Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar
ISSN / EISSN : 2356-1297 / 2528-7222
Current Publisher: Jurnal Informatika Pertanian (10.21082)
Total articles ≅ 121
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 83-92; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p83-92
Coffee is one of the flagship commodities in the international export market. Its function is important to the economy and encourages the development of world Agroindustries. The coffee beans physical and coffee flavor are the important components influenced by the genetic nature of plants, cultivation practices and growing environments and the interaction between these factors. The research aimed to detemine the beans physical quality and flavor of Gayo Arabica coffee Geographical Indications (GIs) based on the different altitudes. The research was conducted in Gayo Highlands, Aceh Tengah and Bener Meriah Districts. The stratified sampling method was conducted at an altitude of 1,000-1,500 masl (meter above sea level) and 1,500-1,750 masl, the land suitability classification included as S1 and S2 respectively. The variables observed were beans physical quality (weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans and value of defects) and flavor profile. Data were analyzed by independent sample t-test. The results showed that there were differences in the average weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans between S1 and S2 altitudes, but the defect value did not differ significantly. The other results showed that the coffee flavor profile of Arabica Gayo GIs in both districts and altitudes has a total score of 82.75-85.25 points and categorically as specialty coffee (excellent). In general, the S2 altitude of Gayo highland produces a physical quality of 100 Arabica coffee beans and flavor better than the S1 altitude.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 53-60; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p53-60
The estimated value of genotype variability, phenotype variability, environmental variability, and heritability have an important role in breeding activities of tea in order to create the superior varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic performance, genotype and phenotype variation, and heritability value of nine genotypes of tea. The study was conducted at Pemandangan block, Tambi Plantation Unit, Wonosobo, Central Java, from April 2013 until April 2014. The Randomized Complete Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments and three replications was used in this study. The 9th of treatments consisted of 2 genotypes of tea resulting from a cross (GMB 3 and GMB 4), 2 introduced genotypes (TRI 2024 and TRI 2025), and 5 local genotypes resulting from selection (Cin 143, Kiara 8, RB 3, Tambi 1, and Tambi 2). The results showed that the genotype of GMB 3 more higher than other genotypes in pecco length, leaf length, leaf width, length of leaf stalk, and length of leaf internodes characters, whereas Tambi 2, GMB 3, and GMB 4 more higher in fresh weight of P+2 and P+3. The production of fresh shoot of GMB 4 more higher than the other genotypes, but not significant with GMB 3 and RB 3. The leaf length and fresh shoot production characters has a wide of genotype and phenotype variability, whereas the high of heritability value were found in all characters observed. The selection based on leaf length and fresh shoot production characters will be effective because both characters have a high genotypes variability and heritability.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 73-82; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p73-82
Morphological characterization of superior Robusta coffee plants has been widely studied, but for the anatomical and physiological character is still relatively limited. Result of this characterization is important as a basic information in order to create the new superior varieties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of seven clones of Robusta coffee (SA 203, BP 534, BP 42, BP 409, BP 939, BP 308 and BP 436). The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to November 2019. The Completely Randomized Design with 7 Robusta coffee clones as treatments and three replications was used in this study. The variable observed were morphological (leaf area), anatomical (stomata shape and density) and physiological characters (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll). The results showed that the leaf area of the first and third leaves of seven clones of Robusta coffee were relatively uniform. The stomata shape of Robusta coffee leaf is parasitic type (Rubiaceous) type. The SA 203 and BP 409 clones have the fewest stomata contents. The content of chlorophyll a, b, and total in the first and third leaves varies between clones. Chlorophyll content in the basal, middle, and apical leaf were relatively uniform, except clones SA 203 and BP 939 for the first leaf, and SA 203 and BP 436 for third leaf. The correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between leaf area and chlorophyll content.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p109-118
The development of specialty coffee roasted beans business and coffee roasting services is currently quite rapid, but often that the business is not based on the feasibility analysis. This study aims to analyze the feasibility level of the production of specialty coffee roasted beans and roasting service of coffee beans. This study was carried out beginning from November 2019 until February 2020 with case study method at Java Sumedang Coffee (JSC) in Genteng Village, Sukasari District, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. Primary data was collected based on test results and interviews directly with the business manager of JSC, while secondary data were obtained from published scientific articles. The results of this study show that with the use of a roasted machine for 5 hours per day or 1200 hours per year at an interest rate of 7% per year, the business of specialty roasted coffee beans production at JSC are feasible with an assumption of a minimum selling price of Rp.128,500/kg. The indicators of business feasibility are NPV (Net Present Value) Rp. 111,759,128.10; BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) of 1.02%; IRR (Internal Rate of Return) of 6.21%; capital returned in the 17th month. While, in the coffee bean roasting service business are feasible if the minimum roasting service cost is Rp. 14,000/kg, with feasibility indicators are NPV Rp. 112,286,86; BCR of 1.23; IRR of 6.25% per month; and PBP occurred in the 17th month.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 93-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p93-108
The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is one of the main pests that cause yield losses in coffee plants. This pest directly attacks the coffee berries, both immature and ripe. The entomopathogenic fungi is one of the potential biological agents for CBB, environmentally friendly and does not kill non-target organisms. The study was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crop Research Institute, from June to October 2018. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of bioinsecticide based on entomopathogenic fungus of Talaromyces pinophilus (EFTP) and vegetable oil on CBB. The completely randomized design with 31 treatments and 3 replications was used in this study. The 31th of treatments consisted of 9 formulas of bioinsecticide based on EFTP and vegetable oil, control-positive (bioinsecticide based on EFTP and water), and control- negative (Klorpirifos insecticide). Variables observed were the activities of EFTP enzyme, effectiveness of vegetable oil as a carrier material, mortality of CBB beetles, percentage of CBB attacks, percentage of hollow berries, and number of holes per 10 coffee berries. Results showed that the formula of bioinsecticide based on EFTP produce the chitinase and protease enzymes which were potential as biological agents to control CBB in vitro. Soybean oil is the most effective as a carrier material in formulating EFTP. The formula of S69MK30 and S79MK20 in concentration of 7.50% respectively have the highest potential as biological agents to control CBB. Other potential formula is S69MKT30 in concentration of 7.50%.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 61-72; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p61-72
The processing of coffee can be classified into 3 types namely: dry, semi-wet and wet processing. And then, roasting is the process of forming the taste and aroma of coffee. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Coffee and Cacao Processing Units, and Integrated Laboratory of Balittri, and TTPHP Laboratory of IPB Bogor, from July until October 2019. The study aimed to investigate (1) the effect of processing methods on physical quality characters of green beans, and (2) the effect of processing methods and roasting temperatures on chemical characters of coffee roasted and organoleptic characters of coffee brewed. The completely randomized design in factorial 2 factors and 3 replications was used in this study. The first factor were 3 type of processing methods (dry, semi-wet, and wet), and the second factor were 2 level of roasting temperatures (180oC and 210oC). The variables observed in the green beans were physical quality characters, while in roasted coffee were water content, caffeine content, and antioxidant activity, and in brewed coffee were organoleptic characters. Result showed that the best green beans was produced from a wet processing method with a minimum total defect value of 21.33 (quality 2). Roasting temperature has a very significant effect (p<0.01) on water content and antioxidant activity, while caffeine content is not significantly affected. Based on the results of cupping test, the best brewed coffee (final score >80.00) was obtained from the treatments of a dry, semi-wet and wet processing method with a roasting temperature of 210°C.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 29-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p29-38
Availability of inexpensive and efficient tissue culture methods is needed in the development of mass propagation methods. The efficiency can be obtained through the use of low cost media components such as granulated sugar. The study aimed to determine the efficiency of cacao somatic embryo development medium using granulated sugar and its effect on somatic embryo formation. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory for Superior Seed Development, IAARD, Bogor, from March to October 2016. Formation and maturation of somatic embryos was conducted using DKW medium without growth regulators. The treatments tested were carbon sources in the media (laboratory grade sucrose; a mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar with a ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3; granulated sugar) and cacao genotypes (Sca 6 and ICCRI 4). The study used in a randomized complete block design in factorial 2 favtors with 8 replications, which consisted of 10 explants per experimental unit. The results showed that carbon sources and genotypes significantly affected somatic embryos formation, whereas the interaction effect was not significant. The use of granulated sugar 30 g/l produced approximately 35.3% of somatic embryo formation and 3.5 somatic embryos per explant, which is not significantly different from sucrose 30 g/l (31.1% and 4.1), whereas the mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar produced the lowest average percentage of somatic embryo formation and the number of somatic embryos per explant (20.3%, 18.8%, 17.8% and 1.5; 2.2; 2.8 respectively). The low-cost somatic embryogenesis method was successfully developed with an efficiency of 98.8% per liter of media.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 39-52; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p39-52
The growth of cacao in acid soils is commonly limited by some problems such as low available P and pH, and high Al saturation. Therefore, research is needed to solve the problem of coffee cultivation in acid soil. This study aimed to determine the effect of ameliorant, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM), and phosphate fertilizers (P) on the growth and nutrient uptake of cacao seedlings, and some acid soil properties. The study used a randomized block design with 3 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was ameliorant applications (without ameliorant, 10% organic fertilizer, 4% rice husk biochar, 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer). The second factor was PSM applications: without PSM, Burkholderia ambifaria (BPF) inoculants, and Aspergillus niger (FPF) inoculants. The third factor was P fertilizers applications (without Phosphate Rock (PR), 100, 200, and 400 mg P/kg of PR, and 400 mg P/kg of SP-36). The results showed that the applications of 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer + BPF or FPF inoculants increase the number of leaves by 77.9% and 69.2%, respectively, and increase the dry weight of shoot by 93.6 % and 101.9%, respectively. Phosphate rock application in media without organic fertilizer increases dry weight of shoots and roots of cacao seedlings, and the uptake of P, Ca, and Mg in shoots linearly in line with the increase of PR dose to 400 mg P/kg. Application of rice husk biochar significantly increased the acid phosphatase activity of growing media. Meanwhile, organic fertilizer increased the soil pH, acid phosphatase and available P activity, and decreased Al-dd growing media.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 19-28; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p19-28
Seedling is an important process in preparing cocoa plant material. The growing medium must have sufficient nutrition and physical properties to enable cocoa seeds to grow well. Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) and biological charcoal (biochar) added into growing media were expected to increase the growth of cocoa seeds. The study aimed to determine the effect of AMF and biological charcoal on the growth of cocoa seeds. The randomized complete block design (RBD) in factorial 2 factors with three replications was used in this study. The first factor was AMF application consisted of two levels, namely: M0 = without AMF and M1 = application of 10 g/seedling AMF (100 spores/seedling). The second factor was the biochar application consisted of 5 factors namely: B0 = no biochar, B1 = 2% rice husk biochar, B2 = 4% rice husk biochar, B3 = 2% albizia wood biochar, and B4 = 4% albizia wood biochar. The variables observed were the height of seedling, number of leaves and stem diameter at 3, 4, 5 and 6 month after planting (MAP), leaf chlorophyll content, weight of dry cocoa seedling, and nutrient content in seedling media. The result showed that the application of AMF significantly affected the height of seedling at 3, 4, 5 and 6 MAP. While the application of biochar significantly affected the height and number of leaves of cacao seedlings.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 9-18; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p9-18
Ant (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) is one of the dominant groups of insects and has significant biological and ecological properties. The presence of ants in coffee plantations plays an important role as it functions as a predator. The study aimed to investigate the effect of coffee plantation agroecosystem on the diversity and abundance of ant species. The study was conducted from February to June 2018 at Pakuwon Experimental Station. The coffee plants were divided into 4 groups, based on their locations and agroecosystems, where each group consisted of 4 observation plots. Ants sampling were taken from 15 sample plants in each plot. Observation was conducted on ants found in the stems, leaves, twigs and fruits of coffee plants. The ants were taken for 5 to 10 minutes from each plant. The differences in coffee agroecosystem were grouped based on location, altitude, coffee species, shade plant, and vegetation around the observation site. The study found 59 ant morphospecies with a total of 2,535 individuals. The dominant ant was Dolichoderus sp1. There were 4 ant species that were found in all four locations, namely Camponotus sp1., Crematogaster sp1., Dolichoderus sp1., Polyrhachis sp1. which are predatory. The analysis result showed that different coffee agroecosystem affects diversity and abundance of ants.