Materials Sciences and Applications

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2153-117X / 2153-1188
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,135
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Latest articles in this journal

Takahisa Yamazaki, Amane Muraoka
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 78-88; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.121005

Abstract:
Operating diamond grits to produce a precise grind tool is need. In order to lift up a diamond grit by magnetic force, the magnetic flux was estimated to be 100 μT/g. Diamond (110) surface was modified with manganese powder at 450°C (720 K) then with bismuth powder at 270°C (540 K) due to its low melting temperature. Manganese carbides were formed on the diamond surface which was confirmed by an X-ray diffraction. A magnet that exhibits ferrimagnetism was formed on the surface, it had a spontaneous magnetism. We conducted to form six small disk magnets at hexagonal apex positions on the diamond (110) by using gold film mask. The magnetic flux measured at the center of the hexagon magnets on was 232 μT at room temperature, and the surface modified diamond grid could be lifted up in the magnetic field between two solenoid coils.
Santi Rattanaveeranon, Knavoot Jiamwattanapong, Nattaphorn Jandee
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 111-120; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.122007

Abstract:
As the hydrazine is toxic, the methods to detect hydrazine at low concentrations are essential in scientific research. This preliminary study reported on how to increase the efficiency of ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by adding durian peel ash (DPA) and using three-electrode method. The ZnO/rGO composites were prepared using chemical reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with zinc chloride. The rGO was prepared by the chemical reduction of GO using hydrazine. The properties of the samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Potentiostat/Galvanostat. The results showed that the optimal condition for the composite material was 70%DPA:30%ZnO/rGO with the sensitivity of 222.92 mA/mM·cm2 and the current density up to 116.50 ± 0.95 A/g. The relationship between the current and the hydrazine concentration was I (μA) = 48.69 + 21.91C (mM) with R2 of 0.9870. The minimum concentration of hydrazine solution that the modified electrode can measure was 0.125 mM. The DPA powder can then be used to enhance the hydrazine detection efficiency at low concentrations.
Suman Babu Ukyam, Raju P. Mantena, Damian L. Stoddard, Arunachalam M. Rajendran, Robert D. Moser
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 152-170; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.124010

Abstract:
In work reported here, the dynamic properties and low-velocity impact response of woven carbon/epoxy laminates incorporating a novel 3D interlaminar reinforcement concept with dense layers of Z-axis oriented milled carbon fiber SupercompositeTM prepregs, are presented. Impulse-frequency response vibration technique is used for non-destructive evaluation of the dynamic flexural modulus (stiffness) and loss factor (intrinsic damping) of woven carbon/epoxy control and SupercompositeTM laminates. Low-velocity punch-shear tests were performed on control and SupercompositeTM laminates according to ASTM D3763 Standard using a drop-weight impact test system. Control panels had all layers of 3K plain woven carbon/epoxy prepregs, with a dense interlaminar reinforcement of milled carbon fibers in Z- direction used in designing the SupercompositeTM laminate—both having same areal density. Impulse-frequency response vibration experiments show that with a 50% replacement of woven carbon fabric in control panel with milled carbon fibers in Z direction dynamic flexural modulus reduced 25% - 30% (loss in stiffness) and damping increased by about the same 25% - 30%. Low-velocity punch-shear tests demonstrated about 25% reduction in energy absorption for SupercompositeTM laminates with the replacement of 50% woven carbon fabric in control panel.
Maâzou Siragi D. B., Didier Desmecht, Halidou I. Hima, Ousmaila Sanda Mamane, Ibrahim Natatou
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 207-222; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.125014

Abstract:
Plant matter constitutes an important source for producing carbonaceous materials. This work deals with the preparation of active carbons from shells of Parinari macrophylla (agricultural waste in Niger). Physical, chemical and mixed activations are considered. Several parameters of preparation are optimized, as the nature of the activation gas (N2 or CO2, dry and wet), the concentration of the activating agent (H3PO4), the time of impregnation and the pyrolysis temperature program. The active carbons are characterized through their iodine numbers, their specific surface areas and their porous volumes. Active carbons, produced from shells of Parinari macrophylla display iodine numbers up to 599 mg I2/g and specific surface areas up to 727 m2/g. They also show microporous characteristics, with a mean pore diameter, usually, lower than 20 Å and a microporous surface percentage up to 88.7% and a microporous volume percentage up to 82.1%. The microporosity is far more developed for the active carbons produced by chemical activation.
Sena Peace Hounkpe, Valéry K. Doko, Smith O. Kotchoni, Hui Li, Abbas T. Datchossa
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 239-254; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.125016

Abstract:
The research of materials with good properties is one of the important concerns of scientists groups, and more again in region where materials are subjected to freeze and thaw cycles. In the case of this paper, it has been a matter of evaluating of the effect of carbon nanotubes on concrete resistance to freeze and thaw cycles. Thus, it has been manufactured concretes with different rates of addition (0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% bwc) of cement by carbon nanotubes. The durability factor, determined for C30 specimens at 28 days, shows that C005 provides a better resistance to freezing-thawing cycles with a 54.96 as index.
Mababa Diagne, Ibrahima Dia, Omar Gueye
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 276-296; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.126019

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the optimal quantity of fillers to add to hydraulic concrete and to assess the influence of these fillers on its rheological characteristics and mechanical properties. The characterization of the aggregates shows that they meet the specifications for the formulation of hydraulic concrete according to the Dreux-Gorisse method. Normalizing the formula to the cubic meter enables to define the standard concrete. The cement content is 350 kg/m3. The mineral materials added to the concrete to increase its characteristics and properties are limestone, basalt, and sandstone fillers with a weight percent of 4%, 5%, and 3% respectively. Changes in concrete properties with the addition of fillers were determined through geotechnical tests. The results obtained show a decrease in the workability measured by slump test which returned 7.8 cm for the standard concrete sample, 7.2 cm with 5% of basalt, 7.3 cm with 4% of limestone, and 6.1 cm with 3% of sandstone. Regarding the bleeding, the results show that it decreases leading to a substantial improvement in stabilization reaching 26% with 5% of basalt fillers, 29% with 4% of limestone fillers, and 31% with 3% of sandstone fillers. The compressive strengths noted Rc28 at 28 days increases compared to that of the standard concrete, which is 31.5 MPa. They increase to 34.3 MPa with 5% of basalt fillers being 8.9%, 36.2 MPa with 4% of limestone fillers being 14.9%, and 36.8 MPa with 3% of sandstone fillers being 16.8%. Finally, the addition of fillers increases the degree of compaction values to 83.62% with 5% of basalt fillers, 84.2% with 4% of limestone fillers, and 84.34% with 3% of sandstone fillers.
Markus Hofele, Andre Roth, Jochen Schanz, David K. Harrison, Anjali K. M. De Silva, Harald Riegel
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 15-41; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.121002

Abstract:
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is an Additive Manufacturing technique, which allows production of highly complex solid metal parts with good mechanical properties, compared to conventionally manufactured parts. Nevertheless, the layer-by-layer fabrication process also offers several disadvantages, including a relatively high surface roughness depending on the shape of the component, its position and orientation during the fabrication process. This paper deals with investigations on the surface roughness reduction capability, and residual surface structures by laser polishing of LPBF AlSi10Mg parts under varying initial surface roughness in order to investigate the influence of the surface behavior and initial surface roughness to the achievable surface quality by laser polishing. Hereto test specimens with varying fabrication orientations regarding to the built platform are printed and further polished. Thereby the initial arithmetic roughness varies between 19.2 μm and 8.0 μm. It could be shown that the achievable surface roughness by laser polishing with continuous and pulsed laser radiation is increasing with rising initial roughness, but the relative roughness reduction is almost constant in the range of 95% - 97.5%. The analyzation of the residual roughness structures shows, that the main roughness differences is found in the middle and long structure wavelength regime, which are directly depending on the initial surface structures of 3D printing.
Masanori Kobayashi
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 42-51; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.121003

Abstract:
Excellent firm bonding between the biomaterials and bone tissue (osseointegration and osteo-conductivity) has been desired for the stability in vivo of dental implants and artificial joints. Much has been learned about this concept, which has led to significant improvements in the design and surface modification of implants in the field of implant dentistry, orthopedic surgery. We have already reported that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) irradiation can accelerate the bone bonding ability of the bio-conductive materials such as bioactive titanium and hydroxyapatite implant. However, it is still unclear whether the LIPUS could have same effect to different types of the bioactive-materials. Therefore, in this study, the differences of bone-like hydroxyapatite formation on some kind of hydroxyapatite surface in simulated body fluid (SBF) under the LIPUS irradiation were investigated. Two kinds of hydroxyapatite samples immersed in SBF was exposed to ultrasound waves, the bone-like apatite on the surface was analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As a result, the enhancement of hydroxyapatite formation on the surface by LIPUS was confirmed, the initial epitaxial nucleation and crystal growth of apatite depended on crystal structure of the surface of matrix materials.
Jérémy Longlade, Christelle Delaite, Anne-Sophie Schuller
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.121001

Abstract:
In this study, surface modification of barium sulfate was investigated using several model molecules for chemical treatment: ethanesulfonic acid, butyric acid, trimethoxy(propyl) silane and phosphoric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Samples were characterized by FT-IR and TGA to check the capability of these model molecules to interact with BaSO4 surface. The results pointed out the presence of an organic layer around the surface after the chemical treatment even after several washings to remove all species in excess. Model molecules were grafted onto BaSO4 surface and grafted density was determined. It reveals that phosphoric acid and carboxylic acid are the best candidates for the modification of BaSO4 surface. Both can be used as anchoring groups to modify the hydrophilic balance of barium sulfate surface in order to avoid the formation of aggregates and to improve the compatibility of this filler within hydrophobic polymer matrix.
Julien Claquesin, Mathieu Gibilaro, Laurent Massot, Olivier Lemoine, Gilles Bourges, Pierre Chamelot
Materials Sciences and Applications, Volume 12, pp 139-151; doi:10.4236/msa.2021.124009

Abstract:
The CaCl2-CaF2-CaO phase diagram was investigated in the CaO low region (2-CaF2 and CaCl2-CaO binary diagrams, constituting the ternary system, were first studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization; a good agreement was obtained between the phase diagram models calculated with FactSage® software (FTsalt database) and present experimental data. As the CaF2-CaO liquidus could not be measured by DSC due to the high melting temperature, this diagram was calculated using FTsalt database combined with FToxid database of FactSage® software. The ternary phase diagram was obtained by calculations and exhibits an eutectic at the composition CaCl2-CaF2-CaO (78.2-15.7-6.1 mol.%) melting at 637°C, and five peritectic points. Measurements of relevant vertical cross-sections for three CaCl2-CaF2 compositions (50-50, 40-60 and 30-70 mol.%) up to 18 mol.% CaO are in agreement with the ternary phase diagram model. For each section, the liquidus temperature is constant up to around 11 mol.% CaO and then sharply increases. Moreover, an increase of CaF2 content in CaCl2-CaF2 melt leads to a decrease of the CaO solubility in isothermal condition.
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