Geoscience Letters

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ISSN / EISSN : 2196-4092 / 2196-4092
Total articles ≅ 193
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Wei Cheng, Pengxiao Teng, Jun Lyu, Yijing Dai
Published: 23 July 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00196-6

Abstract:
A large bolide was reported at 23:23:33 UTC on December 22, 2020, at a height of ~ 35.5 km at $$31.9^\circ \mathrm{N}$$ 31 . 9 ∘ N , $$96.2^\circ \mathrm{E}$$ 96 . 2 ∘ E in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China. It is the largest fireball observed in China on record with a TNT equivalent of 9.5 kilotons. Infrasound signals were detected by a four-element infrasound array deployed in Yunnan Province, China. The parameters of this event were obtained using the progressive multi-channel correlation method. The altitude of this event was estimated to be $$43.22\pm 15.51\mathrm{ km}$$ 43.22 ± 15.51 km using a ray tracing back-projection algorithm.
Xuerui Wu, Andrés Calabia, , Weihua Bai, Peng Guo
Published: 7 July 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00195-7

Abstract:
In recent years, signal of opportunity reflectometry (SoOp-R) has become a promising remote sensing technique. This emerging technique employs the reflected signals from existing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) or communication satellites to estimate geophysical parameters for Earth observation, such as wind speed, altimetry, significant wave height, soil moisture, etc. While its application for forest canopy monitoring is still in the initial stage, there are still many unknown relations between vegetation parameters and actual observations, and a proper theoretical basis needs to be established for simulation and analysis of the different observation geometries. In this paper, we develop a bistatic scattering model with various polarizations at different frequency bands. Our improved model is based on the first-order radiative transfer equation, and is developed based on the wave synthesis technique, after which it can be used for circular polarization signals in bistatic radar systems, i.e. the typical configuration of SoOp-R. We analyze the simulations of the P (0.25–0.5 GHz), L (0.5–1.5 GHz), C (4–8 GHz), and X (8–12 GHz) bands at the backscattering, specular cone, bistatic scattering, and perpendicular planes. The contributions of the different components to the total scattering are also analyzed. The results show that the coherent scattering at the specular cone is larger than the non-coherent scattering, while trunk-dominated forest canopy has strong scattering at the aforementioned different directions. Variations of canopy parameters such as trunk and branch diameters, tree density, and vegetation water content are also simulated at the specular cone plane, showing strong dependence on the final bistatic scattering observation. The simulation results show that the SoOp-R technique has a great potential for monitoring of canopy parameters.
Published: 22 June 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00193-9

Abstract:
Hydrological models have proliferated in the past several decades prompting debates on the virtues and shortcomings of various modelling approaches. Rather than critiquing individual models or modelling approaches, the objective here is to address the critical issues of scaling and hydrological process representation in various types of models with suggestions for improving these attributes in a parsimonious manner that captures and explains their functionality as simply as possible. This discussion focuses mostly on conceptual and physical/process-based models where understanding the internal catchment processes and hydrologic pathways is important. Such hydrological models can be improved by using data from advanced remote sensing (both spatial and temporal) and derivatives, applications of machine learning, flexible structures, and informing models through nested catchment studies in which internal catchment processes are elucidated. Incorporating concepts of hydrological connectivity into flexible model structures is a promising approach for improving flow path representation. Also important is consideration of the scale dependency of hydrological parameters to avoid scale mismatch between measured and modelled parameters. Examples are presented from remote high-elevation regions where water sources and pathways differ from temperate and tropical environments where more attention has been focused. The challenge of incorporating spatially and temporally variable water inputs, hydrologically pathways, climate, and land use into hydrological models requires modellers to collaborate with catchment hydrologists to include important processes at relevant scales—i.e. develop smarter hydrological models.
Richard L. Ybañez, Audrei Anne B. Ybañez, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A. Lagmay, Mario A. Aurelio
Published: 15 June 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00194-8

Abstract:
Small unmanned aerial vehicles have been seeing increased deployment in field surveys in recent years. Their portability, maneuverability, and high-resolution imaging are useful in mapping surface features that satellite- and plane-mounted imaging systems could not access. In this study, we develop and apply a workplan for implementing UAV surveys in post-disaster settings to optimize the flights for the needs of the scientific team and first responders. Three disasters caused by geophysical hazards and their associated surface deformation impacts were studied implementing this workplan and was optimized based on the target features and environmental conditions. An earthquake that caused lateral spreading and damaged houses and roads near riverine areas were observed in drone images to have lengths of up to 40 m and vertical displacements of 60 cm. Drone surveys captured 2D aerial raster images and 3D point clouds leading to the preservation of these features in soft-sedimentary ground which were found to be tilled over after only 3 months. The point cloud provided a stored 3D environment where further analysis of the mechanisms leading to these fissures is possible. In another earthquake-devastated locale, areas hypothesized to contain the suspected source fault zone necessitated low-altitude UAV imaging below the treeline capturing Riedel shears with centimetric accuracy that supported the existence of extensional surface deformation due to fault movement. In the aftermath of a phreatomagmatic eruption and the formation of sub-metric fissures in nearby towns, high-altitude flights allowed for the identification of the location and dominant NE–SW trend of these fissures suggesting horst-and-graben structures. The workplan implemented and refined during these deployments will prove useful in surveying other post-disaster settings around the world, optimizing data collection while minimizing risk to the drone and the drone operators.
Xin-Yue Wang, Jiang Zhu, Meijiao Xin, Chentao Song, Yadi Li, Yi Zhou, Xichen Li
Published: 7 June 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00192-w

Abstract:
Precipitation in the equatorial African rainforest plays an important role in both the regional hydrological cycle and the global climate variability. Previous studies mostly focus on the trends of drought in recent decades or long-time scales. Using two observational datasets, we reveal a remarkable weakening of the seasonal precipitation cycle over this region from 1979 to 2015, with precipitation significantly increased in the boreal winter dry season (~ 0.13 mm/day/decade) and decreased in the boreal spring wet season (~ 0.21 mm/day/decade), which account for ~ 14% (the precipitation changes from 1979 to 2015) of their respective climatological means. We further use a state-of-the-art atmospheric model to isolate the impact of sea surface temperature change from different ocean basins on the precipitation changes in the dry and wet seasons. Results show that the strengthening precipitation in the dry season is mainly driven by the Atlantic warming, whereas the weakening precipitation in the wet season can be primarily attributed to the Indian Ocean. Warming Atlantic intensifies the zonal circulation over the African rainforest, strengthening moisture convergence and intensifying precipitation in the boreal winter dry season. Warming Indian Ocean contributes more to reducing the zonal circulation and suppressing the convection in the boreal spring wet season, leading to an opposite effect on precipitation. This result has important implication on local ecology as well as global climate system.
Hendri Irwandi, Mohammad Syamsu Rosid,
Published: 12 May 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00191-x

Abstract:
This research quantitatively and qualitatively analyzes the factors responsible for the water level variations in Lake Toba, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. According to several studies carried out from 1993 to 2020, changes in the water level were associated with climate variability, climate change, and human activities. Furthermore, these studies stated that reduced rainfall during the rainy season due to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the continuous increase in the maximum and average temperatures were some of the effects of climate change in the Lake Toba catchment area. Additionally, human interventions such as industrial activities, population growth, and damage to the surrounding environment of the Lake Toba watershed had significant impacts in terms of decreasing the water level. However, these studies were unable to determine the factor that had the most significant effect, although studies on other lakes worldwide have shown these factors are the main causes of fluctuations or decreases in water levels. A simulation study of Lake Toba's water balance showed the possibility of having a water surplus until the mid-twenty-first century. The input discharge was predicted to be greater than the output; therefore, Lake Toba could be optimized without affecting the future water level. However, the climate projections depicted a different situation, with scenarios predicting the possibility of extreme climate anomalies, demonstrating drier climatic conditions in the future. This review concludes that it is necessary to conduct an in-depth, comprehensive, and systematic study to identify the most dominant factor among the three that is causing the decrease in the Lake Toba water level and to describe the future projected water level.
Published: 6 May 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00190-y

Abstract:
Eastern Indonesia is one of the world’s most complex regions in terms of tsunami hazards, as it accommodates numerous seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources with a history of deadly tsunamis. This study is an effort to enhance tsunami hazard knowledge in eastern Indonesia where limited data and analyses exist. We provide a brief understanding of eastern Indonesia’s tsunami hazards by modelling selected deterministic tsunami scenarios from tectonic, submarine mass failure (SMF), and volcanic sources. To our knowledge, this is the first time that tsunami hazards modelling from such diverse sources in Indonesia has been performed. Our methodology is a deterministic tsunami hazard analysis considering credible tsunami sources from historical and contemporary data, modelling them using state-of-the-art simulation tools. We modelled two Mw7.8 tsunamigenic earthquake scenarios on the Flores back-arc thrust, one rupturing the basal fault (FBT-BF) and the other rupturing the splay fault (FBT-SF), showing that the two scenarios produce maximum tsunami amplitudes of $$\sim$$ ∼ 5.3 m and $$\sim$$ ∼ 4.2 m, respectively, which are comparable to the deadly 1992 Flores tsunami. We modelled potential SMF-generated tsunamis in the Makassar Strait with SMF volumes of 5 $$\hbox {km}^3$$ km 3 and 225 $$\hbox {km}^3$$ km 3 which yielded maximum tsunami heights of $$\sim$$ ∼ 1.1 m and $$\sim$$ ∼ 4.3 m along the eastern coast of Kalimantan Island and $$\sim$$ ∼ 2.9 m and $$\sim$$ ∼ 11.1 m along the west shore of Sulawesi Island, respectively. The 1871 Ruang volcanic tsunami is studied through existing historical documents and a source model is proposed comprising a flank collapse with volume of $$0.10\ \mathrm{km}^3$$ 0.10 km 3 . Such a source model successfully reproduced the 25 m runup reported in a historical account.
Somdeep Ghosh, Madhurima Bakshi, Shouvik Mahanty, Tanushree Gaine, Subarna Bhattacharyya, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Punarbasu Chaudhuri
Published: 1 May 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00189-5

Abstract:
River Hooghly, a tributary of river Ganges is one of the major rivers of Asia having traditional, social, economic, religious, and spiritual values. Water samples were collected from 18 sampling locations of river Hooghly during summer (dry), monsoon (wet), and winter (cold) seasons. The samples are analysed for basic physicochemical properties and abundance of selected potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are measured. Several PTEs, e.g., Al, Fe, Ni, and Pb, were found to be above the permissible limits, prescribed by national and international guidelines for safe human consumption. The trend of variation in the mean PTE concentrations showed the following order: Cd < Pb < Co < Cr < Ni < Cu < Zn < Mn < Fe. Due to the presence of high total dissolve solid (TDS) and PTE contents, the water quality of river Hooghly is not suitable for direct human consumption. The evaluated Water Quality Index (WQI) value showed a distinct spatio-temporal variation indicating very severe condition of water quality, which is deteriorating gradually from upstream to downstream. In summer, monsoon, and winter, the highest WQI values were observed in Maushuni Island (S15), Petuaghat (S18), and Tapoban (S17), respectively. However, the non-carcinogenic human health risk in terms of Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index values of PTEs indicates no immediate adverse impact on human health due to exposure of PTE contaminated water from river Hooghly through ingestion or dermal route. Though, these risk values for children were higher than adults warranting the adoption of a long-term management plan to cope with potential human health risks. The result suggests implementation of a combination of stringent socio-legal regulations and numerical models for sustainable water related health risk management in river Hooghly.
Jun Xia, Zhe Li, Sidong Zeng, Lei Zou, DunXian She, Dandong Cheng
Published: 23 April 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00187-7

Abstract:
The Yangtze River, the largest river in China, has been facing major challenges in massive flooding and eco-environmental health over the past decades. Sustainable socioeconomic development in the Yangtze River Basin depends on water and ecosystem security. This overview addresses eco-water security under the changing environment of the Yangtze River Basin. Looking forward to a healthy Yangtze River in the future, there are still uncertainties regarding how to assess and wisely manage the Yangtze River through a systematic, integrated approach applied to multiple dimensions, water, biodiversity, ecological services, and resilience, for the sustainable development of ecosystems and human beings. The Yangtze Simulator, an integrated river basin model powered by artificial intelligence and interdisciplinary science, is introduced and discussed, and it will serve as a robust tool for good governance of the Yangtze River Basin.
Xin-Yue Wang, Jiang Zhu, Chueh-Hsin Chang, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Hailong Liu, Yadi Li, Chentao Song, Meijiao Xin, Yi Zhou, Xichen Li
Published: 19 April 2021
Geoscience Letters, Volume 8, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s40562-021-00186-8

Abstract:
The Pacific Walker circulation (WC) is a major component of the global climate system. It connects the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability to the climate variabilities from the other ocean basins to the mid- and high latitudes. Previous studies indicated that the ENSO-related atmospheric feedback, in particular, the surface wind response is largely underestimated in AMIP and CMIP models. In this study, we further investigate the responses in the WC stream function and the sea level pressure (SLP) to the ENSO-related SST variability by comparing the responses in 45 AMIP and 63 CMIP models and six reanalysis datasets. We reveal a diversity in the performances of simulated SLP and WC between different models. While the SLP responses to the El Niño-related SST variability are well simulated in most of the atmospheric and coupled models, the WC stream function responses are largely underestimated in most of these models. The WC responses in the AMIP5/6 models capture ~ 75% of those in the reanalysis, whereas the CMIP5/6 models capture ~ 58% of the responses. Further analysis indicates that these underestimated circulation responses could be partially attributed to the biases in the precipitation scheme in both the atmospheric and coupled models, as well as the biases in the simulated ENSO-related SST patterns in the coupled models. One should pay special attention to these biases when studying the WC or the tropical atmosphere–ocean interactions using numerical models.
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