ISSN / EISSN : 2251-7820 / 2251-7820
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 30
Latest articles in this journal
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 474-480; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v7i5.2548
The effect of using dry layer litter and rice husk as alternative feed source on seminal characteristics of red Sokoto bucks was investigated in a 98 day study using eighteen healthy Red Sokoto bucks. The bucks were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 6 bucks each. Concentrate containing 15.01% CP was formulated using conventional feed sources and fed to group A, while group B were fed 15.13% CP concentrate formulated using dry layer litter (DLL) and rice husk (RH). Group C (control) was not fed any supplement. All groups were fed a basal diet of cowpea hay and water ad libitum, while supplements were fed at 2% body weight in two divided portions. Feeding 15.13% CP diet formulated using RH and DLL favoured spermatogenesis in Red Sokoto bucks as evident from increased semen concentration by 160×106/ml at day 98, high percentage viable spermatozoa (74.89%) and high percentage spermatozoa with normal morphology (77.55%). This was attributed to high available nitrogen from the poultry litter and its utilization by the rumen microflora making it available for absorption leading to improved spermatogenesis. It was concluded that, feeding dried layer liter and rice husk as alternative feed supplements resulted improved semen quality of red Sokoto bucks. It is therefore recommend that dried layer litter and rice husk can be used as a feed supplements for red Sokoto bucks as they can compete with feed from conventional sources.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 469-473; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v7i3.2507
A split plot experiment using the randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Gharakheil Agronomic Research Station of Iran in the crop year 2014 to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar on forage corn yield and yield components. The main-plot factor included three corn cultivars (SC704, SC677 and SC400) and the sub-plot factor, four application rates of urea (100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha). Analysis of the data showed that the effects of cultivar and rate of urea application and their mutual effects on most of the studied traits were significant (α=5%). The mean comparison, using the Least Significant Range (LSR) test indicated the maximum forage and dry matter yields (40.95 and 12.90 t/ha, respectively) were obtained in the treatment of SC704 and urea at 200 kg/ha.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 455-468; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v7i1.2485
Brachiaria grass has a major potential to relieve the polygastric livestock sector and support its growth in pastoral and extensive mixed systems where ruminants suffer permanent or seasonal nutritional stress from inadequate feed supply as an endemic problem. Morphological description of Brachiaria spp germplasm is helpful for the identification and delimitation of taxa that could lead to accession collections and selection of varieties with high agronomy value. The identification of potential accessions of Brachiaria in the mount Cameroon area was phenotypically based on twelve qualitative and eleven quantitative descriptors, data been collected using a structured questionnaire. The Brachiaria spp have light green coloured leaves (70.9%) which are mostly pubescent (34.5%), intermediate (29.1%) or glabrous (25.5%). The internodes are mostly yellow green (25.5%), the stigma is mostly white (40.0%) while the own panicle is mostly absent. The panicles are mostly open (61.8%) while the grains are mostly round shaped (74.5%). The glumella pubescence is mostly absent while the lemma and palea mostly have a straw colour and the apiculus and/or awn colour are mostly absent (74.5%). There is huge variability for the quantitative traits whatever the locality is. The traits varying most are the number of panicle per plant (146.86%), the grain weight (141.17%) and the number of spikelets per plant (135.10%). The correlation between measurements vary from weak to moderate, the highest positive significant (p<0.01) correlation coefficient (0.637**) was observed between the flag leaf length and the panicle length, while the significant native correlation (-0.283*) was found between the panicle fertility and the flag leaf width. The cumulative variance of the first five principal components explains 73.958% the genetic variability observed within the studied population. The flag leaf length, flag leaf width and culm length are components contributing most to that variability, with respectively 23.10%, 17.16% and 13.16%, giving a total cumulative genetic variability value of 53.43% of the whole Brachiaria spp population germplasm in the area of mount Cameroon. The hierarchical clustering revealed that there could exist four main clusters or accessions of Brachiaria spp germplasm in the area of mount Cameroon. Accession 4 is the most distant from the three others, while accessions 1 and 2 are the closest. The clustering into groups of accessions with similar morphological within the collection Brachiaria germplasm in this study will enable researchers interested in this grass to easily identify subsets of accessions for further evaluation aimed at specific uses. Morphological differences between these accessions and taxonomic differentiation to species level will need molecular characterization for confirmation.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 444-454; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v7i1.2490
The rabbit meat producers have a strong desire to improve productivity in order to maximize on financial gains. There has been a deliberate move to target improved weaning weight, which is thought to be a critical component in influencing total meat yield and economic returns. However, it has been acknowledged that weaning weight is partly influenced by individual kit genetic potential at the same time its overwhelmed by various non genetic factors. In this respect, weaning weights a complex character which reflects the influence of many biological processes namely fertility, maternal instinct, growth and viability. For the purpose of increasing production, it is reasonably to suggest that the complex inter-relationship among known various non genetic factors that influence weaning weight and the degree of their interactive effects need to be ascertained and understood in different production systems. While, genotype is a major contributor to weaning weight, environmental, nutritional and management practices also play significant roles in influencing weaning weight. There are several known environmental factors that influence weaning weight and these include feeding practices, birth weight, parity order, sex of kits, management, etc. The rabbit producers’ attention to the aforementioned factors is likely to improve weaning weight at enterprise level. It is important to note that selection for increased litter size have an adverse effect on average litter birth weight which subsequently reflects on weaning weight. The enhanced prolificacy in does has resulted in an increase in within litter variation and a larger number of kits born light. From the farmer’s performance point of view, genetic diversity utilization in crossbreeding has been the focus in improving weaning weight in commercial rabbit meat production. However, the complementary role played by nutritional status in optimization of performance in selected genotypes has been tremendous in the past two decades. Crossbreds have performed at levels consistent with different targeted rabbit meat market expectations. Generally, it is pronounced that improved nutritional regime and patterns for lactating does and their suckling kits had a positive effect on weaning weight. On the other hand, unbalanced parity structure and distribution in rabbit enterprise results in unreasonable variation in weaning weight, which impacts negatively on subsequent kits management after weaning. The purpose of this review is to discuss the influence of genotype and some non-genetic factors (litter size, birth weight, parity) on weaning weight in rabbits.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 436-443; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v6i11.2478
Weaning age is one of the critical components under management practices which can affect the profitability of a rabbit enterprise, because of its consequence on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits. Choice of weaning age suitable for a particular production system which brings about positive change in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits is bound to increase economic returns. There has been inconsistence in the observations made in different studies on the influence of early versus late weaning on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties. This has made the comparison of different studies to ascertain optimum weaning age questionable, due to the fact that performance, mortality and carcass parameters results are derived from rabbits slaughtered at the same weaning age, but differing in their nutritional regime, slaughter weight and genotypes. Different fixed effects (production system, nutrition, slaughter weight, genotype, etc.) and their interactive effect with weaning age in various studies have been a source of variation in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties. Genetic groups might differ in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties at the same weaning age, hence it’s necessary to determine the optimum weaning age in different production systems for different genetic groups. This is on the backdrop that the choice of inappropriate weaning age in rabbits may reduce productivity and increase mortality as well as affecting carcass parameters adversely. It has been noted that any management practice which do not curtail mortality compromises on total meat output ending up in reduced income earned from rabbit production. It would be reasonable to conclude that performance of rabbits, the resultant carcass and meat quality properties as well as mortality rates depend greatly on the management practices such as weaning age and its interactive effect with other factors adopted during the production cycle. This review looks at the effects of weaning age on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 425-435; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v6i9.2463
Nutritional programs and feeding patterns accounts for major production costs in a commercial rabbit enterprise. A successful rabbit enterprise is characterized by high feed consumption and adequate balanced essential nutrients to sustain the elevated nutritional requirements in support of intense productive animals. Rabbits improved growth pattern, efficient reproductive capacity and minimal kit mortality are closely associated with adequate nutrition. Enough energy dietary provision is required to mediate the nutrients metabolism for high production, while the protein component is the key factor in fueling tissue accretion (meat). In addition to energy and protein requirement, inclusion of dietary fiber is essential mainly because of its effects on the digestive transit and promotion of hind gut microbial activity where volatile fatty acids with high quality microbial protein can be recycled through caecotrophy benefiting the host animal. Inadequate dietary protein, energy and fiber levels have been associated with negative consequences on growth, reproduction and increased mortality. The nutritional value of feed resources and their constituents must be precisely balanced for optimum productive and reproductive performance to grantee economic viability and sustainability of a rabbit enterprise. On the other hand, any alternative feedstuff that might reduce variable costs are beneficial to the producer because apart from viability and sustainability can enhance profit margins in the long run. This implies that due to scarcity and the prohibitive cost of the commonly used classical dietary protein sources in feed industry, chemical evaluation of available non-conventional feedstuff as potential sources of rabbits feed is crucial, if profits are going to be realized in commercial rabbit production, especially in developing countries. The preceding review looks at the effects of nutrition on growth traits, reproductive performance and mortality in rabbits.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 418-424; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v6i7.2468
A germination test was carried out to observe the germinability of mungbean seed under storage periods and storage containers at Agronomy laboratory of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, Bangladesh during April-May 2014. The experiment was designed completely randomized design (CRD) with eight replications under three storage periods (15, 30 and 45 days after storage (DAS)) and three seed containers (tin container, polythene bag and gunny bag). The maximum values of germination percentages (GP) were recorded of mungbean seed with 15 days after storage (DAS) and the GP reduced significantly with increasing storage periods from 15 to 30 and 45 DAS. The highest GP (82.00%) was found at 15 DAS in tin container while the lowest (51.01%) at 45 DAS in gunny bag. The rate of reduction was found to increase with the advancement of storage periods. The germinability of mungbean seed was observed maximum levels (82.00, 80.89 and 72.68%) when seeds stored in tin container, and the minimum levels (72.42, 66.11 and 51.01%) whilst the seeds stored in gunny bags among the three storage containers under all storage conditions. Mungbean seed kept in gunny bag and tin container provide the highest and lowest reduction of GP, respectively. An excellent performance of germination was observed in tin containers seed while the gunny bag provided the inferior seed germination among all of the three containers. Finally, it could be possible to enhance and maintain the quality of mungbean seeds through proper storage medium with the adequate periods.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 407-417; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v6i5.2458
Safflower is a native plant to Iran, resistant to arid environment that will be used as an oil seed for future hopefully. The experiment was a split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main plot includes two spring and summer plantings and sub-plots include three irrigation withholdings (control, irrigation withholding at the start of flowering and irrigation withholding at the start of grain filling period) and ten safflower cultivars including Soffe, Goldasht, Sina, Faraman, Golmehr and Mexican cultivars, Mec117, Mec295, Mec184, Mec11, Mec7, were located in main plot as sub-plots. The results indicated that delaying in plantings reduced biologic yield, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield in Safflower cultivars, significantly. At the start of flowering, irrigation withholding reduced grain and oil yield significantly. Irrigation withholding treatments and safflower cultivars did not affect on oil percentage. However, Mexican cultivars had suitable yields in spring planting date, but it reduced during summer planting date, extremely; while, Iranian cultivars had higher grain and oil yields during both planting dates. Among the cultivars, Soffe and Goldasht had the highest grain and oil yield.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 368-374; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v5i11.2334
A field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during Aman season in 2013 to evaluate the effect of proper time of nitrogen application on yield and yield parameters of high yielding rice varieties. Two transplanted aromatic aman rice varieties (BRRI dhan37 and BRRI dhan38) and four timing of nitrogen fertilizer application (N1= ½ during final land preparation + ½ at 30 DAT, N2= 1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT, N3= 1/4 at 15 DAT + ½ at 30 DAT + 1/4 at 45 DAT and N4= 2/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) were used in this experiment. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications as factorial arrangement. All agronomic practices were applied as recommended for each cultivar. Yield and yield traits (plant height, total tillers, effective panicle, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, harvest index) was measured. Results showed that the effect of nitrogen split application on plant height, total tillers, effective panicle, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and straw yield was significant. The results revealed that three equal splits of nitrogen (N2) application (1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) produced the highest grain yield (3.29 t ha-1) which was statistical differed from all N splits application treatments and the lowest grain yield (2.41 tha-1) was obtained from N1 treatment which was statistically similar to N4 treatment. The variety effect was significant on all traits except plant height, number of grains panicle-1, number sterile spikelets panicle-1 and stubble yield. The variety BRRI dhan38 produced more grain yield than BRRI dhan37. The effect of nitrogen split application and variety (N×V) on total traits was significant and N2×V2 combination produced the highest grain yield among all the combinations.
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 358-367; https://doi.org/10.14196/aa.v5i10.2333
Productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Bangladesh is very low, due to many limiting factors beset in its cultivation. Plant density and weed competition in crop constitute the main limiting factors. In order to combat the problems, the optimum plant density and most appropriate weeding period for good production in groundnut has been investigated at Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Two plant density viz. 200,000 and 400,000 plants ha-1, and seven weed competition periods from 0, 25, 40, 55, 70, 85 DAS and up to harvesting time were studied. Nineteen species of weeds representing 10 families were found to grow and population density was 150 plants m-2. The major infesting species of weeds were Cyperus rotundus L. (Mutha), Chenopodium album L. (Bathua), Physalis heterophylla L. (Foska begun), Gnaphalium luteo-album L. (Shwetomuli) and Paspalum disticum L. (Knot grass) which constituted about 84.66% of the total weed population. Cyperus rotundus alone shared the maximum relative density (57%) having 85.5 plants m-2 area of total weed vegetation and also shared the maximum intensity of infestation (2.85). Intensity of weed infestation was always higher at lower plant density. Weed dry matter production was higher at a density of 200000 plants compared to 400000 plants ha-1. In contrast, weed dry weight was progressively increased with increasing weed competition period and it was the highest in unweeded plot and critical period of weed competition appeared at 40 DAS. Weed competition period from zero to 40 DAS and thereafter weed free up to crop harvest with a density of 400000 plants ha-1 gave the highest pod yield The pod yield was found to have a significant negative correlation with weed dry matter production i.e. an increase in the dry matter production will lead to a decrease in the yield of pods.