Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

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ISSN / EISSN : 2356-1297 / 2528-7222
Total articles ≅ 144
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Aldicky Faizal Amri, Muhammad Taqiyuddin, Windi Atmaka, Ervika Rahayu Novita Herawati
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p173-182

Abstract:
Coffee is one of the most widely distributed and consumed beverages in the world. In general, coffee is brewed using hot water, but as the coffee industry develops, cold water also can be used for the coffee brewing process. This brewing technique is known as cold brew. There is little information regarding the characteristics of cold brew coffee. Therefore it is necessary to study the characteristics of cold brew beverages, especially with local Indonesian coffee as its main ingredient. This research used Menoreh Arabica coffee as its main research object. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Menoreh Arabica coffee with cold brew brewing techniques. This research begins with roasting coffee into three types, which is light (T = 193 oC, t = 5 minute), medium (T = 208 oC, t = 7 minute), and dark (T = 223 oC, t = 13 minute). Furthermore, the coffee is grinded into two types grind size (medium and coarse). Samples of cold brew formulation were made with an extraction time of 8 hours. The sensory analysis is conducted based on the SCA method. Sensory data analysis was done to determine the three best formulations according to roast profiles, continued with the physicochemical analysis. The best cold brew sample obtained from this research was medium-coarse Arabica Menoreh coffee, with the highest sensory parameters values in aroma, acidity, aftertaste, and sweetness. The value of pH, chlorogenic acid, and some organic acids affect acidity. Lactic acid affects body value, and caffeine levels were relatively stable in each sample. This research result can be used as a reference for product diversification of Arabica Menoreh coffee.
Elsera Br Tarigan, Febriska Ditiea Utami, Nura Malahayati, Eko Heri Purwanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 121-128; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p121-128

Abstract:
Cocoa bean shells (Theobroma cacao L.) are by-products of cocoa beans processing and are considered waste. However, cocoa bean shells are potential antioxidants due to their content of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to: (1) determine the polyphenol content of cocoa bean shell extract using three types of solvents, and (2) determine the effect of adding cocoa bean shell extract on changes in the quality of cocoa butter. This research was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory of Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from December 2020 to January 2021. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with several solvents: metanol 80%, ethanol 96%, and ethyl acetate 96%. Three extracts solutions were applied to cocoa butter stored for 12 months (control) with a volumes factor: 0,5; 1,5; and 2,5 ml/50 ml cocoa butter. The results showed that the total polyphenol value and antioxidant capacity of cocoa bean shells extract in ethanol and methanol solvents were not significantly different. The extract using methanol solvent had the highest total polyphenol value and antioxidant capacity compared to the other two solvents, 29,27±2,45 mgGAE/g and 19,55±5,52 mgGAEAC/g, respectively. The types of solvent were not significantly different in reducing acid number and peroxide value, but increasing the volume of cocoa bean shell extract reducing the acid number and peroxide values. The addition of 2.5 ml extract to cocoa butter that has been stored for 12 months could reduce the acid number and peroxide to below the value of fresh cocoa butter.
Rita Harni, Khaerati Khaerati, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 129-140; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p129-140

Abstract:
Colletotrichum leaf fall disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important disease in rubber plants. The C. gloeosporioides Infection can reduce production by 7%-45%. Controlling the pathogen using endophytic fungi is very promising because it can suppress inoculum and pathogen colonization, induce plant resistance, and trigger plant growth. The study aimed to evaluate the endophytic fungus isolate from rubber to control C. gloeosporioides as a pathogen that caused the rubber leaf fall disease. This research was carried out in the laboratory and greenhouse of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crop Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from March to November 2018. The isolates used were endophytic fungi isolates from rubber plants, which were tested for their inhibition against C. gloeosporioides in vitro on rubber leaves and seedlings, and their mechanism. The variable observed were the inhibition rate, incubation periods, number of spots, disease severity, and plant growth. The results showed that the endophytic fungus could inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporioides about 64.17% - 86.67%. The high inhibitory activity (>80%) in isolates CEPR.19, CEPR.6, CEBPM.21, DTJE.1, and DMJE27 were 86.67%; 83.33%; 83.33%; 82.92%, and 82.50%, respectively. The observations on seedlings obtained three potential fungal isolates to control C. gloeosporioides on rubber leaves, namely CEBPM.21, CEPR19, and DTJE.1 with suppression of disease severity about 68.57%; 67.88%, and 60.20% with their mechanisms of action inducing resistance, antibiosis, competition, and hyperparasites.
Enny Randriani, Elsera Br Tarigan, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 109-120; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p109-120

Abstract:
In general, Kobura coffee farmers in South Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU) harvest coffee with the criteria of red fruit and a mixture of red and green, while the processing method is a dry process. However, the sensory attributes of these activities are not yet known. This study aims to map the sensory qualities of Kobura coffee at the farmer level based on differences in harvesting and processing methods. The research was carried out in Banding Agung District, South OKU Regency, and the Coffee and Cocoa Bioindustry Laboratory, Balittri, Sukabumi, from March to December 2019. The design used was a completely randomized design with 3 treatment factors and two replications. The first factor was three clones of Kobura coffee (Kobura 1, 2, 3), the second factor was two harvesting methods (red and mix of red + green fruit), and the third factor is two processing methods (dry and wet). The variable observed were the sensory attributes analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and path analysis. The results showed that the harvesting and processing methods of Kobura coffee at the farmer level in South OKU did not significantly affect the sensory. Furthermore, each cluster's harvesting and processing methods were evenly distributed because the proportion between red and green fruit was not clearly identified in the mixed fruit harvest. Superior genetic and optimal altitude factors make Kobura coffee categorized into Fine Robusta with a final score of 81.13-85.75. The final score is directly and dominantly influenced by mouthfeel (body), flavor, overall, and fragrance, respectively.
Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Indah Sulistiyorini
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 151-164; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p151-164

Abstract:
Studying the fruit age and proper media formulation is one of the important stages in embryo culture of coffee. The data is highly benefical, especially in saving embryos generated from intra- and inter-species crosses that fall prematurely or experience problems in germination. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable age and media formulation for embryo culture of Arabica, Robusta, and Liberica coffee. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute from January 2019 to November 2020. Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with growth regulators adapted to embryonic development were used in this study. The three types of coffee divided into 5 groups, namely pinhead, immature, early mature, almost mature, mature, and used as planting material. The research was designed in a completely randomized design with 10 replications, and media formulation as a treatment. The results showed that embryo culture of the three coffee species was conducted successfully, except for pinhead fruit. The older the cultured fruit, the higher the percentage of germination. There is a difference in germination time between the three coffee species. The medium for embryo culture should be adjusted with the age of the fruit being cultured. Aside from growing embryos, the cultured mature fruit embryos on MS medium given 0.5 mg/l BA can also be used for propagation by utilizing the secondary somatic embryos formation.
Indah Sulistiyorini, Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Dani Dani, Budi Martono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 141-150; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p141-150

Abstract:
Temanggung is one of the centers of Robusta coffee production in Central Java, with a variety of potential local coffee clones. The exploration found that several numbers of local Robusta coffee clones had the potential to have high productivity and were resistant to pests/diseases. However, their level of genetic similarity to the superior clones that have been released has not been clearly identified. This study aimed to investigate the genetic variability of Temanggung local Robusta coffee clones based on SSR markers. The study was conducted at the Molecular Laboratory of the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute from February to December 2018. A total of 29 local coffee clones derived from Temanggung along with two control coffee clones (BP 42 and BP 358) were used. All the 14 SSR markers used in the present study were polymorphic and could cluster those local coffee clones into 5 major groups at a genetic similarity coefficient of 0.57. Four local coffee clones (Putih Daun Lebar, Lokal, Tugusari Hijau and Tugusari Kuning) were in the same group with control clones in group I. One local clone (Tugusari Hijau) had a genetic similarity with the control clone BP 358 at 0.91. Meanwhile, the other 25 local clones were in different groups from the control clones. These local clones, which showed genetic distance far from the control clones, can be selected as candidates for local superior clones in coffee breeding program.
Ahmad Thoriq, Krawali Sita
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 165-172; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n3.2021.p165-172

Abstract:
Tea leaf plucking is an important activity that can determine the quantity and quality of tea production. Tea plantations characteristically have variations of slopes that affect the performance of the picking process. This study aimed to analyze the performance efficiency of tea plucking activities using plucking machines and scissors. Field data were collected from several blocks in the South Gambung and North Gambung afdeling. Data collected consisted of the elevation of the place, the slope of the land, the plucking area, plucking time, the number of pluckers, the plots length of the plucking activity, the width of the plots, and the harvested tea's weight. The data collected were processed into field capacity and tea plucking performance efficiency, which were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that the slope of the land has an effect on work efficiency of 3.00%-8.68%. The effective and theoretical field capacity of tea plucking machines is 0.14 hectares per hour and 0.20 hectares per hour, respectively, while the scissors is 0.015 hectares per hour and 0.020 hectares per hour. The quality of tea harvested with machines that meet the requirements is 44.10%, better than scissors harvested, which is only 28.09%.
Nur Kholis Firdaus, Dibyo Pranowo, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 99-108; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p99-108

Abstract:
The growth media composition and cuttings material is considered one of the determining factors for a successful Robusta coffee plant propagation by cuttings. Information on the growth media composition and the ideal cutting material for Robusta coffee needs to be improved. The research was conducted at the Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory, Balittri, Sukabumi, from October 2020 to January 2021. The study aimed to investigate the effect of growth media composition and number of internodes on the growth of cuttings in three clones of Robusta coffee. The study was designed in a split-split plot with 2 replications. The main plot factor was 3 clones of Robusta coffee (BP 939, SA 203, and BP 308), the split plot factor was 5 compositions of growth media: sand, sand+chicken manure (1:1), sand+soil (1:1), soil+chicken manure (1:1), and sand+soil+chicken manure (1:1:1), and the split-split plot factor was the number of internodes (1 and 2 internodes). Variables observed were the percentage of survived, sprouted, and rooted cuttings, number and length of primary roots, and number of shoots, internodes and leaves. The results showed that sand and sand+soil (1:1) were the best media for root formations. For the growth of number and length of primary roots, the sand+soil (1:1) media was a more suitable for BP 939 and SA 203, while sand media was suitable for BP 308. Other result showed that two-internodes cuttings proved to be better in shoot, internode, and leaf growth than single-internode cuttings.
Nurheni Sri Palupi, Dase Hunaefi, Nugraha Susanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 87-98; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p87-98

Abstract:
Green tea contains polyphenols which are known as sources of antioxidants and contribute to a bitter and astringent taste. Optimization of green tea extraction to obtain sensory profiles that are acceptable for consumers is important. The study aimed to produce an optimal green tea extraction process based on polyphenols content and antioxidant activity, a sensory profile of the basic solution of green tea based on consumer expectations and preferences, and the ideal profile of green tea. This research was conducted by PT. XYZ – Jakarta and Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology IPB University – Bogor, West Java from October 2020 to April 2021. This study used data experiments on RSM by CCD method and consumer perception testing using Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method. The selection of consumer panelists and FGD participants was conducted in conjunction with the consumer survey. Optimum condition of methode extraction of green tea based on RSM methode was temperature at 78,43 OC for 21 minutes. Total of polyphenols, antioxidant activity based on IC50, and preference score was 588,58 mg/kg – 750 mg/kg; 14,48μL – 27,03μL; and 4,0 – 5,2, respectively. Green tea extract profile based on consumers preferences had the following profile sensory: burned aroma, floral aroma, tobacco aroma, animalic aroma, umami test, green flavor, astringent aftertaste, straw-like aftertaste; emotional profile: peaceful, adventurous, calm and satisfied; and attribute profile: packaging design: cold color, illustrations image, images of people, combination, high quality and warm color.
Saefudin Saefudin, Muhammad Syakir, Sakiroh Sakiroh, Maman Herman
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 79-86; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p79-86

Abstract:
The problem that often arises in the procurement of seeds is in selecting seeds that have high physiological quality. The Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) planting material is generally in the form of bulbils of varying sizes with a dormancy period of 4-5 months. One of the efforts to break seed dormancy is by soaking. This study aimed to determine the effect of bulbil weight and soaking duration on the viability and growth of porang. The research was carried out at the Pakuwon Experimental Station, Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from September to December 2020. The design used was a split plot with 3 replications. The main plot was the bulbil weight which consisted of 3 categories: (1) large size (12.66-16.96 g/seed), (2) medium (10.41-11.53 g/seed), and (3) small (5.63-7.11 g/seed). The sub-plots were the soaking duration in water which consisted of 4 levels: 0 hours (without soaking), and soaking for 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. The variables observed were the viability, petiole length, and fresh weight of plants at 2 months after sowing. The results showed that there’s no interaction effect between bulbil weight and soaking duration for all variables observed. Bulbs with large and medium weights produced higher viability and petiole length compared to small bulbils, while the highest plant fresh weight was produced by large bulbil weights. The correlation results showed that the higher the viability of the seed, the longer the petiole, and the higher the fresh weight of plant.
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