Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

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ISSN / EISSN : 2356-1297 / 2528-7222
Total articles ≅ 127
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Samsudin Samsudin, Khaerati Khaerati, Gusti Indriati, Arlia Dwi Hapsari
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 179-188; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p179-188

Abstract:
Hypothenemus hampei is a coffee berry borers (CBB) that is difficult to control because it lives inside the coffee berries. Blastospores of entomopathogen fungal are expected to be effective in controlling these pests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of blastospores Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii to infect, kill and inhibit the development of H. hampei on coffee cherries in the laboratory. The study was conducted from March to December 2019 at the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi. The study used 14 treatments, namely 3 types of fungi are P. fumosoroseus, M. anisopliae and L. lecanii with every 4 densities are 108, 107, 106, and 105 blastospores/ml, positive control using botanical insecticides (Biotris) and negative control, and repeated 4 times. The parameters observed were mortalities, number of bor holes, and insect development after treatment. The results showed that all blastospores were able to infect and kill H. imago in the laboratory. The highest mortality occurred in the treatment of P. fumosoroseus with 108 blastospores/ml densities (P1) by 39.91%. Blastospores of 3 entomopathogens were able to inhibit the number of bor holes on the coffee cherries, with the highest inhibition in the treatment of L. lecanii 106 blastospores/ml (L3) by 28.57%. All types of blastospores can also inhibit insect development in the coffee cherries. Treatment of M. anisopliae 108 blastospore/ml (M1) was able to reduce the number of eggs and nymphs by 78.69% and 74.24% respectively compared to negative controls. Blastospores from three types of entomopathogens have the potential to be developed as bioinsecticides to control CBB.
Ei Mon Kyaw, I Wayan Budiastra, Sutrisno Sutrisno, Samsudin Samsudin, Dheni Mita Mala
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p119-126

Abstract:
Liberica is one of coffee species that is becoming popular and increasingly in demand in present days due to its unique characteristics. Caffeine is one of the important coffee quality parameter which determines the coffee flavor, consumer preference and market price. Caffeine content is usually analyzed by chemical method which is destructive, time consuming, expensive and involving a lot of procedures. NIR Spectroscopy is one of the non-destructive techniques to overcome these disadvantages. This study was conducted at the Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering, IPB University for NIR measurement and the Center of Agro-based Industry (BBIA), Bogor for chemical analysis from August to November 2019. The study aimed to determine the best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content in Liberica coffee green bean powder. In this study, FT-NIRS in the wavelength of 1000-2500 nm was used for NIR measurement and HPLC tool was used for chemical analysis. Kubelka-Munk (K/S) and Absorbance (Log 1/R) were used as data transformation, whereas Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) as data pretreatment. In addition, Partial Least Square (PLS) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were applied for multivariate calibration method. The best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content of Liberica coffee green bean powder was obtained by the spectral data pretreated with second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) and Kubelka-Munk data transformation using PLS calibration method with the results of r = 0.90, RPD = 2.24, CV = 2.01%.
Andika Herianto Simarmata, Kralawi Sita, Totok Herwanto, Ahmad Thoriq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 149-162; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p149-162

Abstract:
Application of tea harvest mechanization can increase work productivity, cost efficiency, and reduce the amount of starch loss in tea leaves. The problem is that the harvester machines that are operated in most tea plantations in Indonesia are imported. The harvester machine operators have the potential to experience skeletal, muscular, and peripheral nerve disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). This study aims to evaluate the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai tea leaf harvester machine based on operator anthropometry and to find the operator's working posture during the tea picking process that needs immediate improvement. Anthropometric data were collected through measurements of the operator's body dimensions, while biomechanical data were collected through video recordings of the work-movements of all operators in operating the machine with a land slope of 5o – 10oand a land slope of 35o–40o at a plant height of 75 cm to 110 cm. Data analysis was performed using the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) and OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis) methods. The results showed that the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai engine was in accordance with the operator's anthropometry. The results of REBA analysis show that there is a high work risk when operating the harvester machine, namely in the land conditions with a slope of 35o – 40o with a plant height above 100 cm and when moving the sacks of the harvest to a temporary shelter. Meanwhile, according to the results of the OWAS analysis, it is necessary to take corrective action as soon as possible, namely the position of operator 3 and operator 4 and it is necessary to change the position of operator 1 and operator 2. Based on the results of the REBA and OWAS analysis, it is better if the operator’s work shift changes in machine operation with the slope of the land 35o – 40o.
Rita Harni, Khaerati Khaerati, Rita Noveriza, Sri Yuliani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 127-136; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p127-136

Abstract:
Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora is a significant disease on cocoa crops worldwide. Citronella and geraniol are two dominant substances of citronella oil that have fungicidal activity, which is potentially used to control black pod disease. However, those two substances are relatively unstable form volatile. To improve stability can be done using nanotechnology. The study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of citronella-oil-nanoemulsions formulas on the growth of P. palmivora in vitro and on cocoa pods. Eight nano formulas were prepared at the Postharvest Center in Bogor; however, the effectiveness was conducted at the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute in Sukabumi. The nano formula was prepared following spontaneous, simultaneous, and inversion methods. The experiments were designed in a completely randomized design, with five replications. Eight treatments were evaluated, i.e., the inversion formulas (F1, F2, F5 & F7), spontaneous (F3, F6 & F8), and simultaneous (F4). Two concentration levels of the formula were tested, i.e., 0.5% for in vitro and 1.0% in cacao pods. The variables observed were the inhibition rate of formula, bioassay, concentration, and inhibition rate on cacao pods. The nanoemulsion formulas of citronella oil could inhibit 23.13%–77.78% of the growth of P. palmivora. Formula F5 was the best, which inhibited 77.78% growth in vitro and 31.60% in cacao pods. The nanoemulsions of citronella oil affected the growth rate, fresh weight, and dry weight of P. palmivora. For better effectiveness of the formula on cocoa pods, the concentration should be increased.
Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 137-148; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p137-148

Abstract:
The Arabica coffee is predominantly self-pollinated plants thereby contributing to low genetic diversity. The effort to increase the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee through crossing strategy is time-consuming, and induce mutation is necessary to enhance the rate of genetic variation. The aims of this study were to observe the effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the growth of apical and axillary bud cuttings and to determine the value of LD50 on apical cuttings and Arabica coffee axillaries. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from January to December in 2018.. The planting material that was irradiated was Arabica coffee plantlets resulting from somatic embryogenesis propagation. Irradiation is carried out at the National Nuclear Energy Agency. The irradiated plantlets were cut and subcultured onto MS medium without growth regulators, 30 g L-1 sucrose, and 2.5 g L-1 phytagel were added. The design used a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The treatments tested were the dose of gamma-ray irradiation (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy). The results showed that gamma-ray irradiation had an effect on all observed parameters. The mortality percentage of apical shoot cuttings began to be found at 30 Gy, while axillary cuttings at 20 Gy increased with an increasing dose of gamma-ray irradiation. The number of shoots and leaves varied between irradiation doses on both apical and axillary cuttings. The LD50 value of apical shoot cuttings was 36.80 Gy, while axillary cuttings were 22.24 Gy
Iing Sobari, Sumadi Sumadi, Santi Rosniawaty, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 163-178; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p163-178

Abstract:
During the storage period, cocoa seeds undergo various processes that will affect the content of their food reserves and will have an impact on germination capacity and seeds vigor. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes of biochemical and vigor of cocoa seeds after storage for a maximum of 4 weeks with an interval of 1 week. The experiment was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory and Greenhouse of Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to December 2019. The completely randomized design with five treatments of seeds storage duration: (a) seeds unstored, (b) seeds stored for 1 week, (c) seeds stored for 2 weeks, (d) seeds stored for 3 weeks, and (e) seeds stored for 4 weeks, and five replications were used in this study. Parameters observed during seed storage were the biochemistry change of seeds and the percentage of germinated seeds, while during seed germination is an indicator of seed vigor. The results showed that storing cocoa seeds for 1-4 weeks decreased the fat content of the seeds, while the free fatty acids, protein, and percentage of germinated seeds increased. Until the 21st day after sowing, seed storage increases electrical conductivity but decreases growth rate, maximum growth potential, viability, and hypocotyl length. Seeds stored for one week still good in their vigor (viability of 80%), while seeds stored for 2-4 weeks have decreased their vigor (maximum viability of 54.4%).
Sakiroh Sakiroh, Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 73-82; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p73-82

Abstract:
Morphological characterization of superior Robusta coffee plants has been widely studied, but for the anatomical and physiological character is still relatively limited. Result of this characterization is important as a basic information in order to create the new superior varieties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of seven clones of Robusta coffee (SA 203, BP 534, BP 42, BP 409, BP 939, BP 308 and BP 436). The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to November 2019. The Completely Randomized Design with 7 Robusta coffee clones as treatments and three replications was used in this study. The variable observed were morphological (leaf area), anatomical (stomata shape and density) and physiological characters (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll). The results showed that the leaf area of the first and third leaves of seven clones of Robusta coffee were relatively uniform. The stomata shape of Robusta coffee leaf is parasitic type (Rubiaceous) type. The SA 203 and BP 409 clones have the fewest stomata contents. The content of chlorophyll a, b, and total in the first and third leaves varies between clones. Chlorophyll content in the basal, middle, and apical leaf were relatively uniform, except clones SA 203 and BP 939 for the first leaf, and SA 203 and BP 436 for third leaf. The correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between leaf area and chlorophyll content.
Ahmad Thoriq, Rizky Mulya Sampurno, Luthfie Hafidz Imaduddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p109-118

Abstract:
The development of specialty coffee roasted beans business and coffee roasting services is currently quite rapid, but often that the business is not based on the feasibility analysis. This study aims to analyze the feasibility level of the production of specialty coffee roasted beans and roasting service of coffee beans. This study was carried out beginning from November 2019 until February 2020 with case study method at Java Sumedang Coffee (JSC) in Genteng Village, Sukasari District, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. Primary data was collected based on test results and interviews directly with the business manager of JSC, while secondary data were obtained from published scientific articles. The results of this study show that with the use of a roasted machine for 5 hours per day or 1200 hours per year at an interest rate of 7% per year, the business of specialty roasted coffee beans production at JSC are feasible with an assumption of a minimum selling price of Rp.128,500/kg. The indicators of business feasibility are NPV (Net Present Value) Rp. 111,759,128.10; BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) of 1.02%; IRR (Internal Rate of Return) of 6.21%; capital returned in the 17th month. While, in the coffee bean roasting service business are feasible if the minimum roasting service cost is Rp. 14,000/kg, with feasibility indicators are NPV Rp. 112,286,86; BCR of 1.23; IRR of 6.25% per month; and PBP occurred in the 17th month.
Khaerati Khaerati, Gusti Indriati, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 93-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p93-108

Abstract:
The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is one of the main pests that cause yield losses in coffee plants. This pest directly attacks the coffee berries, both immature and ripe. The entomopathogenic fungi is one of the potential biological agents for CBB, environmentally friendly and does not kill non-target organisms. The study was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crop Research Institute, from June to October 2018. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of bioinsecticide based on entomopathogenic fungus of Talaromyces pinophilus (EFTP) and vegetable oil on CBB. The completely randomized design with 31 treatments and 3 replications was used in this study. The 31th of treatments consisted of 9 formulas of bioinsecticide based on EFTP and vegetable oil, control-positive (bioinsecticide based on EFTP and water), and control- negative (Klorpirifos insecticide). Variables observed were the activities of EFTP enzyme, effectiveness of vegetable oil as a carrier material, mortality of CBB beetles, percentage of CBB attacks, percentage of hollow berries, and number of holes per 10 coffee berries. Results showed that the formula of bioinsecticide based on EFTP produce the chitinase and protease enzymes which were potential as biological agents to control CBB in vitro. Soybean oil is the most effective as a carrier material in formulating EFTP. The formula of S69MK30 and S79MK20 in concentration of 7.50% respectively have the highest potential as biological agents to control CBB. Other potential formula is S69MKT30 in concentration of 7.50%.
Nanda Supriana, Usman Ahmad, Samsudin Samsudin, Eko Heri Purwanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 61-72; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p61-72

Abstract:
The processing of coffee can be classified into 3 types namely: dry, semi-wet and wet processing. And then, roasting is the process of forming the taste and aroma of coffee. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Coffee and Cacao Processing Units, and Integrated Laboratory of Balittri, and TTPHP Laboratory of IPB Bogor, from July until October 2019. The study aimed to investigate (1) the effect of processing methods on physical quality characters of green beans, and (2) the effect of processing methods and roasting temperatures on chemical characters of coffee roasted and organoleptic characters of coffee brewed. The completely randomized design in factorial 2 factors and 3 replications was used in this study. The first factor were 3 type of processing methods (dry, semi-wet, and wet), and the second factor were 2 level of roasting temperatures (180oC and 210oC). The variables observed in the green beans were physical quality characters, while in roasted coffee were water content, caffeine content, and antioxidant activity, and in brewed coffee were organoleptic characters. Result showed that the best green beans was produced from a wet processing method with a minimum total defect value of 21.33 (quality 2). Roasting temperature has a very significant effect (p<0.01) on water content and antioxidant activity, while caffeine content is not significantly affected. Based on the results of cupping test, the best brewed coffee (final score >80.00) was obtained from the treatments of a dry, semi-wet and wet processing method with a roasting temperature of 210°C.
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