Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1411-982X / 2354-8509
Total articles ≅ 332
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Herni Shintiavira, Endang Sulistyaningsih, Aziz Purwantoro, Rani Agustina Wulandari
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 27-38;

Higher temperature and light intensity at the medium upland elevation decrease the number of blooming flowers, flower diameter, and red color flower intensity of Chrysanthemum morifoliumcompared to that at the high upland elevation. The environmental modification was needed during the flower development phase to improve the quality of chrysantheum at a medium upland elevation. The study aimed to find the suitable screen house environmental modification for increasing the chrysanthemum quality at the medium upland elevation. The study consisted of two factors. First, environmental modification of a screen house, such as (1) control, (2) the addition of shading net on the rooftop of the screen house, (3) the addition of a misting system in the screen house, and (4) the addition of a combination of shading net on the rooftop and misting system in the screen house. Second, the chrysanthemum varieties, including (1) Yastayuki (white flower), (2) Arosuka Pelangi (yellow flower), and (3) Socakawani (red flower). Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data were analyzed by combined ANOVA. The results showed that either the addition of a shading net or misting system reduced the number of flower buds growing. The competition among flower buds was found to be reduced by decreasing the number of flower buds. Consequently, the number and diameter of the blooming flower increased. The addition of a shading net on top of the screen house was the most suitable environmental modification to increase the chrysanthemum quality at the medium upland elevation.
Marida Santi Yudha Ika Bayu, Yusmani Prayogo, Gatut Wahyu Anggoro Susanto
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 8-16;

The main constraints to increase mungbean production in Indonesia are pests and diseases. The application of integrated biological agents can improve the efficacy of controlling the mungbean pests and diseases. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of integrated biological agents to suppress mungbean pests and diseases. This field research was conducted from May to July 2018 using a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were: T1 = Trichol + NSP, T2 = Trichol + SlNPV, T3 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV, T4 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV + BeBas, T5 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV + BeBas + GE, T6 = chemical pesticides, and T7 = control. The results showed that the highest efficacy occurred in T4 and T5 treatments which saved the yield loss from major pests and diseases attack, and did not differ significantly with chemical pesticides (T6). Treatments T4 was able to reduce the development of soil borne diseases by 3% and suppress Spodoptera litura attack by 9.8% as compared to chemical treatment. T4 was also more efficient than T5 because it uses less biological agents. The advantage of biological agents is compatible if they were used together with predators such as Oxyopes sp., Paederus sp. and Coccinella sp; and also Telenomus sp. and Trichogramma sp. parasitoids. On the other hand, the chemical pesticides (T6) killed all existing natural enemies. Therefore, T4 could be recommended for controlling mungbean pests and diseases.
Amit Gnawali, Roshan Subedi
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 17-26;

Germination is a portentous yield determining factor that is a challenge in the low water potential environment due to disrupted imbibition. Hormonal seed priming can markedly increase the germination on maize even in such a stressful environment. Therefore, research was aimed to analyze the application of gibberellic acid (GA3) priming to maize seeds to minimize the deleterious effects of reduced water potential. GA3 priming was done at 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm for 12 hours and subjected to drought levels of 0, 0.15, 0.50, 1.05, and 1.75 MPa by using NaCl solution. Different germination parameters, i.e., germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index, relative water content, seedling vigor index, root length, and shoot length, were determined on the final day of the experiment. The results showed that all germination parameters were adversely influenced by low water potential. Every level of GA3 priming has hastened all parameters. GA3 priming at 100 ppm decreased the mean germination time by 35 hours under 1.75 MPa compared to non-primed seeds. GA3 priming increased the shoot length of maize seedlings with a shoot length of 2.9 cm in non-primed seedlings compared to 6.4 cm in 200 ppm GA3 priming under 1.05 MPa. GA3 priming is the best method for the early establishment of maize seedlings in low water potential conditions. As a result, it may be utilized as a low-cost and straightforward approach for establishing maize crops under saline and drought conditions.
Nurwulan Agustiani, Sujinah Sujinah, Indrastuti Apri Rumanti
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 1-7;

Stagnant flooding (SF) stress has contributed decreasing rice production in Indonesia. The study aimed to explore critical variables of rice growth that contribute to the decreasing grain yield under SF conditions and a common irrigation system (control). The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design with four replications to test 10 rice genotypes (Inpari 30 Ciherang Sub-1, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 8, IRRI119, IRRI154, IR42, IR14D121, IR14D157, and Tapus). The water depth was managed according to the farmer’s practices for control, while for SF plots the standing water depth was gradually increased from 35 days after transplanting and was maintained at 50 cm until harvest. Results showed that plant height, tillering ability, leaf greenness, panicle number per hill and grain filling percentage were critical growth variables that affect grain yield at optimal conditions. The yield of the 10 genotypes decreased by 25–50% under SF conditions. Inpara 3 had the stable yield in those two watering conditions. Therefore, it could be used as a check variety for SF condition. Inpara 9 and IRRI119 experienced decreased yield of more than 50% under SF conditions. The key factors determining the decreased yield were tillering ability and green leaf level. Optimization of the two variables at SF conditions will largely determine rice yield associated with panicle number per hill and grain number per panicle. Results of the study are useful as preliminary recommendations for designing new variety and cultivation techniques to reduce the impact of SF stress on rice yield.
Lina Herlina, Bonjok Istiaji, Dodin Koswanudin, Sutoro Sutoro
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 39-57;

Increasing productivity of soybean has often been constrained by pod sucking bugs (Riptortus spp.) which caused a serious damage and yield losses up to 80%. Breeding for obtaining soybean variety resistant to pod suckers needs the availability of soybean germplasm resistant to the pest. The study aimed to obtain a candidate for soybean variety resistant to Riptortus spp. through the selection of 100 accessions of soybean. The study included the preparation of test plants and test insects, pest infestations, observations, and looking for a practical screening method for pod sucking pests. The experiment used a completely randomized design for two treatments (infested and non-infested Riptortus spp.). Cikuray variety and PI-092734 accession were used as a control. Results showed that there was a very low correlation among variables observed. Twelve soybean accessions showed a resistance to Riptortus spp., i.e. C7301-113AC-POP, Lokal Madiun-3549, Lokal Klungkung, ML.2974, Singgalang, Lokal Jepara, Lokal Jatim, Lokal Trenggalek, Lokal Tulungagung, Lokal Tabanan, Lokal Blitar, and Lokal Kuningan 10. These accessions were more resistant than the popular released variety such as Wilis, Grobogan, Detam 2, and Gepak Ijo. Small seed size was not a major determinant of soybean resistance to pod suckers. The addition of observational components, i.e. probing preference and oviposition, indicated that crop damage was indirectly influenced by the high frequency of probing and oviposition, although its relation to plant tolerant mechanisms still needs further investigation. Indeterminate plant types require further validation as to whether they contribute significantly to plant resistance against pod sucking insects.
Gina Aliya Sopha
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 21, pp 70-77;

True shallot seed (Allium cepa var Aggregatum group) is an alternative way of growing shallot. Different environments and cultivars need a specific study. The aim of this research was to find out the best technology to grow Trisula true shallot seed by managing plant densities and applying compost and biofertilizer in alluvial soils. The study was performed from May to October 2015, using a split-plot design with four replications. The main plot was plant density: 100 plants m-2 and 70 plants m-2. Subplots were five fertilizer application combinations, they were 100% recommended dose of NPK (R-NPK), 100% R-NPK + compost, 100% R-NPK + compost + biofertilizer, 50% R-NPK + compost and 50% R-NPK + compost + biofertilizer. Results showed that biomass and bulb yield were significantly affected by plant density and fertilizer application. The reduced 50% R-NPK by substituting with compost and biofertilizer was unable to maintain shallot bulb yield equal to 100% R-NPK, suggesting insufficient nutrients derived from compost to satisfy the shallot requirement. The best technology to grow true shallot seed of Trisula variety was 100 plants m-2 plant density and 100% NPK (consisting of 180 kg N ha-1, 52 kg P ha-1 and 50 kg K ha-1) with 2.5 t ha-1 compost that achieved the highest bulb yield of 9.83 t ha-1 and increased the revenue.
Elizabeth Wina,
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 21, pp 89-97;

Secondary compounds containing plant extract as feed additive may improve the performance of livestock consuming high roughage diet. An in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of Sapindus rarak extract (SRE) on ruminal fermentation products, microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance of sheep. Sheep (male, 28 heads) fed high roughage diet were arranged in a completely randomized design with four treatments: addition of SRE to the diet at 0, 4, 8 and 12 g head-1 day-1. The experiment was conducted for 105 days with 2 weeks adaptation period. At the end of the experiment, total faeces was collected for 1 week and rumen liquor was taken. Variables measured were ruminal fermentation products, microbial protein synthesis, daily intake, digestibility, N retention, body weight, and average daily gain. Protozoal numbers were significantly decreased with increasing SRE dose. The ruminal NH3 concentration tended to reduce by SRE addition (P = 0.06). SRE significantly increased propionate and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis from 6.4 to 10.5 g N kg-1 DOMR. SRE significantly improved average daily gain of sheep during the first 70 days of experiment without affecting intake and digestibility. SRE did not alter carcass percentage but tended to lower pancreas and liver weights (P<0.1). In conclusion, SRE has a significant role in partially defaunated rumen microflora, hence, increased microbial protein synthesis and propionate production in the rumen. Addition of SRE is useful to increase daily gain of sheep fed high roughage diet in 70 days of feeding.
Muhammad Rasyid Ridla Ranomahera, Bayu Dwi Apri Nugroho, Prima Diarini Riajaya, Rivandi Pranandita Putra
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 21, pp 78-88;

In Indonesia, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is mostly cultivated in drylands, thus depending on rainfall for crop growth and development. Rainfall is an essential factor affecting sugarcane productivity. The global climate indices can be used to investigate potential of rainfall within a given area and its relationship with crop productivity. This reserach aimed to analyze the relationship between the global climate index, rainfall, and sugarcane productivity in drylands near Glenmore sugar mill, i.e., Benculuk and Jolondoro, Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. The global climate index data used were the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) between 1995 and 2014. Results of this research showed that SOI and SST can be used to predict the rainfall in both Benculuk and Jolondoro. Rainfall (y) can be predicted with SST data (x) using the equation of y = -352.49x + 7724.1 in Benculuk and y = -107.32 + 3443.4 in Jolondoro, as well as with SOI data (x) using the equation of y = 38.664x + 1555.1 in Benculuk and y = 10.541x + 1567.8 in Jolondoro. Sugarcane productivity (y) in Jolondoro can be predicted using data of total rainfall (x) between October and March with the following equation: y = -0.1672x + 1157.3. This equation can be used by sugar mills, sugarcane growers, and other sugarcane-relevant stakeholders for determining the appropriate growing season.
NurulNahar Esa, Adam Puteh, Mazidah Mat, Roslan Ismail, Mohd Rafii Yusop
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 21, pp 49-58;

Rice blast is one of the most critical limiting factors for rice plant growth performance. Silicon has been shown to have positive effects in controlling several plant diseases. The study aimed to investigate the impact of silicon levels on rice yield, silicon content, and panicle blast in rice plants. The study was set up as a 2 x 5 factorial experiment with three replications and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The first factors were two rice cultivars, MARDI Siraj 297 (resistant) and MR 263 (susceptible). The second factors were five levels of calcium silicate (0 g, 4 g, 8 g, 12 g, and 16 g) applied to 40 kg soil per pot. The standard fertilizers, i.e., N, P2 O5, and K2 O, were applied four times at the recommended dosage. High virulent of Pyricularia oryzae conidia (4 x 104 conidia ml-1) was sprayed using a hand sprayer (30 ml pot-1) at the time of fully completed panicle development (65 days after planting). Observed parameters were plant growth (height and culm length), yields (spikelets per panicle, grain filling percentage, and harvest index), panicle blast severity, and silica content in leaf, stem, and panicle. The results showed that silicon application reduced panicle blast severity, leading to higher yield per plant. The increase of the rice yield was a result of a significant increae in panicle per m2 , spikelet per m2 , and percentage of filled grain. Panicle blast greatly affected the performance of spikelet number per m2 , percentage of filled grain, grain weight, and yield per plant for the susceptible cultivar. Application of calcium silicate 10 g 40 kg-1 soil per pot at panicle initiation is recommended to reduce panicle blast severity hereby improve grain yield.
, Endang Sulistyaningsih, Benito Heru Purwanto, Didik Indradewa
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 21, pp 59-69;

The released lowland tomato cultivars are known for their resistance to plant diseases and high temperatures. The study aimed to identify the drought tolerance of lowland tomato cultivars based on the drought tolerant indices. The study was arranged in a split plot design, using seven lowland tomato cultivars (Zamrud, Permata F1, Ratna, Mirah, Tombatu F1, Tyrana F1, and Tymoti F1) as the main plot and watering (standard conditions and once every eight days as the drought conditions) as the subplot. Parameters observed were morpho physiological characters (plant height, leaf area, biomass, root length, root surface area, shoot root ratio, relative moisture content, membrane stability index, chlorophyll levels, and proline levels). The parameters observed in each character included the sensitivity stress index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), and yield stability index (YSI). Results showed that four cultivars (Tyrana F1, Tymoty F1, Mirah, and Tombatu F1) were drought tolerance, and three cultivars (Ratna, Permata F1, and Zamrud F1) were susceptible. The water stress decreased agronomic and physiological traits performance, but the drought-tolerant cultivars were less affected to the stress and produced higher fruit weight. The study implies that the drought-tolerant cultivars could be used as a promising source for drought tolerant genotypes.
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