Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

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ISSN / EISSN : 2356-1297 / 2528-7222
Total articles ≅ 137
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Cici Tresniawati, Nur Ajijah, Deden Sukmajaya, Dewi Sukma
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p59-66

Abstract:
Germination process of somatic embryos is one of critical steps in somatic embryogenesis. The conversion of somatic embryos into plantlets is still low and adding kinetin, ABA, NAA, and GA3 to the germination medium of cacao somatic embryos may increase it. The study aimed to investigate the effect of GA3 on somatic embryo germination at the cotyledonary phase. The study was conducted in the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) Tissue Culture Laboratory from May to November 2017. The study used a factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with seven replications. The first factor was the cacao genotypes, namely SCA 6 and MCC 02, and the second factor was four concentrations of GA3, namely 0.0; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 mg/l. Characters observed were the percentage of shooting cotyledonary embryos, the percentage of rooting cotyledonary embryos, the percentage of shooting and rooting cotyledonary embryos, percentage of browning cotyledonary embryos, root length, shoot length, and hypocotyl length at one and two months old. The results showed no interaction between genotypes and GA3 concentrations on all observed characters. Adding GA3 at 1,0 mg/l concentration tends to increase the percentage of shooting cotyledonary embryos of SCA 6 and rooting cotyledonary embryos of MCC 02. SCA 6 clone has a higher percentage of shooting cotyledone, shooting and rooting cotyledone, and browning cotyledone compared to those of MCC 02.
Nur Kholis Firdaus, Dibyo Pranowo, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 99-108; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p99-108

Abstract:
The growth media composition and cuttings material is considered one of the determining factors for a successful Robusta coffee plant propagation by cuttings. Information on the growth media composition and the ideal cutting material for Robusta coffee needs to be improved. The research was conducted at the Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory, Balittri, Sukabumi, from October 2020 to January 2021. The study aimed to investigate the effect of growth media composition and number of internodes on the growth of cuttings in three clones of Robusta coffee. The study was designed in a split-split plot with 2 replications. The main plot factor was 3 clones of Robusta coffee (BP 939, SA 203, and BP 308), the split plot factor was 5 compositions of growth media: sand, sand+chicken manure (1:1), sand+soil (1:1), soil+chicken manure (1:1), and sand+soil+chicken manure (1:1:1), and the split-split plot factor was the number of internodes (1 and 2 internodes). Variables observed were the percentage of survived, sprouted, and rooted cuttings, number and length of primary roots, and number of shoots, internodes and leaves. The results showed that sand and sand+soil (1:1) were the best media for root formations. For the growth of number and length of primary roots, the sand+soil (1:1) media was a more suitable for BP 939 and SA 203, while sand media was suitable for BP 308. Other result showed that two-internodes cuttings proved to be better in shoot, internode, and leaf growth than single-internode cuttings.
Nurheni Sri Palupi, Dase Hunaefi, Nugraha Susanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 87-98; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p87-98

Abstract:
Green tea contains polyphenols which are known as sources of antioxidants and contribute to a bitter and astringent taste. Optimization of green tea extraction to obtain sensory profiles that are acceptable for consumers is important. The study aimed to produce an optimal green tea extraction process based on polyphenols content and antioxidant activity, a sensory profile of the basic solution of green tea based on consumer expectations and preferences, and the ideal profile of green tea. This research was conducted by PT. XYZ – Jakarta and Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology IPB University – Bogor, West Java from October 2020 to April 2021. This study used data experiments on RSM by CCD method and consumer perception testing using Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method. The selection of consumer panelists and FGD participants was conducted in conjunction with the consumer survey. Optimum condition of methode extraction of green tea based on RSM methode was temperature at 78,43 OC for 21 minutes. Total of polyphenols, antioxidant activity based on IC50, and preference score was 588,58 mg/kg – 750 mg/kg; 14,48μL – 27,03μL; and 4,0 – 5,2, respectively. Green tea extract profile based on consumers preferences had the following profile sensory: burned aroma, floral aroma, tobacco aroma, animalic aroma, umami test, green flavor, astringent aftertaste, straw-like aftertaste; emotional profile: peaceful, adventurous, calm and satisfied; and attribute profile: packaging design: cold color, illustrations image, images of people, combination, high quality and warm color.
Saefudin Saefudin, Muhammad Syakir, Sakiroh Sakiroh, Maman Herman
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 79-86; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p79-86

Abstract:
The problem that often arises in the procurement of seeds is in selecting seeds that have high physiological quality. The Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) planting material is generally in the form of bulbils of varying sizes with a dormancy period of 4-5 months. One of the efforts to break seed dormancy is by soaking. This study aimed to determine the effect of bulbil weight and soaking duration on the viability and growth of porang. The research was carried out at the Pakuwon Experimental Station, Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from September to December 2020. The design used was a split plot with 3 replications. The main plot was the bulbil weight which consisted of 3 categories: (1) large size (12.66-16.96 g/seed), (2) medium (10.41-11.53 g/seed), and (3) small (5.63-7.11 g/seed). The sub-plots were the soaking duration in water which consisted of 4 levels: 0 hours (without soaking), and soaking for 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. The variables observed were the viability, petiole length, and fresh weight of plants at 2 months after sowing. The results showed that there’s no interaction effect between bulbil weight and soaking duration for all variables observed. Bulbs with large and medium weights produced higher viability and petiole length compared to small bulbils, while the highest plant fresh weight was produced by large bulbil weights. The correlation results showed that the higher the viability of the seed, the longer the petiole, and the higher the fresh weight of plant.
Taufik Hidayat, Prasetyo Prasetyo, Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 67-78; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p67-78

Abstract:
Kepahiang Robusta coffee has received a Geographical Indication (GI) certificate. Maintaining the quality of green coffee bean has been achieved through the application of proper harvesting technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fruit maturity level when harvested on yield losses due to coffee berry borer (CBB) and the quality of green coffee bean. The research was conducted from December 2019 to August 2020 in Bukit Sari Village, Kabawetan District, Kepahiang Regency, Bengkulu Province. The harvested beans were categorized into 3 groups based on their maturity level, namely: red (K1), reddish yellow (K2), and yellowish green (K3). The parameters observed were the CBB infecteds, yield, physical quality of green coffee bean and chemical content. The results showed that the highest attack rate of CBB found in the red berry about 34.33%, whereas the highest rendement was 20.52% found in yellowish-green berry. The highest percentage of yield loss due to CBB attacks occurred in red berry at 30.23%. However, the best physical quality and chemical content was also found in the red berry.
Wartono Wartono, Efi Taufiq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p49-58

Abstract:
Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) is a major obstacle in cocoa cultivation worldwide. The study aimed to determine the morphological character and pathogenicity of P. palmivora Pakuwon isolate. The study was carried out from November 2020 to January 2021, which consisted of 3 activities e.g. (1) pathogen isolation, tests on growth rate and colony formation, and stimulation of sporangia, zoospore, and clamydospore formation, which was performed in CMA, PDA, and mung bean media. The parameters observed were colony shape, growth rate, shape and size of sporangia, papillae, and sporangiophores, also chlamydospore and hyphal diameters; (2) To determine the possibility of different mating types, two isolates were grown on CMA medium in one petri dish; (3) The pathogenicity test, using a detached fruit assay by inoculating the cocoa pods with mycelium plug and zoospores. The patogenicity test was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications, and the parameter observed was the area of the spot. The isolation obtained 3 isolates, the mycelium of all three isolates showed white in color, cottony, and no pattern in shape. The diameters of hyphae and chlamydospores were 5.6 - 6.3 mm and 39.0 - 43.2 mm, respectively. The sporangia were ovoid, ellipsoid, subsperic, obpyriform, and irregular. Sporangia measured 5.6 - 60.1 mm in length and 30.4 - 32.9 mm in width. Papillae were obviously visible with an average length of 6.8 mm. Test on mating types showed no oospores formed. PPkw1 isolates showed higher growth rates and more pathogenic than PPkw2 and PPkw3. The difference of pathogenicity of each P. palmivora isolates originated from Pakuwon can be used for selection of cocoa resistance in the future.
Elsera Br Tarigan, Edi Wardiana, Handi Supriadi
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p37-48

Abstract:
Coffee is a beverage that is widely consumed around the world. Proper packaging and storage temperature may extend shelf life of ground coffee. The study aimed to analyze the shelf life of ground Arabica coffee stored in different packaging types and temperature, conducted at smallholder coffee plantations in Garut Regency and the Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from June to August 2018. A completely randomized design in factorial was used with 3 factors and 2 replications. The first factor was the packaging type which consisted of 3 types: thick alumunium foil 65m (AF65), thick alumunium foil 130m (AF130), and thick lamination 114m (L144). The second factor was the storage temperature which consisted of 3 levels: 25 oC, 35 oC, and 45 oC, while the third factor was the storage period which consisted of 5 levels: coffee unstored, and coffee stored for 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks. The variables observed were the water and fat content, and the analysis of shelf life was carried out using the ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Test) method. The results showed that during storage, the water content increased, whereas the fat content decreased. Fat content is a critical variable in determining the shelf life of coffee. The coffee in AF130 packaging has longer shelf life than in AF65 and L144. To extend the shelf life of coffee packaged in AF130 and L144 is best kept at 45 oC whereas coffee in AF65 packaging is ideally at 25 oC.
Ika Ferry Yunianti, I.D.A Yona Aprianthina, Rina Kartikawati, Eni Yulianingsih
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p9-18

Abstract:
Coffee is a commodity that has an important role in the national economy. Currently, coffee cultivation is threatened by climate change caused by global warming due to increased green house gas (GHG) emissions. The organic plantation model is a farming model that is considered to increase soil and crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration effectively. The study was aimed to estimate GHG emissions and carbon stocks in organic and conventional coffee plantations in Badung Regency, Bali Province and Laboratory in Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Pati, Jawa Tengah Province, in July 2018. The study was conducted in smallholder coffee plantations in Badung Regency and the analysis was carried out at Laboratory of Indonesian Agricultural Environtment Research Institute. This study used a survey method, while the sampling used a purposive sampling method in organic and conventional coffee plantation. GHG emissions measurement was carried out with a close chamber method by simultaneously the carbon stocks measurement was carried out with the non-destructive method for plant biomass and destructive for understorey. The results showed that organic and conventional coffee plantations emitted GHG by 20.71 and 39.75 ton CO2e ha-1 and stored carbon stock by 227.56 and 288.31 ton CO2e ha-1, respectively. The differences in GHG emissions and carbon stocks are partly due to differences in management system and the diversity of plant. The management system of the organic coffee plantation should be improved to support handling of the impacts of climate change in Bali Province.
Muhammad Rifqi Maulid, Eko Heri Purwanto, Efri Mardawati, Budi Mandra Harahap, Saefudin Saefudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 19-36; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p19-36

Abstract:
Quality and techno-economic improvement is important to increase export value of coffee in Indonesia. Complex roasting is one excellent method in increasing the added value of coffee, such as Coffea arabica var. Sigarar Utang which is the best coffee variety in Indonesia. The study was carried out at The Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, West Java, from January to November 2020 which aimed: (1) to evaluate the effect of initial temperature and roasting degree on the quality of Sigarar Utang coffee bean, and (2) to evaluate the mass balance and economic feasibility of the best roasting treatment. This study was designed in a factorial completely randomized design, using 2 factors, and 2 replications. The first factor was the initial temperature which consisted of 2 levels (185 oC dan 210 oC), and the second factor was the roasting degree which consisted of 2 levels (light-medium and medium-dark). The variables observed were the water content, ash content, bulk density, brix, titratable acidity, pH, radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, and caffeine content. The results showed that the complex roasting method with an initial temperature of 210 oC and mild-moderate roasting degrees generated a quality of Sigarar Utang coffee originating from Gunung Putri, IIBCRI, closest to the quality I of SNI 01-3542-2004. The roasted coffee beans have a special taste (score 86.51) which is a high added value. The production economic value is feasible to be adopted by small-medium scale coffee industry.
Efi Taufiq, Gusti Indriati, Rita Harni, Dibyo Pranowo
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n1.2021.p1-8

Abstract:
Leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix) is commonly controlled using synthetic fungicides. Plant oils and extracts are expected to reduce the pathogen. The research aimed to determine the effectiveness of clove, Reutealis trisperma, and neem oils, and Ageratum conyzoides extract against H. vastatrix. The study was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute and smallholder coffee plantation in Garut, West Java, from January to December 2018. The A. conyzoides were extracted in the laboratories. Plant oils and extract's effectiveness was tested in vitro against the germination of urediniospore and in a greenhouse to inhibit disease development. The in vitro experiment were evaluated the eight concentrations of extract and oil were: 0 (steril water), 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000, and 5000 ppm. Whereas, in the greenhouse experiments used three concentrations of 1000, 2500, and 5000 ppm of the extract and oil, and 2000 ppm of Mankozeb (positive control). The greenhouse test was carried out on Arabica coffee plants, completely randomized design and five replications. The number of spots, disease intensity, and plant growth were examined periodically. The results showed that all of the the extract and oil inhibited the urediniospores germination, and the most effective concentrations were 500 ppm, 3000 ppm, and 5000 ppm. A. conyzoides extract, and clove oil effectively suppressed the infection of H. vastatrix by 75.99% and 64.00%, respectively, and comparable to the synthetic fungicide (68.00%).
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