European Scientific Journal, ESJ

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1857-7881 / 1857-7431
Published by: European Scientific Institute, ESI (10.19044)
Total articles ≅ 4,688
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Simone Tiemi Hashiguti, Cristiane Carvalho de Paulo Brito, Rogério De Castro Ângelo
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 19-19; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p19

Within the realm of a technological innovation project for the creation of a virtual laboratory for teaching and learning English as a foreign language, this paper explores the discursive-performatic theory on language that is one of the principles guiding the work. Practical examples from the laboratory are described and fundamental concepts are explained. Meaning making in the historical/technological conditions of the laboratory is seen as taking place in the space between the reexamination of ways to teach formal, institutionalized knowledge on language structure while problematizing meanings and social themes, and reflecting on how language creates realities.
Ivani Rodrigues Silva, Kate Mamhy Oliveira Kumada, Zelia Zilda Lourenço De Camargo Bittencourt
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 85-85; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p85

The article aims to analyze the narrative of deaf and family members of an assistance service for the deaf people, identifying more striking perceptions in their life trajectories. The qualitative approach research was carried out through semi-structured interviews with three hearing mothers and three deaf children, former members of a university service for the deaf offered in the inland cities of the state of São Paulo, since the 1970’s. The results showed that the aspects with the greatest impact for the participants return to the moment of diagnosis and forwarding to the referred specialized service; the challenges experienced in the school trajectory and the communication barriers still faced in the interaction with society.
Emely Pujolli Da Silva, Kate Mamhy Oliveira Kumada, Paula Dornhofer Paro Costa
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 1-1; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p1

Brazilian Sign Language (in Portuguese, Libras) is a visuospatial linguistic system adopted by the Brazilian deaf communities as the primary form of communication. Libras are a language of minority groups, thus their research and production of teaching materials do not receive the same incentive to progress or improve as oral languages. This complex language employs signs composed of forms and hands movements combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. Facial expressions rarely appear in sign language literature, despite their being essential to this form of communication. Thereby, this research objectives are to present and discuss sub-categories of the grammatical facial expressions of Libras, with two specific objectives: (1) the building of an annotated video corpus comprehending all the categories identified in the literature of facial expressions in Brazilian sign language; (2) the application of Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (which has its origins as an experimental model in psychology) as a tool for annotating facial expressions in sign language. Ruled by a qualitative approach, the video corpus was carried out with nineteen Libras users (sixteen deaf and three hearing participants) who translated forty- three phrases from Portuguese to Libras. The records were later transcribed with the Eudico Linguistic Annotator software tool. From the analysis of the literature review, it was observed the need to classify facial expression as subcategories of lexical, as intensity, homonyms, and norm. It is believed that it is necessary to expand the studies on facial expressions, favoring their documentation and the description of their linguistic functions. Advances in this sense can contribute to the learning of Libras by deaf students and also by listeners who propose to act as teachers or as translators and interpreters of this language system.
Maria Elena Pires-Santos, Tatiane Lima De Paiva, Ilídio Macaringue
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 63-63; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p63

El objetivo de este artículo es comprender cómo las políticas lingüísticas “in vivo e in vitro” (Calvet, 2007; Oliveira e Altenhofen, 2011) se actualizan en el paisaje lingüístico de Ciudad del Este, más específicamente en el microcentro dirigido hacia el turismo de compras, en la región de libre comercio de la ciudad. Por tanto, tomamos en cuenta el principio defendido por Bourdieu (2008), según el cual no es el espacio que determina la lengua; por el contrario, es la lengua que define su espacio. Para tanto, adoptamos un estudio cualitativo/interpretativista, basándose en el escenario lingüísticocultural de frontera Brasil/Paraguay, en este artículo interesa a nosotros comprender cómo las Políticas Lingüísticas in vivo e in vitro se actualizan en el paisaje lingüístico de Ciudad del Este, capturada por medio de fotografías. Los resultados del paisaje lingüístico nos permitieron constatar que, en este contexto superdiverso de fronteras, las prácticas plurilingües y pluriculturales performatizan identidades que reposicionan las relaciones de poder subyacentes a las políticas lingüísticas in vitro ancladas en el estado-nación, engendrando políticas lingüísticas in vivo.
Kate Mamhy Oliveira Kumada, Ivani Rodrigues Silva, Fernando Henrique Sato, Karina Vaneska Pereira de Carvalho
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 47-47; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p47

From the officialization of Brazilian Sign Language (Libras), the deaf person acquires the right to be recognized as a bilingual individual and to ensure this condition, hearing professionals from different areas start to learn Libras, which is even established as a mandatory subject for graduation in some Brazilian higher education courses. Thus, discussions involving the language teaching process, the production of didactic materials, transculturalism and multimodality are necessary for this political and sociolinguistically complex context. From a qualitative research, the objective of this article was to discuss the multimodality and transculturalism present in a proposal for a didactic material to teach Libras in a course involving hearing professionals in the healthcare area. For this purpose, the constructed material considered as legitimate resources the writing of Portuguese, illustrations and photographs of Libras signs, as well as access to videos with different speakers of that language from the scanning of the QR Code incorporated in the material. It is understood that all these elements need to be addressed in an integrated way in the learning of Libras by hearing people, as they constitute the reading of the contemporary world, in which visual and digital resources are also part of the language.
Flavius Almeida dos Anjos, Denise Chaves De Menezes Scheyerl
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 108-108; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p108

This paper is about teachers’ attitudes. We understand ‘attitudes’ as an evaluative reaction, based on opinions and beliefs one might have. Our objective is to share some data of a qualitative research we conducted with some high school teachers of English, in Brazil. Therefore, we used two instruments of data collection: a questionnaire and an interview. It is an interdisciplinary study, developed under the light of applied linguistics, because upon problematizing social issues related with language, we resorted to social psychology, discourse analysis and critical pedagogy to understand the data. This research is justified because there is still the need to investigate teachers’ attitudes, since there has been a great amount of researches on attitudes based mostly on learners, what points to a gap that still needs to be filled. The analysis pointed to some attitudes, such as toward the Self, the language, the methodology, the approach, the logistic factors and to the learners.
Sybele Macedo
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 37-37; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n22p37

Psychoanalysis has always addressed issues concerning the body. More recently, the proliferation of practices of aesthetic body intervention such as plastic surgery, piercings and tattoos have been calling the attention of psychoanalysts to their use and effects on the subject. This paper focuses on the analysis of the role of tattoos in reclaiming one’s body, which will be approached through the psychoanalytical discourse analysis of data retrieved from online magazines and blogs. The practice of tattooing has subjective implications on the relationship between the body and the self, revealing a fundamental trace of human beings: the need to process traumatic events and give them some sort of tolerable expression.
Souley Baraou Idi, Moussa Konaté, Yacouba Ahmed, Abdoulwahid Sani
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 238-238; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n21p238

Le socle du Sud Maradi (Sud Niger) correspond à l’extrémité Nord du bouclier Bénino-Nigérian, appartenant à la zone mobile panafricaine à l’Est du Craton Ouest-Africain. Cette étude apporte une modeste contribution dans la caractérisation géochimique des minéralisations aurifères de cette province métallogénique panafricaine. A cet effet, l’approche méthodologique mise en oeuvre associe le dosage géochimique de l’or par absorption atomique (Au Fire Assay/AA) pour les roches saines, et la séparation des pépites d’or par l’utilisation de la table à secousse pour les altérites du socle et les sédiments (placers et paléoplacers). Les analyses géochimiques ont mis en évidence l’existence de deux types de minéralisations: primaires et secondaires. Les minéralisations primaires de l’or sont à l’état disséminé (faibles teneurs de 0.005 à 0.017 g/t) mais des teneurs relativement plus élevées (0.006 à 0.017 g/t) ont été enregistrées au voisinage des zones de cisaillement du socle. Tandis que la minéralisation secondaire, mise en évidence dans les altérites du socle, dans les alluvions (placers) et dans les grès du Crétacé (paléoplacers) présentent des teneurs en or plus élevées (5 à 30 g/t), dépassant largement les teneurs des minéralisations primaires observées dans les roches saines du socle. Ce grand écart de teneurs s’explique par un fort lessivage du socle, qui aurait permis une reconcentration de l’or dans les sédiments. The South Maradi (South Niger) basement corresponds to the northeastern part of the Benin-Nigerian Shield, belonging to the Pan-African mobile zone, which is located to the east of the West African Craton. This study brings a modest contribution to the geochemical characterization of gold mineralization in this Pan-African metallogenic province. For this purpose, the methodological approach implemented combines the geochemical determination of gold contents by atomic absorption (Au Fire Assay/AA) for basement rocks and physical separation of gold specks by using the vibrating table process for basement alterites and sediments (placers and paleoplacers). The obtained results showed two types of gold mineralization: primary and secondary. Primary gold mineralization is in a disseminated state (low contents of 0.005 to 0.017 g / t) but relatively the higher values (0.006 to 0.017 g / t) were recorded near the basement shear zones. While the secondary gold mineralization, highlighted in basement alterites, alluvium (placers) and Cretaceous sandstones (paleoplacers) present higher gold contents (5 to 30 g / t) than primary gold contents observed in basement rocks. This large difference in values can be explained by a strong alteration of the basement, which would have allowed a reconcentration of the gold in the sediments.
Magagi Amadou, Egbohou Pilaimwé, Maikassoua Mamane, Boukari Mahamane Bawa
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 142-142; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n21p142

Objectif : décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des patients décédés Réanimation Polyvalente (RP) de l’hôpital Nationale de Zinder (HNZ) au Niger. Patients et méthodes: Il s’agissait d’une étude descriptive, transversale à collecte rétrospective des données sur une période de12 mois allant du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2019. L’étude s’est déroulée dans le service de réanimation polyvalente de l’hôpital national de Zinder au Niger. Etaient inclus dans cette étude tous les patients admis durant la période d’étude dans ce service en accord avec leurs familles et celui du comité éthique. Résultats : Durant la période d’étude 1000 patients ont été enregistrés dont 148 décès soit un taux de mortalité de 14,8 %. L’âge moyen était de 36,45 ans avec une prédominance de sexe masculin dans 56,1% (83 hommes). Les taux de décès étaient plus élevés durant les mois de mars, juin et aout avec respectivement 19,8 % 17% et 22,2%. Les étiologies des décès étaient médicales dans 54% des cas dont l’AVC (18,91 %) et le diabète (13,51 %). Les causes chirurgicales étaient responsables de 46% des décès, dont 23% par péritonite aiguë généralisée. Près de la moitié des décès (49,2%) survenaient dans les 24 premières heures. Conclusion : le taux de mortalité en RP de HNZ était élevé. Les pathologies médicales étaient responsables de plus de décès que celles chirurgicales. Des efforts d’amélioration du plateau technique de la RP, des services d’aide au diagnostic et à la prise en charge de l’hôpital national de Zinder, et une sensibilisation à une consultation précoce réduiraient certainement ce taux. Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients dying in the multipurpose intensive care unit (M ICU) at Zinder National Hospital (ZNH) in Niger. Patients and method: it was a cross-sectional descriptive study over 12-months, from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The study was conducted in the MICU at the ZNH. All patients admitted to this MICU during the study period were included. Deaths were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 148 deaths out of 1000 admissions was recorded, mortality rate: 14.8%. The average age was 36.45 years old. The male predominated: 83 (56.1%) deaths. Death rates were higher during the months of August (22.2%), March (19.8%), June (17.4%) and September (17%). Medical causes of deaths accounted for 54%, with stroke (18.91%), followed by diabetes metabolic complications (13.51%). Surgical causes accounted for 46% of deaths, with 23% of acute generalized peritonitis. Nearly half of the deaths (49.2%) occurred within the first 24 hours. Conclusion: The mortality rate in MICU at ZNH was high. Medical conditions were responsible for more deaths than surgical ones. Efforts to improve the MICU facilities, diagnostic and support services at ZNH, and early consultation awareness would surely reduce this rate.
Kassoum Kouyate, Aké Théophile Bedia, Valentin N’Douba, Zeré Marius Gogbe
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 150-150; doi:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n21p150

L’étude vise à connaître l’état de la pêche après plus d’une décennie de crise dans la rivière Bagoué. Les campagnes ont lieu d’août 2018 à juillet 2020. Les données ont été collectées à l’aide de questionnaires administrés aux pêcheurs. La taille de première maturité sexuelle (LS50) et la taille de première capture (Lc50) ont été déterminées respectivement à partir de la fonction logistique de régression non linéaire et de l’équation générale de Von Bertalanffy incorporée au logiciel FISAT II. A l’issue de ces enquêtes, 141 pêcheurs ont été recensés sur l’ensemble des sites visités. Ils financent sur fond propre leur activité. La pêche est dominée par les ivoiriens (88,65 %) et elle est plus importante dans les villages Samôgôs qui concentrent 68,08 % des pêcheurs. Les pêcheurs sont tous des illettrés et pour la plupart des adultes (44,68 %). Les Bozos, avec 5,67 %, sont des pêcheurs professionnels. Les autres effectuent des activités annexes. Les engins de pêche sont pareils à ceux utilisés dans les pêcheries en Côte d’Ivoire mais, les filets maillants sont les plus utilisés (55%). Les embarcations sont des pirogues en planches clouées. Les engins de prédilection pour la capture de Synodontis membranaceus sont les filets maillants dont les mailles varient de 10 mm à 60 mm. Les captures de cette espèce s’élèvent respectivement à 2200,25 kg et 2465,67 kg la première et deuxième année d’échantillonnage. Les tailles de première maturité (LS50) sont inférieures aux tailles de première capture (Lc50). Ce qui suggère que les poissons atteignent la maturité sexuelle avant d’être pêcher. Cette pêche est menacée par l’orpaillage artisanal dans les localités de Zanikaha et de Kanakono. En outre, le manque d’organisation professionnel et de formations ainsi que le non-respect des maillages des filets peuvent entraver la gestion durable de l’activité de pêche. This study aims to know the state of the fishery after more than a decade of crisis in the Bagoué River. The campaigns take place from August 2018 to July 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to fishermen. Size of first sexual maturity (LS50) and size of first capture (Lc50) were determined from the non-linear regression logistic function and the general Von Bertalanffy equation incorporated into the FISAT II software, respectively. At the end of these surveys, 141 fishermen were identified on all the sites visited. They finance their activity from their own funds. Fishing is dominated by Ivorians (88.65%) and is more important in the Samôgô villages, where 68.08% of the fishermen live. The fishermen are all illiterate and mostly adults (44.68%). The Bozos, with 5.67 percent, are the professional fishermen. The other fishermen carry out secondary activities. The fishing gear is similar to that used in the fisheries of Côte d'Ivoire, but gillnets are the most commonly used (55%). The boats are only pirogues made of nailed boards. The preferred gear for the capture of S. membranaceus is gillnets. The catches of this species amounted to 2200.25 kg and 2465.67 kg in the first and second years of sampling, respectively. The sizes at first maturity (LS50) are smaller than the sizes at first capture (Lc50). This suggests that the fish reach sexual maturity before being caught. This fishery is threatened by artisanal gold panning in the localities of Zanikaha and Kanakono. In addition, the lack of professional organization and training, as well as the lack of respect for the mesh size of the nets, may hinder the sustainable management of the fishery.
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