Science Robotics

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EISSN : 24709476
Total articles ≅ 213
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Hongri Gu, Quentin Boehler, Daniel Ahmed, Bradley J. Nelson
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aax8977

Abstract:Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions govern the behavior of magnetic matter across scales from micrometer colloidal particles to centimeter magnetic soft robots. This pairwise long-range interaction creates rich emergent phenomena under both static and dynamic magnetic fields. However, magnetic dipole particles, from either ferromagnetic or paramagnetic materials, tend to form chain-like structures as low-energy configurations due to dipole symmetry. The repulsion force between two magnetic dipoles raises challenges for creating stable magnetic assemblies with complex two-dimensional (2D) shapes. In this work, we propose a magnetic quadrupole module that is able to form stable and frustration-free magnetic assemblies with arbitrary 2D shapes. The quadrupole structure changes the magnetic particle-particle interaction in terms of both symmetry and strength. Each module has a tunable dipole moment that allows the magnetization of overall assemblies to be programmed at the single module level. We provide a simple combinatorial design method to reach both arbitrary shapes and arbitrary magnetizations concurrently. Last, by combining modules with soft segments, we demonstrate programmable actuation of magnetic metamaterials that could be used in applications for soft robots and electromagnetic metasurfaces.
Joao Ramos, Sangbae Kim
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aav4282

Abstract:Despite remarkable progress in artificial intelligence, autonomous humanoid robots are still far from matching human-level manipulation and locomotion proficiency in real applications. Proficient robots would be ideal first responders to dangerous scenarios such as natural or man-made disasters. When handling these situations, robots must be capable of navigating highly unstructured terrain and dexterously interacting with objects designed for human workers. To create humanoid machines with human-level motor skills, in this work, we use whole-body teleoperation to leverage human control intelligence to command the locomotion of a bipedal robot. The challenge of this strategy lies in properly mapping human body motion to the machine while simultaneously informing the operator how closely the robot is reproducing the movement. Therefore, we propose a solution for this bilateral feedback policy to control a bipedal robot to take steps, jump, and walk in synchrony with a human operator. Such dynamic synchronization was achieved by (i) scaling the core components of human locomotion data to robot proportions in real time and (ii) applying feedback forces to the operator that are proportional to the relative velocity between human and robot. Human motion was sped up to match a faster robot, or drag was generated to synchronize the operator with a slower robot. Here, we focused on the frontal plane dynamics and stabilized the robot in the sagittal plane using an external gantry. These results represent a fundamental solution to seamlessly combine human innate motor control proficiency with the physical endurance and strength of humanoid robots.
K. N. McGuire, C. De Wagter, K. Tuyls, H. J. Kappen, G. C. H. E. De Croon
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aaw9710

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Elena Messina
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aay6004

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Emmanuel Senft, Séverin Lemaignan, Paul E. Baxter, Madeleine Bartlett, Tony Belpaeme
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aat1186

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Antoine Barbot, Haijie Tan, Maura Power, Florent Seichepine, Guang-Zhong Yang
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aax8336

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William Savoie, Thomas A. Berrueta, Zachary Jackson, Ana Pervan, Ross Warkentin, Shengkai Li, Todd D. Murphey, Kurt Wiesenfeld, Daniel I. Goldman
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aax4316

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J. Zhu, C. White, D. K. Wainwright, V. Di Santo, G. V. Lauder, H. Bart-Smith
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aax4615

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Patricia A. Xu, A. K. Mishra, H. Bai, C. A. Aubin, L. Zullo, R. F. Shepherd
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aaw6304

Abstract:Whereas vision dominates sensing in robots, animals with limited vision deftly navigate their environment using other forms of perception, such as touch. Efforts have been made to apply artificial skins with tactile sensing to robots for similarly sophisticated mobile and manipulative skills. The ability to functionally mimic the afferent sensory neural network, required for distributed sensing and communication networks throughout the body, is still missing. This limitation is partially due to the lack of cointegration of the mechanosensors in the body of the robot. Here, lacings of stretchable optical fibers distributed throughout 3D-printed elastomer frameworks created a cointegrated body, sensing, and communication network. This soft, functional structure could localize deformation with submillimeter positional accuracy (error of 0.71 millimeter) and sub-Newton force resolution (~0.3 newton).
R. Zufferey, A. Ortega Ancel, A. Farinha, R. Siddall, S. F. Armanini, M. Nasr, R. V. Brahmal, G. Kennedy, M. Kovac
Science Robotics, Volume 4; doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aax7330

Abstract:Robotic vehicles that are capable of autonomously transitioning between various terrains and fluids have received notable attention in the past decade due to their potential to navigate previously unexplored and/or unpredictable environments. Specifically, aerial-aquatic mobility will enable robots to operate in cluttered aquatic environments and carry out a variety of sensing tasks. One of the principal challenges in the development of such vehicles is that the transition from water to flight is a power-intensive process. At a small scale, this is made more difficult by the limitations of electromechanical actuation and the unfavorable scaling of the physics involved. This paper investigates the use of solid reactants as a combustion gas source for consecutive aquatic jump-gliding sequences. We present an untethered robot that is capable of multiple launches from the water surface and of transitioning from jetting to a glide. The power required for aquatic jump-gliding is obtained by reacting calcium carbide powder with the available environmental water to produce combustible acetylene gas, allowing the robot to rapidly reach flight speed from water. The 160-gram robot could achieve a flight distance of 26 meters using 0.2 gram of calcium carbide. Here, the combustion process, jetting phase, and glide were modeled numerically and compared with experimental results. Combustion pressure and inertial measurements were collected on board during flight, and the vehicle trajectory and speed were analyzed using external tracking data. The proposed propulsion approach offers a promising solution for future high-power density aerial-aquatic propulsion in robotics.