Advances in Reproductive Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2330-0744 / 2330-0752
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 118
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Isabela Mansur Bandeira, Juliana Vasconcelos, Thiago Luiz Bandeira, Jorge Oliveira, Carla Goulart, Aderbal Sabra, Luiz Werber-Bandeira
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.101002

Abstract:
Introduction: Spontaneous abortion is defined as pregnancy loss before the twentieth week and Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) is defined as at least three spontaneous and successive pregnancy losses in the same period. Among the different types of immunological causes, this study refers specifically to the alloimmune cause. Women with RSA of alloimmune cause share a greater number of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) with their husbands, leading to the inhibition of the production of anti-paternal asymmetric blocking antibodies, which would protect embryonic cells. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of immunotherapy with paternal HLA-sensitizing mononuclear cells in cases of RSA through the positivity of the cross-match test and its efficacy in pregnancy success. Patients and Methods: Written consent was obtained, 12 couples with a history of RSA presenting negative cross-match were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the couple for cross-matching and the separation of paternal mononuclear cells. Immunotherapy was performed with paternal mononuclear cells intradermally in the wives’ arms on day (D) 0, D15 and D30. After the third dose, a second evaluation of the cross- match tests was performed. Results and Discussion: The age of the wives ranged from 28 to 41 years, with a mean of 34.5 years. The twelve couples had a negative cross-match test (100%). Eleven couples (96.6%) tested positive in the cross- match test after immunotherapy. Of these, 10 (90.9%) had successful pregnancies. Immunotherapy with paternal mononuclear cells showed an excellent ability to sensitize the maternal immune system, with positive cross-match, resulting in a successful pregnancy.
Rahana Harjee, Jeffrey Roberts
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.101003

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the efficacy of letrozole in suppressing estradiol levels during ovarian stimulation in cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review of cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation between 2014-2019 at a private university-affiliated fertility clinic in Canada was conducted. Ovarian stimulation was completed with no letrozole (Group A, n = 10), and adjuvant daily letrozole use at 5.0 (Group B, n = 34) or 7.5 mg (Group C, n = 61). The primary outcomes were peak estradiol levels and oocyte yield. ANOVA with a post hoc two-tailed t-test assuming equal variance was utilized as a statistical method. Result(s): Patient age and AFC count were not different between groups. The yield of mature eggs was not different at each letrozole dose; 9.2 ± 6.0, 13.9 ± 6.5 and 12.7 ± 7.2 for Groups A to C respectively (p = 0.18). Mean estradiol levels(pmol/L) were reduced in a dose-dependent manner; 7432 ± 4553 for Group A, 2072 ± 1656 for Group B, and 1445 ±1238 for Group C (A vs. C, p vs. C, p Conclusion(s): The use of letrozole during ovarian stimulation for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation in cancer patients can maintain physiologic estradiol levels, while ensuring satisfactory oocyte and embryo yield. Letrozole can, therefore, minimize the theoretical risk of stimulating residual and metastatic diseases, while still optimizing future fertility outcomes.
Mariana De Gouvêa Matos, Andrea Seixas Magalhães, Renata Mello
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.102004

Abstract:
Nowadays childbirth care in Brazil is mainly guided by the technocratic model, with a high rate of unnecessary interventions that may cause iatrogenesis. Emotional aspects inherent to birth tend to be disregarded in this scenario, which produces risks for the psychological health of the mother, father, and baby. The aim of this study was to look into the subjective experiences of fathers and mothers regarding childbirth in contemporary Brazil. For this purpose, a collective case study was carried out in which 30 birth reports published on personal blogs were analyzed, 15 written by women and 15 by men. The results pointed to the helplessness experienced by fathers and mothers in the face of technocratic care which may sometimes be violent, and to the idealization of health care professionals who work according to the humanized paradigm. The choice of the mode of delivery often appeared in the subjects’ discourse, denoting a scenario in which caesarean section is understood as a consumer good. Respect for the temporality of childbirth was considered essential to ensure that giving birth is not experienced in a traumatic way, and pain was reported as a central element to elaborate the symbolic death intrinsic to the process of parenthood appropriation. The lack of support from the environment seems to be a constitutive factor in the experience of obstetric violence and the writing of birth reports a resource to reinterpret this traumatic experience. We came to the conclusion that it is extremely important that the professional team be trained to understand the emotional aspects present in the childbirth experience, with interdisciplinary exchanges being a powerful resource to provide good quality of care for the parental couple.
Takang Ako Wiliiam, Epey Felicite Ngale, Dobgima Walter Pisoh, Halle-Ekane Gregory
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.102006

Abstract:
Background: Armed conflict increases the occurrence of adverse obstetrical outcomes especially in low and middle-income countries. However, there is paucity of data on obstetrical outcomes in the South-West and North-West Regions of Cameroon since the onset of the socio-political instability. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate obstetrical outcomes in the Buea and Bamenda Regional Hospitals, Cameroon during the period of socio-political instability. Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study was carried out at the aforementioned hospitals. Data was collected from case notes of pregnant women before the period of socio-political instability (from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016) and during the period of socio-political instability (from January 1, 2017 to October 31, 2019). The Chi square and Fischer’s exact test were used to compare categorical variables where appropriate and modeled into multivariate analysis. A p-value Results: The mean maternal age was 27.09 (±5.25) years, before and during the conflict. The mean weight of neonates (regardless of gestational age) during the conflict was significantly higher [3.28 (±0.65) kg] compared to that before the conflict [3.21 ± (0.52) kg] (p yrs [OR = 1.97; CI (1.16 - 3.37), p = 0.01], and delivery during the period of socio-political instability [OR = 1.97; CI (1.16 - 3.37)], p = 0.01 and [OR = 1.89; CI (1.53 - 2.33)], p Conclusion: This study identifies increased incidence of adverse maternal outcomes in mothers exposed to socio-political instability.
Huan Zhao, Yan Chen, Liuxian Huang, Tianyou Huang, Miaohong Li, Wanwei Yang, Qing Peng, Lili Yu, Haisha Wei, Jianlan Gan, et al.
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.101001

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the microecology and common infection of the female vagina in border area of Chongzuo City. Methods: Female patients in the outpatient department and inpatient department of gynecology of our hospital from April 1, 2018 to August 23, 2021 were selected as the research objects. The reproductive tract secretions of all patients were examined by microecological examination, morphological examination, chemical analysis and microscopic examination, and the results of various indicators were statistically analyzed to draw relevant conclusions. Results: Among the 1498 women with vaginal micro- ecological imbalances, cleanliness was determined to be 534 cases of degree II, 868 cases of degree III, and 96 cases of degree IV; Nugent scores were 9 - 10 in 9 cases, 8 in 122 cases, 7 in 30 cases, 6 in 18 cases, 5 in 8 cases, 4 in 717 cases, 3 in 248 cases, 2 in 209 cases, 1 in 118 cases, and 0 in 19 cases. AV scores were 8 in 1 case, 7 in 1 case, 6 in 2 cases, 5 in 9 cases, 4 in 84 cases, 3 in 207 cases, 2 in 850 cases, 1 in 284 cases, and 0 in 60 cases. Among the pathogen infections, 99 cases were mycoplasma, 361 cases were candida, 199 cases were bacterial and 8 cases were trichomonas; In chemical analysis, there were 138 cases with pH 5.1, 326 cases with pH 4.8, 775 cases with pH 4.6, 217 cases with pH 4.4, and 42 cases with pH 4.1; meanwhile, 1390 cases were positive for hydrogen peroxide, 505 cases were positive for glucosidase, 487 cases were positive for acetylglucosaminidase, 184 cases were positive for sialidase, 290 cases were positive for proline amino-peptidase, 501 cases were positive for coagulase, and 1064 cases were positive for leukocyte esterase. Conclusion: Female reproductive tract microecology is more complex, and the pathogens of infection are also diverse. A systematic examination can clarify the occurrence and development of the disease, and then provide reliable laboratory data for clinical treatment and guide clinical medication.
Ehab A. M. Elagab, Majed Alshahrani, Amin A. A. Elbadawi, Abdullah I. Aedh, Ahmed M. Osman, Hanadi M. Osman
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 73-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.103008

Abstract:
Pregnancy is a complex physiological process involving several interconnected systems. Many researchers were concerned that the formation of a fetus with different genetic components may contradict the normal state of immunity, which attempts to reject and fight foreign bodies. This piqued the interest of biologists and immunologists, who set out to discover the immune system’s composition and mode of response in the uterus. According to several studies, natural killer (NK) cells are present in a significant percentage that differs from what is seen in peripheral blood. As a result, several scientific studies have been conducted on uterine NK cells, investigating their types, characteristics, receptors, secretions, and interactions with the surrounding environment. Research has also indicated the capacity of uterine NK cells to strike a balance between eradicating uterine infections and effectively contributing to different phases of pregnancy. Various studies have shown that NK cell activity is intimately related to the success or failure of pregnancy. In this review, we describe the uterine NK cell subtypes; decidual (dNK) cells and endometrial NK cells (eNK) cells and their important role during different phases of pregnancy.
YauDe Alfred, Azonbakin Simon, Aweh Bruno, Dangbemey Patrice, Sissoko Sidi Boula, Dossou Jean-Paul, Flore Gangbo, Laleye Anatole
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.102005

Abstract:
Background: A high level of sperm chromatin decondensation results in loss of DNA quality and it is associated with poor embryonic prognosis in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). This had lead to introduction of sperm DNA compaction testing in assessment of clinical male infertility. Toluidine blue assay is one of most commonly used tests to measure chromatin decondensation in research studies and also in clinical routine use. So the objective of our study was to assess the level of sperm chromatin decondensation by toluidine blue assay in men dealing with couple infertility. Methods: The sperm samples of 96 patients referred for infertility, over a 4-month period from September 2020 to January 2021, were stained with toluidine blue and observed under an optical microscope. These were evaluated according to the World Health Organization. Results: The 25 - 34 age group was the most represented among infertile men. There was a non-significant correlation between age and the level of spermatic chromatin condensation (r = 0.0348). Spermatic parameters had averages above standards norms, apart from that of low vitality. Spermatic chromatin decondenization affected 96% of infertile patients. Asthenozoospermia was the most common abnormality. Among standard parameters of spermogram, only the concentration of spermatozoa in the semen was weakly correlated (r = 0.18) with sperm chromatin decondensation. Conclusion: The level of sperm chromatin condensation is, on the one hand, a parameter independent of the age of the subject; on the other hand, allows to evaluate male infertility, like the classic parameters of the spermogram and spermocytogram. However, in view of the high probability of changes in the nuclear quality of sperm intrinsic to the analysis process and sperm concentration, an improvement of the toluidine blue test using the swim-up technique and associated with image processing software is possible.
Mamadou Saliou Mbengue, Abdoul Aziz Ndiaye, Alioune Badara Tall, Rakhmatoulaye Seck, Awa Ba, Ndeye Fatou Ngom, Fatou Ndiaye Omar Sy, Aladji Madior Diop, Anta Tal Dia
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 10, pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2022.102007

Abstract:
Contraception is a set of procedures that aim to achieve temporary infertility in a woman without her ability to conceive being engaged in the future. It plays an essential role in the health of women and children, the psychological well-being of husbands and allows, among other things, savings for the family. The objective was to study the perceptions and social representations of husbands on family planning. A mixed method was used with a qualitative dominance, carried out in the health district of Pout. The result showed that the perceptions and representations of husbands influence this practice family planning. Even if they have positive attitudes and a good level of knowledge about contraceptive methods, their involvement in FP practices remains low with gaps to be filled. Direct or intermediate variables such as the social, cultural, economic and religious aspects are pitfalls. Indeed, the commitment of men and the consideration of their social attributes are variables to be integrated into the process of information and awareness on family planning; this is crucial in achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 (Good Health and Well-being), including its target 7 focused on sexual and proactive health: a second best move towards the demographic dividend.
José Ernesto Hernández Pichardo, Miguel Ramses Del Moral Reyes, Michael E. Kjelland, José Luis Rodríguez Suastegui
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 09, pp 129-138; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2021.92013

Abstract:
The domestic cat has been used as a model to carry out comparative research in assisted reproduction, to be applied in wild cats. The efficiency in domestic cat IVM concerning the reproductive status and/or cultivation times has previously been investigated; however, the studies were carried out separately. The objective of this research was to evaluate the maturation of oocytes of domestic cats of different reproductive stages using two different in vitro culture times. The ovaries were obtained by Ooforo-Salpingo-Hysterectomy of cats that were of the following groups: 1) prepubertal, 2) follicular, 3) pregnant or 4) in anestrus. Maturation was carried out with TCM199 medium supplemented with BSA for 24 h and 48 h. On average, 29 ± 25, 20 ± 15, 17 ± 9 and 17 ± 13 oocytes/cat were recovered from the prepubertal follicular, pregnant, and anestrus stages, respectively, but did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). Also, meiotic maturation did not show a significant difference between the different reproductive stages at 24 h and 48 h, respectively (P > 0.05). However, in the prepubertal and follicular stages, greater oocyte maturation numbers were observed at 48 h compared to 24 h (P result was not observed in the pregnant and anestrus stages (P > 0.05), indicating that the in vitro culture duration is an important factor during in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes.
Linfeng Mo, Junyi Tang, Jia Liu, Liangzhao Liu, Jingyu Li, Yonghua He
Advances in Reproductive Sciences, Volume 09, pp 149-159; https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2021.92015

Abstract:
Objectives: To understand sperm motility in adults and its association with lifestyle in an ethnic minority area in Southwest China. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study to assess sperm motility in male adults was conducted at the Reproductive Health Center from January 2018 to May 2019. The data was collected with a questionnaire and semen quality was analyzed with Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis system (CASA). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to measure the relationship between lifestyle factors and sperm motility. Results: A total of 349 people were recruited. Dietary celery intake was significantly related to the increase of sperm progressive motility and total motility (β = 7.00, 95% CI: 1.59, 12.42 and β = 7.26, 95% CI: 1.45, 13.07, respectively). Cola consumption was associated with increased sperm progressive motility (β = 9.71, 95% CI: 1.46, 17.96). Frequent use of plastic bags for meat food storage (β = -5.56, 95% CI: -10.61, -0.51), industry work (β = -5.64, 95% CI: -11.21, -0.07), organic disease (β = -6.14, 95% CI: -11.00, -1.28) and sedentary lifestyle (β = -5.92, 95% CI: -10.66, -1.17 for 3-5 h/d and β = -6.04, 95% CI: -11.60, -0.47 for ≥5 h/d, respectively) were related with the decreased sperm progressive motility. Meanwhile, using plastic bags for meat food storage (β = -6.37, 95% CI: -11.79, -0.95), industry work (β = -7.96, 95% CI: -13.94, -1.98) and sedentary lifestyle (β = -5.51, 95% CI: -10.60, -0.42 for 3-5 h/d and β = -6.03, 95% CI: -12.01, -0.06 for ≥5 h/d, respectively) were also risk factors for total motility. Conclusions: Some modifiable lifestyle factors such as job title, cola consumption, dietary celery intake, plastic bags for meat food storage, and sedentary hours were linked to male sperm motility, indicating that changing these lifestyles may improve it.
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