Italian Journal of Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 1877-9344 / 1877-9352
Published by: PAGEPress Publications (10.4081)
Total articles ≅ 1,129
Latest articles in this journal
Italian Journal of Medicine; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.q.2021.s1
Il presente documento è stato redatto nell’ambito del progetto di sensibilizzazione sul tema di Fondazione Onda.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1444
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that disturbs the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Therefore, evaluation of diabetes- related QOL could be a key outcome measure for its management. This study assessed the QOL in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using the World Health Organization (WHO) quality of life (QOL)˗BREF questionnaire and disease-specific appraisal of diabetes scale (ADS). In this cross-sectional study, 520 T2DM patients were included. Patients’ demographic data, clinical information was collected through interviews, and the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and ADS were used for the QOL of patients. Statistical analysis was performed by using R software (Version 3.6.0). The mean ADS scores were lower in controlled diabetic subjects (18.50±3.08) and higher in uncontrolled diabetic subjects (19.29±2.73) (P<0.05). For WHOQOL-BREF, the mean scores for all the domains (overall general health, physical, psychological, social, and environmental) were significantly higher in controlled diabetic subjects (P<0.001). In addition, the age, duration of diabetes, associated comorbidities, treatment, and HbA1c level of patients showed a highly significant correlation with WHOQOL-BREF (P<0.001). Diabetic patients had poor-to-average QOL. Therefore, public health measures and education of diabetic patients are essential to create more awareness for improving the QOL of T2DM.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.s1
Book of the XXVI Congresso Nazionale della Società Scientifica FADOI, 2-4 ottobre 2021.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1466
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1445
After identifying a novel disease inducing a severe acute respiratory syndrome-related to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for epidemic pneumonia in China, the diffusion of infection is ongoing around the world, and Italy has been the second country in which an epidemic has been demonstrated. Clinical features of this infection may be summarized in viral pneumonia that SARS or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may complicate. For this reason, this epidemic has been considerably more aggressive than the previous epidemic of SARS and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed an easy diffusion from human to human and also showed to be more contagious than other viruses. So human contact should be avoided at the emergency room and for inpatients too. The Triage should be adapted to these new features in order to speed up procedures for the care of infected patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality for SARS and ARDS and for traditional access to the emergency room. Based on our experiences, this flow chart has been designed with a multi-level triage in which patients have been divided for admission to the emergency room into patients with fever/respiratory symptoms and patients without fever\respiratory symptoms, to improve medical performances while treating COVID-19. This organized, multilevel triage permitted a good selection of patients admitted to the emergency room during the epidemic of COVID-19 in Southern Italy.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1443
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of individuals around the World. Hypertension (HT), chronic heart disease (CHD), and diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in the elderly, increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, conflicting results [such as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease vulnerability, case fatality, etc.] have been reported about the response to infection and COVID-19 outcomes in men and women. Therefore, understanding predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission might help future planning and management of the disease. We conducted a multicenter survey about COVID-19 involving internists from Internal Medicine Wards. This survey indirectly allowed us to analyze the information of 2400 patients hospitalized in 35 wards of Internal Medicine of the Campania Region between July and October 2020. Our investigation has detected that the infection is more frequent in males, and the number of male patients hospitalized in ICU is also higher than females, with a large proportion of hypertensive patients. Extensive prospective studies are required to confirm this finding and explore the mechanisms for which hypertensive males are exposed to a higher proportion of admission to ICU and higher case fatality rates.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1463
Effective intervention is a significant component in the improvement of blood pressure control and patient adherence. Blood pressure control includes different self-monitoring techniques, mobile health monitoring, or healthcare professionals’ interventions. This study aims to compare, analyze, and interpret the effectiveness of pharmacist-physician collaboration and pharmacist- led interventions. Meta-analysis was performed using MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases between 2008-2018. Of the 51 relevant systematic reviews identified, 15 were of sufficient quality and included in the data synthesis. The breakdown of the 15 included 7 (n=2026) pharmacist and 8 pharmacist-physician interventions (n=2361). The impact of pharmacist-physician collaboration and pharmacist-led interventions on Systolic Blood Pressure was –8.22 (–11.01; –5.42) (P<0.01) and –7.68 (–9.30; –6.06) (P=0.35), respectively. On the other hand, similar correlation for Diastolic Blood Pressure for the impact of pharmacist-physician collaboration and pharmacist-led interventions was –3.55 (–4.54; –2.55) (P=0.49) and –2.58 (–3.76; –1.39) (P=0.24), respectively. These results suggest that both interventions are effective for blood pressure control. However, when two meta-analyses were compared, it was found that pharmacist-physician collaboration was more effective than pharmacist-led interventions. This finding highlights the importance of multidisciplinary approaches during blood pressure control procedures. When a holistic view is considered; especially cost-effectiveness, future studies must be diversified to encompass a broader context and impact analysis.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1462
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a primary health problem globally. In particular, it has caused troubles even to the advanced health systems of Western countrieswho attempted to limit the spread of the infection and manage patients with severe respiratory distress. However, this sudden contingency has had a much higher cost if we also consider the cost of suspending ordinary clinical care or delays in the emergency pathways of non-COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the policies applied to contain the contagion have exacerbated the socio-economic disparities of the population and isolated fragile patients, making them subject to clinical relapses or aggravation of chronic diseases. For this reason, the various specialist centers have equipped themselves to guarantee an effective therapeutic path. In this brief review, we have outlined some consequent repercussions on the management of acute and chronic cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases and on oncological treatment. In particular, we have described the effects of the current health reorganization on some acute and time-dependent diseases, such as stroke and acute coronary syndromes, in which therapeutic delay is potentially disabling or fatal. Furthermore, we have focused on cancer treatments, whose essential cornerstones are early screening and follow-up. Finally, the suffering of the local health network has led to a lack of continuity of care in fragile patients, such as psychiatric, marginalized, or multiple comorbid patients.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1474
Early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial to early treatment and quarantine measures. In this narrative review, diagnostic tools for COVID-19 diagnosis and their main critical issues were reviewed. The COVID-19 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is considered the gold standard test for the qualitative and quantitative detection of viral nucleic acid. In contrast, tests can be used for epidemiological surveys on specific communities, including occupational cohorts, but not for clinical diagnosis as a substitute for swab tests. Computed tomography (CT) scans can be useful for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in symptomatic cases. The imaging features of COVID-19 are diverse and depend on the stage of infection after the onset of symptoms. CT sensitivity seems to be higher in patients with positive RT-PCR. Conventional chest sensitivity shows a lower sensitivity. An important diagnostic screening tool is ultrasounds, whose specificity and sensitivity depend on disease severity, patient weight, and operator skills. Nevertheless, ultrasounds could be useful as a screening tool in combination with clinical features and molecular testing to monitor disease progression. Clinical symptoms and non-specific laboratory findings may be useful if used in combination with RT-PCR test and CT-scanning.
Italian Journal of Medicine, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2021.1297
Coaching has become a popular strategy in a complex environment. Nurses who incorporate coaching into their professional practice broaden their skills and opportunities in the entire spectrum of health, wellness, and healing. The aim was to illustrate and compare coaching models and to address their relevance in health promotion. A literature review from 2010 to 2019, retrieved from MEDLINE, reference tracking, and consultation of academic networks, has led to peer-reviewed articles on coaching models for health promotion. A total of 70 articles were found, 45 of which were excluded because too generic and not specific to the clinical nursing field. Finally, only 15 articles that well respected the inclusion criteria have been selected. The implementation of coaching can be seen in several health care fields, especially in nursing, to enhance health by empowering individuals.