Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar
ISSN / EISSN : 23561297 / 25287222
Current Publisher: Jurnal Informatika Pertanian (10.21082)
Total articles ≅ 95
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 89-98; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p89-98
Abstract:Container culture have an important role in determining the success of in vitro culture since it will affect the development of culture, such as the formation of embryonic structures. The study aimed to determine the effect of culture container types on cacao somatic embryogenesis. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Superior Seed Development Unit of IAARD, Bogor, from April to September 2016. The tests were conducted on the effect of container and explant types as well as the effect of container types and genotypes. The effects of container and explant types were tested using callus induced from petal and staminoid explants of Sca 6, whereas the effects of container types and genotypes were tested using callus induced from petal explants of Sca 6 and ICCRI 4. Afterwards, the somatic embryos were induced using petri dishes or culture bottles according to treatment. The results showed no significant interaction between container and explant types on the average percentage of the formation and number of somatic embryos (10.28% embryos/explants in culture bottles and 7.89% embryos/explants in petri dishes). Meanwhile, there was significant interaction between genotypes and container types in the initial period of somatic embryos formation (15 and 18 weeks after culture), but the effect was not significant in the final period of observation (21 weeks after culture). The results indicate that culture bottles, which have lower prices, can be used to replace petri dishes to induce the formation of somatic embryos in cacao.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 61-68; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p61-68
Abstract:Pruning on tea plants is an ecophysiological manipulation to initiate the growth of new shoots as the formation of pecco shoots. Cytokinin, one of which is benzyl amino purine (BAP), is a growth regulator that can be applied to stimulate shoot initiation after being pruned. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pruning and cytokinin application on the growth and yield of tea. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Tea and Quinine Research Center, Gambung at an altitude of 1250 m above sea level (asl), from June to August 2018. Plant material used in this study was a 7-year-old GMB 7 clone. The exerimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of eight treatment combinations with four replications and contained 32 experimental units. The treatments used were clean and jambul/ajir pruning, 40 cm and 60 cm pruning height and BAP concentration. The variable observed were number of pecco shoots, number of banji shoots, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots. The results showed that the combination of type and height of pruning with the BAP application affected the number of pecco and banji shoots on the third picking, but did not affect the fresh and dry weight of shoots. The treatment of clean and jambul/ajir pruning at 60 cm height and added with BAP application at 60 ppm exhibited the best treatment in producing the number of shoots and reduce the number of banji shoots.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 51-60; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p51-60
Abstract:Indonesia is the third largest cocoa producer in the world after Ivory Coast and Ghana. Central Sulawesi is a center of Indonesian cocoa commodity, yet has low improvement. This is presumably due to the lack of support of farmer institutions that were formed not based on farmers' needs or the interests of farmers. The objectives of this study were to: (1) analyze the level of institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province, and (2) analyze the role and strategy of increasing institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province. The study was conducted in four districts in Central Sulawesi Province: Poso, Sigi, Morowali Utara and Donggala Regencies. The research sample was 380 farmers. To describe the research variables used descriptive statistical analysis in the frequency table and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that most farmers (70.2%–98.7%) assessed that institutional support in the contexts of marketing, capital, processing, and technical guidance were relatively low so it tended to be less conducive to increasing farmers' independence. The institutional role of those four contexts was also low categoryzed (26.6–43.0) so that it needs serious attention in an effort to increase the weak independence of farmers.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 69-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p69-78
Abstract:Coffee leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix) causes large damage to Arabica coffee plantation in Asia, Africa, and America. In Indonesia, particularly in North Sumatra, the resistance level of Arabica coffee genotypes is still unknown. The objective of this research was to determine the resistance variability of Arabica coffee genotypes to leaf rust disease and its relation to leaf morphology. A total of 84 genotypes grown in North Sumatra were selected in November 2015 and 2016, and December 2017 using a nested design. Data were analyzed using nested design, correlation, stepwise regression, and cluster hierarchy analysis. The result showed that the G56 genotype performed the most resistant to leaf rust disease, with a severity of 5.21%. The severity of leaf rust disease has high genotypic variation, low heritability, and high genetic advance. Leaf morphological ratios showed moderate to high genotypic variation and heritability. The severity of leaf rust (y) significantly correlated with the ratio of leaf length to leaf area (x1) and the ratio of leaf length to leaf width (x2) with the equation y = 2.04 + 62.48x1 - 3.95x2, and multiple correlation coefficients R = 0.470 **. By using the leaf rust severity and the two ratios in the cluster analysis, these 84 genotypes were grouped into five clusters. The result showed that several Arabica coffee genotypes with a high level of resistance to leaf rust disease are potential to be further developed.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 79-88; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p79-88
Abstract:Macadamia can be propagated using seeds. However, the seed is difficult to germinate due to shell hardness. This study aimed to determine the proper combination of seed scarification needed to break the seed coat using rotational soaking and drying at varied temperatures. The experiment was conducted at Manoko Experimental Station and BPTP of West Java from December 2018 to April 2019, used a Randomized Complete Block Design in 15 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were: (1) water soak (WS) 24oC+drying 35oC; (2) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (3) WS 50oC ( first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (4) WS 35oC everyday+drying 35oC; (5) WS 50oC everyday+drying 35oC; (6) WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (7) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (8) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (9) WS 35oC everyday+drying 40oC; (10) WS 50oC every day+drying 40oC; (11) WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (12) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (13) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (14) WS 35oC everyday+drying 45oC; and (15) WS 50oC everyday+drying 45oC. Variable observed were moisture content of seeds, rate and percentage of seeds cracking, and length of seeds radicle. The results showed that alternating temperature during soaking and drying affected seed scarification. The fastest seed breaking rate is 3.27 days in soaking at 50oC everyday for 18 hours, with 45oC drying temperature for 6 hours, the percentage of seed breaking reached 87.67%.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p13-20
Abstract:Coffee is one of the strategic commodities in West Java for its important economic role in West Java. However, studies on coffee farming efficiency are still rarely found. Information on efficiency is critical because it affects the benefits the coffee farmers gain and its development program. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting the technical efficiency and technical efficiency level of Arabica Garut Kuning (AGK) coffee farming in Garut Regency, carried out from June to September 2016 using survey methods. Research location was determined by purposive sampling and 72 respondents were randomly chosen from Arabica coffee farmer population in Garut Regency. The data was analysed using stochastic frontier production, estimated by Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) method. The results showed that the factors influencing the technical efficiency of coffee farming are land area, use of Urea fertilizer, ZA fertilizer, SP 36 fertilizer, herbicide and labor. The technical efficiency of farmers is quite high (average of 0.81). Means farmers have been technically efficient especially in allocating resources and utilizing existing cultivation technology. To further improve the technical efficiency as well as its revenue share of AGK, support from local governments and other stakeholders is still urgently needed.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 33-40; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p33-40
Abstract:Pulping and fermentation of coffee cherry determine the quality of green beans and coffee flavors. Delay in pulping will cause the slime stick to the hull skin hence decreasing the bean quality and flavor. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of soaking before pulping and fermentation time to the color of coffee hull skin and the cup quality. The research was carried out at the experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Malang Regency (ICCRI) and ICCRI laboratory in Jember Regency from July 2018 to January 2019. Experiments used factorial completely randomized design. The first factor was cherry soaking duration (0, 24, 48, and 72 hours) and the second factor was fermentation duration (0, 24, and 48 hours) and then combined into 12 treatments, with three replications. Ten kilograms of coffee cherries were soaked prior to pulping then fermented in a plastic bag and added with Lactobacillus casei 2,5 x 107 cfu/ml as starter. Parameters observed were color of hull skin (L value, a*, dan b*) and the cup quality. The results showed that soaking the cherry decreased the green beans quality which is indicated by less brightness (L), high a* value, and decreasing b* value of hull skin color. While the fermentation treatment can increase the value of L, decrease the a* value, and increase the b* value. The interaction of treatment of soaking and fermentation time significantly affected the lightnessl a* and b* value. Soaking and fermentation treatments did not significantly affect to the flavor, salt/acid, balance, and total score of coffee flavor. Soaking is not recommended for more than 48 hours and fermentation should be carried out 48 hours.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 41-50; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p41-50
Abstract:High genetic diversity is one factor that determines the success of plant breeding. Mutation induction by gamma ray irradiation is one method to improve plant genetic diversity. This study aimed to 1) obtain growth regulators composition suitable in inducing embryogenic callus, 2) determine the effect of gamma ray irradiation on the growth and development of somatic embryos, and 3) obtain lethal dose (LD) 20 and 50 values in Robusta coffee BP 436. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from May 2017 to December 2018. Explants used were young leaves of Robusta coffee BP 436. Callus induction used ½ MS media with 2,4-D (4.52 μM) and 2-iP (0.00; 4.93; 9.86; 14.79; and 19.72 μM) treatment. Mutation induction was performed using gamma radiation dosed at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy treatments. The regeneration media was ½ MS containing GA3 (0 and 1 mg/l). The study used a complete randomized design with 10 replications. The results showed the best combination of plant growth regulator to induce the callus was 2.4-D 4.52 μM + 2-iP 19.72 μM. The fresh weight of cultures was inhibited above 30 Gy, whereas the number of somatic embryos decreased at doses above 10 Gy. Addition of GA3 1 mg/l in regeneration media increased the number of somatic embryos in torpedo phase, but not in gamma irradiation exposed calluses. The LD20 and LD50 of Robusta coffee BP 436 are 16.81 and 28.52 Gy, respectively.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 21-32; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p21-32
Abstract:Microbial activities in cocoa pulp decomposition is key in cocoa beans fermentation. Ragi tape is widely used as a source of microbes (starters). The study aimed to investigate the pattern of changes in the number of microbes, substrate degradation activities and primary metabolites production during fermentation with the addition of ragi tape. The study was conducted at the laboratories within the Faculty of Agriculture Technology and Integrated Laboratory of Experiment and Research, UGM from March to October 2018 . Fermentation experiment used 2 kg of fresh cacao beans stored in a plastic box per batch, its temperature was set daily. The amount of microbes was enumerated using total plate count (TPC), whereas substrate degradation and primary metabolites were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Temperature, pulp and seed pH, and fermentation index were observed. The results showed that adding ragi tape for fermentation generated a maximum amount of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) of 9.03+0.85; 9.05+0.17; and 9.15+0.89 log cfu/g of cocoa pulp respectively, with substrate degradation in the form of sucrose reduced by 97%, glucose 98.6%, fructose 97%, and citric acid 71% on the third day. Maximum production of primary metabolites of ethanol is 27.84+21.85 mg/g of cocoa pulp, lactic acid 4.18+3.16 mg/g of cocoa pulp and acetic acid 3.38+5.43 mg/g of cocoa pulp. Fermentation with the addition of ragi tape accelerates the process to three days with a fermentation index value of 1.05+0.06 and seed pH of 5.97+0.20.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 1-12; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p1-12
Abstract:Farmer-Owned Enterprise (FOE) of Bukit Kaba Mandiri in Rejang Lebong Regency is one of the economic institutions that is beneficial for farmers to increase the productivity and efficiency of coffee and cattle integrated farming suitable for its regional potentials. However, FOE is still in constraints due to its lack of organizational management capability in developing the coffee-cattle bioindustry hence the research aimed to build a strategy in developing the FOE in coffee and cattle bioindustry. The study was conducted at FOE of Bukit Kaba Mandiri in Rejang Lebong Regency, Bengkulu, from January to October 2018. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was carried out to collect data with 16 respondents and in-depth interviews with FOE administrators. Data collected included strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by FOE which were then analyzed using Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) method to formulate an FOE development strategy. The strategy was then compiled based on priorities with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results formulated three strategies, namely: (1) increasing production of quality feed to meet the needs of dairy cattle, (2) producing competitively priced compost from cow manure, and (3) establishing market partnerships with coffee exporters. Producing competitively priced compost from cow manure is the first priority that FOE needs to develop.