Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

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ISSN / EISSN : 2356-1297 / 2528-7222
Total articles ≅ 132
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Wartono Wartono, Efi Taufiq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 49-58; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p49-58

Abstract:
Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) is a major obstacle in cocoa cultivation worldwide. The study aimed to determine the morphological character and pathogenicity of P. palmivora Pakuwon isolate. The study was carried out from November 2020 to January 2021, which consisted of 3 activities e.g. (1) pathogen isolation, tests on growth rate and colony formation, and stimulation of sporangia, zoospore, and clamydospore formation, which was performed in CMA, PDA, and mung bean media. The parameters observed were colony shape, growth rate, shape and size of sporangia, papillae, and sporangiophores, also chlamydospore and hyphal diameters; (2) To determine the possibility of different mating types, two isolates were grown on CMA medium in one petri dish; (3) The pathogenicity test, using a detached fruit assay by inoculating the cocoa pods with mycelium plug and zoospores. The patogenicity test was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications, and the parameter observed was the area of the spot. The isolation obtained 3 isolates, the mycelium of all three isolates showed white in color, cottony, and no pattern in shape. The diameters of hyphae and chlamydospores were 5.6 - 6.3 mm and 39.0 - 43.2 mm, respectively. The sporangia were ovoid, ellipsoid, subsperic, obpyriform, and irregular. Sporangia measured 5.6 - 60.1 mm in length and 30.4 - 32.9 mm in width. Papillae were obviously visible with an average length of 6.8 mm. Test on mating types showed no oospores formed. PPkw1 isolates showed higher growth rates and more pathogenic than PPkw2 and PPkw3. The difference of pathogenicity of each P. palmivora isolates originated from Pakuwon can be used for selection of cocoa resistance in the future.
Elsera Br Tarigan, Edi Wardiana, Handi Supriadi
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 37-48; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p37-48

Abstract:
Coffee is a beverage that is widely consumed around the world. Proper packaging and storage temperature may extend shelf life of ground coffee. The study aimed to analyze the shelf life of ground Arabica coffee stored in different packaging types and temperature, conducted at smallholder coffee plantations in Garut Regency and the Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from June to August 2018. A completely randomized design in factorial was used with 3 factors and 2 replications. The first factor was the packaging type which consisted of 3 types: thick alumunium foil 65m (AF65), thick alumunium foil 130m (AF130), and thick lamination 114m (L144). The second factor was the storage temperature which consisted of 3 levels: 25 oC, 35 oC, and 45 oC, while the third factor was the storage period which consisted of 5 levels: coffee unstored, and coffee stored for 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks. The variables observed were the water and fat content, and the analysis of shelf life was carried out using the ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Test) method. The results showed that during storage, the water content increased, whereas the fat content decreased. Fat content is a critical variable in determining the shelf life of coffee. The coffee in AF130 packaging has longer shelf life than in AF65 and L144. To extend the shelf life of coffee packaged in AF130 and L144 is best kept at 45 oC whereas coffee in AF65 packaging is ideally at 25 oC.
Ika Ferry Yunianti, I.D.A Yona Aprianthina, Rina Kartikawati, Eni Yulianingsih
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 9-18; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p9-18

Abstract:
Coffee is a commodity that has an important role in the national economy. Currently, coffee cultivation is threatened by climate change caused by global warming due to increased green house gas (GHG) emissions. The organic plantation model is a farming model that is considered to increase soil and crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration effectively. The study was aimed to estimate GHG emissions and carbon stocks in organic and conventional coffee plantations in Badung Regency, Bali Province and Laboratory in Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Pati, Jawa Tengah Province, in July 2018. The study was conducted in smallholder coffee plantations in Badung Regency and the analysis was carried out at Laboratory of Indonesian Agricultural Environtment Research Institute. This study used a survey method, while the sampling used a purposive sampling method in organic and conventional coffee plantation. GHG emissions measurement was carried out with a close chamber method by simultaneously the carbon stocks measurement was carried out with the non-destructive method for plant biomass and destructive for understorey. The results showed that organic and conventional coffee plantations emitted GHG by 20.71 and 39.75 ton CO2e ha-1 and stored carbon stock by 227.56 and 288.31 ton CO2e ha-1, respectively. The differences in GHG emissions and carbon stocks are partly due to differences in management system and the diversity of plant. The management system of the organic coffee plantation should be improved to support handling of the impacts of climate change in Bali Province.
Muhammad Rifqi Maulid, Eko Heri Purwanto, Efri Mardawati, Budi Mandra Harahap, Saefudin Saefudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 19-36; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p19-36

Abstract:
Quality and techno-economic improvement is important to increase export value of coffee in Indonesia. Complex roasting is one excellent method in increasing the added value of coffee, such as Coffea arabica var. Sigarar Utang which is the best coffee variety in Indonesia. The study was carried out at The Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, West Java, from January to November 2020 which aimed: (1) to evaluate the effect of initial temperature and roasting degree on the quality of Sigarar Utang coffee bean, and (2) to evaluate the mass balance and economic feasibility of the best roasting treatment. This study was designed in a factorial completely randomized design, using 2 factors, and 2 replications. The first factor was the initial temperature which consisted of 2 levels (185 oC dan 210 oC), and the second factor was the roasting degree which consisted of 2 levels (light-medium and medium-dark). The variables observed were the water content, ash content, bulk density, brix, titratable acidity, pH, radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, and caffeine content. The results showed that the complex roasting method with an initial temperature of 210 oC and mild-moderate roasting degrees generated a quality of Sigarar Utang coffee originating from Gunung Putri, IIBCRI, closest to the quality I of SNI 01-3542-2004. The roasted coffee beans have a special taste (score 86.51) which is a high added value. The production economic value is feasible to be adopted by small-medium scale coffee industry.
Efi Taufiq, Gusti Indriati, Rita Harni, Dibyo Pranowo
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 1-8; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p1-8

Abstract:
Leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix) is commonly controlled using synthetic fungicides. Plant oils and extracts are expected to reduce the pathogen. The research aimed to determine the effectiveness of clove, Reutealis trisperma, and neem oils, and Ageratum conyzoides extract against H. vastatrix. The study was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute and smallholder coffee plantation in Garut, West Java, from January to December 2018. The A. conyzoides were extracted in the laboratories. Plant oils and extract's effectiveness was tested in vitro against the germination of urediniospore and in a greenhouse to inhibit disease development. The in vitro experiment were evaluated the eight concentrations of extract and oil were: 0 (steril water), 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000, and 5000 ppm. Whereas, in the greenhouse experiments used three concentrations of 1000, 2500, and 5000 ppm of the extract and oil, and 2000 ppm of Mankozeb (positive control). The greenhouse test was carried out on Arabica coffee plants, completely randomized design and five replications. The number of spots, disease intensity, and plant growth were examined periodically. The results showed that all of the the extract and oil inhibited the urediniospores germination, and the most effective concentrations were 500 ppm, 3000 ppm, and 5000 ppm. A. conyzoides extract, and clove oil effectively suppressed the infection of H. vastatrix by 75.99% and 64.00%, respectively, and comparable to the synthetic fungicide (68.00%).
Ei Mon Kyaw, I Wayan Budiastra, Sutrisno Sutrisno, Samsudin Samsudin, Dheni Mita Mala
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p119-126

Abstract:
Liberica is one of coffee species that is becoming popular and increasingly in demand in present days due to its unique characteristics. Caffeine is one of the important coffee quality parameter which determines the coffee flavor, consumer preference and market price. Caffeine content is usually analyzed by chemical method which is destructive, time consuming, expensive and involving a lot of procedures. NIR Spectroscopy is one of the non-destructive techniques to overcome these disadvantages. This study was conducted at the Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering, IPB University for NIR measurement and the Center of Agro-based Industry (BBIA), Bogor for chemical analysis from August to November 2019. The study aimed to determine the best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content in Liberica coffee green bean powder. In this study, FT-NIRS in the wavelength of 1000-2500 nm was used for NIR measurement and HPLC tool was used for chemical analysis. Kubelka-Munk (K/S) and Absorbance (Log 1/R) were used as data transformation, whereas Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) as data pretreatment. In addition, Partial Least Square (PLS) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were applied for multivariate calibration method. The best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content of Liberica coffee green bean powder was obtained by the spectral data pretreated with second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) and Kubelka-Munk data transformation using PLS calibration method with the results of r = 0.90, RPD = 2.24, CV = 2.01%.
Andika Herianto Simarmata, Kralawi Sita, Totok Herwanto, Ahmad Thoriq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 149-162; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p149-162

Abstract:
Application of tea harvest mechanization can increase work productivity, cost efficiency, and reduce the amount of starch loss in tea leaves. The problem is that the harvester machines that are operated in most tea plantations in Indonesia are imported. The harvester machine operators have the potential to experience skeletal, muscular, and peripheral nerve disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). This study aims to evaluate the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai tea leaf harvester machine based on operator anthropometry and to find the operator's working posture during the tea picking process that needs immediate improvement. Anthropometric data were collected through measurements of the operator's body dimensions, while biomechanical data were collected through video recordings of the work-movements of all operators in operating the machine with a land slope of 5o – 10oand a land slope of 35o–40o at a plant height of 75 cm to 110 cm. Data analysis was performed using the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) and OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis) methods. The results showed that the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai engine was in accordance with the operator's anthropometry. The results of REBA analysis show that there is a high work risk when operating the harvester machine, namely in the land conditions with a slope of 35o – 40o with a plant height above 100 cm and when moving the sacks of the harvest to a temporary shelter. Meanwhile, according to the results of the OWAS analysis, it is necessary to take corrective action as soon as possible, namely the position of operator 3 and operator 4 and it is necessary to change the position of operator 1 and operator 2. Based on the results of the REBA and OWAS analysis, it is better if the operator’s work shift changes in machine operation with the slope of the land 35o – 40o.
Rita Harni, Khaerati Khaerati, Rita Noveriza, Sri Yuliani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 127-136; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p127-136

Abstract:
Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora is a significant disease on cocoa crops worldwide. Citronella and geraniol are two dominant substances of citronella oil that have fungicidal activity, which is potentially used to control black pod disease. However, those two substances are relatively unstable form volatile. To improve stability can be done using nanotechnology. The study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of citronella-oil-nanoemulsions formulas on the growth of P. palmivora in vitro and on cocoa pods. Eight nano formulas were prepared at the Postharvest Center in Bogor; however, the effectiveness was conducted at the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute in Sukabumi. The nano formula was prepared following spontaneous, simultaneous, and inversion methods. The experiments were designed in a completely randomized design, with five replications. Eight treatments were evaluated, i.e., the inversion formulas (F1, F2, F5 & F7), spontaneous (F3, F6 & F8), and simultaneous (F4). Two concentration levels of the formula were tested, i.e., 0.5% for in vitro and 1.0% in cacao pods. The variables observed were the inhibition rate of formula, bioassay, concentration, and inhibition rate on cacao pods. The nanoemulsion formulas of citronella oil could inhibit 23.13%–77.78% of the growth of P. palmivora. Formula F5 was the best, which inhibited 77.78% growth in vitro and 31.60% in cacao pods. The nanoemulsions of citronella oil affected the growth rate, fresh weight, and dry weight of P. palmivora. For better effectiveness of the formula on cocoa pods, the concentration should be increased.
Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 137-148; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p137-148

Abstract:
The Arabica coffee is predominantly self-pollinated plants thereby contributing to low genetic diversity. The effort to increase the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee through crossing strategy is time-consuming, and induce mutation is necessary to enhance the rate of genetic variation. The aims of this study were to observe the effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the growth of apical and axillary bud cuttings and to determine the value of LD50 on apical cuttings and Arabica coffee axillaries. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from January to December in 2018.. The planting material that was irradiated was Arabica coffee plantlets resulting from somatic embryogenesis propagation. Irradiation is carried out at the National Nuclear Energy Agency. The irradiated plantlets were cut and subcultured onto MS medium without growth regulators, 30 g L-1 sucrose, and 2.5 g L-1 phytagel were added. The design used a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The treatments tested were the dose of gamma-ray irradiation (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy). The results showed that gamma-ray irradiation had an effect on all observed parameters. The mortality percentage of apical shoot cuttings began to be found at 30 Gy, while axillary cuttings at 20 Gy increased with an increasing dose of gamma-ray irradiation. The number of shoots and leaves varied between irradiation doses on both apical and axillary cuttings. The LD50 value of apical shoot cuttings was 36.80 Gy, while axillary cuttings were 22.24 Gy
Iing Sobari, Sumadi Sumadi, Santi Rosniawaty, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 163-178; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p163-178

Abstract:
During the storage period, cocoa seeds undergo various processes that will affect the content of their food reserves and will have an impact on germination capacity and seeds vigor. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes of biochemical and vigor of cocoa seeds after storage for a maximum of 4 weeks with an interval of 1 week. The experiment was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory and Greenhouse of Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to December 2019. The completely randomized design with five treatments of seeds storage duration: (a) seeds unstored, (b) seeds stored for 1 week, (c) seeds stored for 2 weeks, (d) seeds stored for 3 weeks, and (e) seeds stored for 4 weeks, and five replications were used in this study. Parameters observed during seed storage were the biochemistry change of seeds and the percentage of germinated seeds, while during seed germination is an indicator of seed vigor. The results showed that storing cocoa seeds for 1-4 weeks decreased the fat content of the seeds, while the free fatty acids, protein, and percentage of germinated seeds increased. Until the 21st day after sowing, seed storage increases electrical conductivity but decreases growth rate, maximum growth potential, viability, and hypocotyl length. Seeds stored for one week still good in their vigor (viability of 80%), while seeds stored for 2-4 weeks have decreased their vigor (maximum viability of 54.4%).
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