis of biomass utilization was performed under most common operational scenarios. Economic evaluation, future strategic planning and environmental impact from energy biomass utilization were all analyzed up to a certain point. Biomass as a renewable energy form is expected to bring about a positive cost/benefit ratio. Biomass, in general, is easier to handle, (storage-transportation), cost-effective and more beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) net emissions as results from an incorporated ad hoc developed SWOT analysis.
Adrian-Nicolae Buturache, Stelian Stancu
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 12, pp 1-21; doi:10.4236/lce.2021.121001

Abstract:
Wind energy prediction represents an important and active field in the renewable energy sector. Since renewable energy sources are integrated into existing grids and combined with traditional sources, knowing the amount of energy that will be produced is key in minimizing the operational cost of the wind farm and safe operation of the power grid. In this context, we propose a comparative and comprehensive study of artificial neural networks, support vector regression, random trees, and random forest, and present the pros and cons of implementing the aforementioned techniques. A step-by-step approach based on the CRISP-DM data mining framework reveals the thought process end-to-end, including feature engineering, metrics selection, model selection, or hyperparameter tuning. Using the selected metrics for model evaluation, we provide a summary highlighting the optimal results and the trade-off between performance and the resources expended to achieve these results. This research is also intended to provide guidance for wind energy professionals, filling the gap between purely academic research and real-world business use cases, providing the exact architectures and selected hyperparameters.
Ali Cheshmehzangi
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 1-24; doi:10.4236/lce.2020.111001

Abstract:
It is widely accepted the lifeblood of urban economy and growth is energy. Urban transport, infrastructure, industry, and dwellings dominate energy consumption in the built environment. Nevertheless, energy efficiency in urban growth is a key factor that is widely questioned and little understood. As a result, this paper aims to question challenging matters of urban growth and energy by reviewing China’s recent transition in urban energy demand. This study offers a better understanding of urban energy management and energy demands of rapidly urbanizing countries, by using China as a leading example. Since the 1980s, after the unprecedented rapid urbanization and growth in China, there are major goals to tackle the emerging matters of urban energy management and growing energy demands. These national-level challenges are imposing serious threats to how cities grow and are managed in the coming decade or so. In light of this, and the face of rapid urbanization and urban growth, this paper investigates China’s current trends of urban energy management and energy demands. Finally, this paper explores current approaches to urban development in China and will offer an overview of China’s requirement to tackle its current energy challenges. The findings of this study are highlighted as part of a brief review of China’s recent five-year-plans and are then developed further in the light of what energy targets mean for cities and urban management.
Mai Kim Lien, Nguyen Dieu Huyen, Nguyen Thanh Cong, Nguyen Van Minh
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 11, pp 25-43; doi:10.4236/lce.2020.112002

Abstract:
Currently, the development of the carbon market is considered as an urgent requirement because it contributes to creating certain economic values and protecting the environment and sustainable development of a country. In addition, this instrument can also enhance diplomatic relations through scientific, technological and financial investments among countries all over the world. Vietnam is assessed as having potential to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 9% compared to the Business-As-Usual scenario by 2030 using domestic resources (equivalent to 83.9 million tons of CO2eq). The above-mentioned 9% contribution can be increased by up to 27% (equivalent to 250.8 million tons of CO2eq) if the country can receive the international support through bilateral and multilateral cooperation as well as the implementation of new mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. The paper gives an overview of a number of domestic carbon markets in some countries and assesses the potential for developing Vietnam’s carbon market.
Xin Yu
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.101001

Abstract:
The construction of urban ecological civilization is an important part of the construction of a beautiful China. There are some problems in the construction of urban ecological civilization in China, such as the weakness of ecological consciousness, the dislocation of the political achievements, and the imperfect institution. The article will discuss the approaches and strategies of urban ecological civilization construction from the perspective of consciousness, economy, environment, institution, and carry out systematic optimization, in order to speed up the pace of urban ecological civilization construction, promote the harmonious coexistence between man and nature, build a beautiful China, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Aiwen Zhao, Ruilin Li
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 47-58; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.102004

Abstract:
Based on a series of theoretical study of Pigou tax principle, polluter pays principle (PPP), double dividend theory, tax incidence and tax burden transfer, carbon tax excess burden, and the Laffer curve, this article determines the design of essential elements involved in carbon tax system, including the scope of carbon tax, the objects of Taxation, the tax payer, the tax link, the tax rate, and the tax preference, etc. Meanwhile, some principles are proposed when implementing strategies, that is, the principle of combination of efficiency and equity, the principle of tax rate dynamic adjustment, and the principle of tax neutrality.
Jia-Lu Chung, Si Nguyen Tien Le, Cheng-Liang Chen
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 59-80; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.102005

Abstract:
This work promotes an advanced alternative of energy flow that is more informative and comprehensive to facilitate a better understanding of the whole national or regional energy situation. The 2017 Energy Flow of Taiwan is illustrated as an example. This innovative energy flow captures the entire picture of the utilization of primary energy for a year, therein it points out each individual primary and secondary energy supply and demand, as well as further information of the flows. Especially, it is revealed in this study the comparative efficiencies of utilization of gross energy from the difference between each providing group and corresponding receiving groups. Thus, the analysis can serve as a benchmark for the government’s reference to develop or make improvements towards more efficient and better strategies of future energy use. The proposed advanced alternative of energy flow in Taiwan is suitable for promotion to analyze the energy flow in other countries or regions.
Fahd Mohamed Omar Al-Guthmy, Wanglin Yan
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 31-46; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.102003

Abstract:
Kenya still uses a purely value-based motor vehicle taxation system. No environmentally focused fiscal policies exist for vehicle ownership and usage, yet up to a quarter of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions originate from the transport and energy sectors. To achieve its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) objectives for road transport, current vehicle taxes should be revised to reduce emissions through incentivizing newer and hybrid vehicle imports. The study projects Kenya’s motor vehicle inventory using business-as-usual scenario building projections to determine the country’s emissions and public revenue. The results conclude that vehicle age is directly proportional to the tax rate and therefore motor vehicle CO2 emissions could be decreased significantly by amending the current tax policies to incentivize a shift in consumer car choice and help Kenya meet its NDC emissions reduction target for 2030.
Furui Guan
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 11-30; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.102002

Abstract:
This paper is written to help relieve existing environmental problems. This paper focuses on how insights from Behavioral Economics can be drawn and affect human behavior in order to reduce pollution and relieve environmental problems. This research involves several interviews with government officials involving the preservation of energy and water, managers of environment-related corporations, and leaders of non-government organizations that are trying to reduce pollution and save the environment. Reviewing the existing measures taken by governments, this paper analyzes different points of views and approaches and gives several practical suggestions on reducing pollution in the Behavioral Economics point of view, which can be referred to by legislations and other organizations and helps eco-friendly policies to be more efficient and accepted. This paper also evaluates different measures that could be taken and the costs and benefits of different alternatives, bringing a clearer understanding of the impacts of many possible actions that can be both vital and beneficial.
Boya Liu
Low Carbon Economy, Volume 10, pp 81-101; doi:10.4236/lce.2019.103006

Abstract:
Air pollution in China is causing significantly negative health effect. The issue is fueled by China’s transition to an aging society with a climbing population of elders characterized by great physiological and social vulnerability. Despite the existing investigation on the health effect of air pollution, evidence in China is lack based on the empirical ground, particularly for the elderly. In this study, I examine how air pollution level affects the hospital visits of the elderly in China. Combining data from China Health and Retirement longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and city-level Air Quality Index (AQI) of 2011 and 2013, we conduct individual random effect Probit and fixed-effect Logistic model to eliminate endogeneity from sorting problems and harvesting issues. Results show that increasing air pollution level resulted in negative health effects on the elders, and significantly raised their hospital visits. These effects are more serious for males, aged individuals, low-educated, smoker, and the poor people. The findings indicate the potential benefit of air pollution reduction and provide policy implications for both environmental regulation and health service management.
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