Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar
ISSN / EISSN : 23561297 / 25287222
Current Publisher: Jurnal Informatika Pertanian (10.21082)
Total articles ≅ 110
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 99-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p99-108
Analysis of combining ability and correlation between characters in cacao plays an important role and benefits in an effort to obtain superior high-yield genetic material. This analysis makes it easy to find out the best combination of parents in producing superior progeny. The study aimed to analyze the combining ability and correlation of cacao pod numbers in F1 population generated from half-diallel crossing. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 m above sea level with Latosol soil type and B climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), from 2014 until 2018. The experiment was arranged using a randomized block design (RBD) with 10 combinations of half-diallel crossing method that were repeated three times. The parental genotypes used were ICCRI 03, TSH 858, DR 1, ICS 13, and SCA 6. The variables observed were the number of healthy pods, number of rotten pods, number of cherelle wilts, and total pod numbers. The combining ability was analyzed using the Griffing 4 method, while correlation analysis was carried out phenotypically and genotypically.The results showed the action of non-additive genes in the F1 generation and three combinations of crosses, namely ICCRI 03 x TSH 858, TSH 858 x DR 1, and ICS 13 x SCA 6 had the opportunity to be developed into superior hybrids. In addition, it is known that there were phenotypic and genotypic positive correlations between the observed pod component characters.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p109-118
Vascular streak dieback (VSD) caused by Ceratobasidium theobromae is a major disease in cacao which results in yield losses up to 45%. Controlling VSD using secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide is expected to reduce disease attacks because secondary metabolites contain antibiotics, enzymes, and toxins that can control the disease and botanical fungicide that are antifungal. The research aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide to control VSD in cacao. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, IIBCRI, Sukabumi, Biotechnology Laboratory, BPPT, Serpong and farmer gardens in Rahmat Village, Palolo District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi, from March to December 2017. The research used a randomized block design of 7 treatments with 3 replications; each replication consists of 10 plants. The treatments were: (1) Trichoderma virens LP1, (2) T. amazonicum LP3, (3) botanical fungicide, (4) T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide, (5) T. amazonicum LP3 + botanical fungicide, (6) chemical fungicide (for comparison), (7) control (without application). Variables observed were the symptoms of the attack, severity and disease progression, and production. The results showed that Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites suppress VSD disease severity and increase cacao production up to 33.97%–61.34%, either in a single form or in combination with botanical fungicide. T. virens LP1 secondary metabolite showed the highest suppression of VSD disease (54.18%), followed by the combination of T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide (47.64%), better than chemical fungicide (30.89%). Thus, Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites can be used as a VSD control technology.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p119-126
Arabica coffee is a perennial crop hence it has a long selection cycle. Therefore, efforts to shorten the selection process is necessary, such as at seedling stage. This study aims to identify morpho-physiological characters variability among Arabica coffee cultivars at seedling stage. The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Garden of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to October 2017. Seeds collected from open pollinated trees of four arabica coffee cultivars (Ateng Super, P88, Gayo 1, and Gayo 2) were then sown on seedbed and newly-emerged cotyledonous seedlings were transferred immediately into polyethylene bag (polybag). Seedlings were arranged in randomized complete block with 5 replications, each consisted of 10 seedlings of each cultivar. Morpho-physiological characters observed and analyzed were shoot (plant height, lateral shoot formation, number of internodes, internode length, stem diameter, shoot’s dry weight); leaves (number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, L/W ratio, leaf area, stomata density , chlorophyll content); and root (root length, number of primary roots, root volume, root’s dry weight, root/shoot ratio). The result showed value of genetic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), and broad sense heritability (h2bs) of plant height characters are classified as high, each of which is 21.66%; 23.66%; and 0.84, respectively. The characters of the stem length and leaf width showed high h2bs value (0.97 and 0.67 respectively), while the KKG and KKF values were classified as moderate (19.60% and 19.88%, respectively and 10.71% and 13.10%, respectively). Those three characters could be utilized as distincitive markers of the four Arabica coffee cultivars.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 127-134; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p127-134
Candlenut [Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.] is a perrenial plant that has high economic value. Information about vegetative and generative characters, as well as yield components that influence the yield is needed in the early stages of selection process in plant breeding. Selection of these characters can be done using Sequential Path Analysis (SPA) according to the plant development cycle, and then confirm the model using the Structural equation modeling (SEM) method. The aim of this study was to determine the vegetative characters and yield components that influence the candlenut production. The research was carried out at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to December 2018. Plant materials used in this study was 129 candlenut trees at 9 years old which were planted with a spacing of 10m x 10m. The data were analyzed using SPA followed by model confirmation using SEM method. The results showed that the production of seed was directly and positively influenced by the leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, seed weight, and number of fruits per tree, while the effect of stem height character is indirectly. Based on these results, plant selection based on vegetative characters such as leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, stem height character, number of fruits per tree and seed weight can be used to obtain high-yielding candlenut plants.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 135-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p135-144
Sustainable standards and certification can encourage coffee farmers to adopt good agricultural practices (GAP), achieving coffee production that is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. The Common Code for Coffee Community (4C) is a standard and certification scheme currently exists in Robusta coffee production center in Lampung Province. However, sustainable standard and certification become less relevant without farmers’ participation. Farmers’ participation in standards and certification has been relatively low and studies on the issue are relatively rare. This study aims to analyze the determinants of farmer’s participation in 4C Standards and Certification. The study was conducted in West Lampung and Tanggamus Ragency, Lampung Province from February to May 2019. The total number of respondents was 120 people (4C certified farmers and non-certified farmers) surveyed with a systematic-random-sampling method. Data was analyzed using heckprobit regression. The results showed that farmer participation in 4C was determined by the selling price of coffee, farmers’ side job, farmers' preference to replace coffee with other commodities, and the farmers’ group activity. The results indicated that 4C and coffee stakeholders at national scale need to consider policies on how to improve coffee price, optimizing the farmer organizations, and the added-value of coffee production.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 89-98; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p89-98
Container culture have an important role in determining the success of in vitro culture since it will affect the development of culture, such as the formation of embryonic structures. The study aimed to determine the effect of culture container types on cacao somatic embryogenesis. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Superior Seed Development Unit of IAARD, Bogor, from April to September 2016. The tests were conducted on the effect of container and explant types as well as the effect of container types and genotypes. The effects of container and explant types were tested using callus induced from petal and staminoid explants of Sca 6, whereas the effects of container types and genotypes were tested using callus induced from petal explants of Sca 6 and ICCRI 4. Afterwards, the somatic embryos were induced using petri dishes or culture bottles according to treatment. The results showed no significant interaction between container and explant types on the average percentage of the formation and number of somatic embryos (10.28% embryos/explants in culture bottles and 7.89% embryos/explants in petri dishes). Meanwhile, there was significant interaction between genotypes and container types in the initial period of somatic embryos formation (15 and 18 weeks after culture), but the effect was not significant in the final period of observation (21 weeks after culture). The results indicate that culture bottles, which have lower prices, can be used to replace petri dishes to induce the formation of somatic embryos in cacao.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 61-68; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p61-68
Pruning on tea plants is an ecophysiological manipulation to initiate the growth of new shoots as the formation of pecco shoots. Cytokinin, one of which is benzyl amino purine (BAP), is a growth regulator that can be applied to stimulate shoot initiation after being pruned. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pruning and cytokinin application on the growth and yield of tea. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Tea and Quinine Research Center, Gambung at an altitude of 1250 m above sea level (asl), from June to August 2018. Plant material used in this study was a 7-year-old GMB 7 clone. The exerimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of eight treatment combinations with four replications and contained 32 experimental units. The treatments used were clean and jambul/ajir pruning, 40 cm and 60 cm pruning height and BAP concentration. The variable observed were number of pecco shoots, number of banji shoots, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots. The results showed that the combination of type and height of pruning with the BAP application affected the number of pecco and banji shoots on the third picking, but did not affect the fresh and dry weight of shoots. The treatment of clean and jambul/ajir pruning at 60 cm height and added with BAP application at 60 ppm exhibited the best treatment in producing the number of shoots and reduce the number of banji shoots.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 51-60; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p51-60
Indonesia is the third largest cocoa producer in the world after Ivory Coast and Ghana. Central Sulawesi is a center of Indonesian cocoa commodity, yet has low improvement. This is presumably due to the lack of support of farmer institutions that were formed not based on farmers' needs or the interests of farmers. The objectives of this study were to: (1) analyze the level of institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province, and (2) analyze the role and strategy of increasing institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province. The study was conducted in four districts in Central Sulawesi Province: Poso, Sigi, Morowali Utara and Donggala Regencies. The research sample was 380 farmers. To describe the research variables used descriptive statistical analysis in the frequency table and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that most farmers (70.2%–98.7%) assessed that institutional support in the contexts of marketing, capital, processing, and technical guidance were relatively low so it tended to be less conducive to increasing farmers' independence. The institutional role of those four contexts was also low categoryzed (26.6–43.0) so that it needs serious attention in an effort to increase the weak independence of farmers.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 69-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p69-78
Coffee leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix) causes large damage to Arabica coffee plantation in Asia, Africa, and America. In Indonesia, particularly in North Sumatra, the resistance level of Arabica coffee genotypes is still unknown. The objective of this research was to determine the resistance variability of Arabica coffee genotypes to leaf rust disease and its relation to leaf morphology. A total of 84 genotypes grown in North Sumatra were selected in November 2015 and 2016, and December 2017 using a nested design. Data were analyzed using nested design, correlation, stepwise regression, and cluster hierarchy analysis. The result showed that the G56 genotype performed the most resistant to leaf rust disease, with a severity of 5.21%. The severity of leaf rust disease has high genotypic variation, low heritability, and high genetic advance. Leaf morphological ratios showed moderate to high genotypic variation and heritability. The severity of leaf rust (y) significantly correlated with the ratio of leaf length to leaf area (x1) and the ratio of leaf length to leaf width (x2) with the equation y = 2.04 + 62.48x1 - 3.95x2, and multiple correlation coefficients R = 0.470 **. By using the leaf rust severity and the two ratios in the cluster analysis, these 84 genotypes were grouped into five clusters. The result showed that several Arabica coffee genotypes with a high level of resistance to leaf rust disease are potential to be further developed.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 79-88; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p79-88
Macadamia can be propagated using seeds. However, the seed is difficult to germinate due to shell hardness. This study aimed to determine the proper combination of seed scarification needed to break the seed coat using rotational soaking and drying at varied temperatures. The experiment was conducted at Manoko Experimental Station and BPTP of West Java from December 2018 to April 2019, used a Randomized Complete Block Design in 15 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were: (1) water soak (WS) 24oC+drying 35oC; (2) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (3) WS 50oC ( first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (4) WS 35oC everyday+drying 35oC; (5) WS 50oC everyday+drying 35oC; (6) WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (7) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (8) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (9) WS 35oC everyday+drying 40oC; (10) WS 50oC every day+drying 40oC; (11) WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (12) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (13) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (14) WS 35oC everyday+drying 45oC; and (15) WS 50oC everyday+drying 45oC. Variable observed were moisture content of seeds, rate and percentage of seeds cracking, and length of seeds radicle. The results showed that alternating temperature during soaking and drying affected seed scarification. The fastest seed breaking rate is 3.27 days in soaking at 50oC everyday for 18 hours, with 45oC drying temperature for 6 hours, the percentage of seed breaking reached 87.67%.