Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1410-900X / 2503-5215
Current Publisher: Balai Bahasa Jawa Timur (10.24257)
Total articles ≅ 271
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M. Hafidzulloh Sm, Aprinus Salam
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 1-16; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.602.1-16

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan membahas konsep gaze Hisyam Aljakh dengan perspektif Slavoj Žižek. Diskursus mengenai gaze dalam karya sastra menyangkut narasi representasi subjek pengarang dari eksterioritas simbolisnya. Representasi dari the other ini mengindikasikan adanya ideologi tertentu pada pengarang yang sudah terkonstruksi secara sistemik dan direpresentasikan melalui uraiannya. Penjelmaan simbolis the other terhadap ideologi pengarang membuatnya terjerembap pada tataran simbolis, kemudian menjadikannya sebagai objek penyebab hasrat. Dalam konteks penelitian ini, gaze memperlihatkan bagaimana upaya yang dilakukan pengarang untuk memperlihatkan subjektivitasnya menuju posisi the real. Interpelasi the other terhadap subjek pengarang diperlihatkan dalam puisi “Atta’syirah” karya Hisyam Aljakh yang mengilustrasikan adanya konstruksi simbolis dari eksternal pengarang. Dengan metode analisis tekstual dan identifikasi konstruksi simbolis, penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan bahwa gaze berhasil mengkonstruksi ideologi pengarang dengan perjumpaan simbolis yang merepresentasikan eksternalnya sekaligus menunjukkan bahwa tulisan itu merupakan representasi dari tatanan simbolisnya.[Hisyam Aljakh’s Gaze in "Atta’syirah"] This research discusses the gaze concept of Hisyam Aljakh with Slavoj Žižek’s perspective. The discourse on gaze in literary works concerns the author’s narration of his subject representation and symbolic exteriority. This representation of the other indicates a the author’s certain ideology which is already systematically constructed and represented through the author’s explanation. The symbolic embodiment of the other on the author’s ideology brings it into the symbolic order, and subsequently makes it the object of desire. In this research, gaze illustratesthe author’s effort to expose his subjectivity leading to the real position. The interpellation of the other on the author’s subject is portrayed on the poem of “Atta’syirah” by Hisyam Aljakh which illustrates the symbolic construction external to the author. With the textual analysis method and symbolic construction identification, this research found that the existence of gaze successfully constructs the author's ideology with a symbolic encounter that represents the external as well as revealsthat the writing isa representation of the symbolic order.Keywords: gaze; subjectivity; symbolic construction; Atta’syirah; Slavoj Žižek
Khairul Fuad
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 75-88; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.622.75-88

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui simbolisme pada puisi sufistik sastrawan Kalimantan Barat, Odhys, di dalam antologi berjudul Rahasia Sang Guru Sufi. Sufisme terkait dengan hubungan mistik dengan Tuhan maka simbol psikologi dipilih untuk menggambarkan keadaan dan situasi hubungan tersebut. Terkait juga dengan perjalanan atau pendakian dari alam rendah ke alam tinggi maka simbol kosmologi dan ontologi dipilih untuk menggambarkan rangkaian pendakian sampai ke puncak alam tinggi. Kedua simbol tersebut menjadi bahasan, sebagai terapan lain dari terapan selama ini yang tertuju kepada sebuah tanda. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskripsi dengan teori simbolisme untuk membangkitkan pengalaman hubungan mistik yang dilewati melalui pendakaian menuju Tuhan dalam puisi-puisi Odhys. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa langkah-langkah harus ditempuh untuk memperoleh pengalaman mistik dengan Tuhan, yaitu langkah penyucian jiwa (tazkiyah al-nafs) sampai langkah membuka hijab (mukasyafah). Kemudian, langkah-langkah tersebut melalui pendakian dari alam nasut, alam malakut, dan alam jabarut untuk sampai kepada Tuhan. Penelitian ini menjadi bagian dari sumbangsih perjalanan perkembangan sufistik di Kalimantan Barat melalui sastra dan menambah khazanah sastra sufistik melalui kajian.[Simbolism of Odhys Islamic Mysticism Poetry (Study of Poetry Antology Rahasia Sang Guru Sufi)] This research aims to identify the symbolism of West Borneo writers mystical Islamic poetries, Odhys, in his anthology Rahasia Sang Guru Sufi. Sufism relates to mystical relation with God, and thus symbol of psychology is selected to describe the state and situation of those relation. Beside that, it also relates to journey or ascension from lower state to higher state; therefore, symbols of cosmology and ontology are selected to describe ascension succession to the peak of higher state. Both symbols become the discussion of the research as another application among existing applications usually aimed to a sign. Method used is description with simbolism theory to revivify the experience of mystical relation through ascension to God in Odhyss poetries. From the analysis, it was found that the steps needed to achieve mystical experience with God include the self purification (tazkiyyat al-nafs) until the step of veil removal (mukasyafah). Then, those steps go through the ascension journey from nasut state, malakut state, and jabarut state to get to God. These research will become a contribution to the sufism development in West Borneo through literature and increase the sufism literature heritage through study.Keywords: sufism poetry; simbolism of psychology; symbol of cosmology-ontology; West Borneo
Silvia Rosa, Surya Dewi Fatma
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 44-61; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.590.44-61

Abstract:
Penelitian ini membahas lima penanda penting dalam novel Sabda Palon Pudarnya Surya Majapahit yang berkorelasi dengan keruntuhan kerajaan setelah dipimpin oleh Bhre Kertabhumi. Kelima penanda tersebut adalah: bulan berwarna merah semangka; sekumpulan bintang mengitari bulan berwarna merah; bayangan kebakaran Kedathon Majapahit dalam semedhi Bhre Kertabhumi; bulan termakan bayangan hitam dalam penglihatan Arya Bangah dan Arya Gajah Para; dan keruntuhan gapura istana Kerajaan Keling ketika menyambut saudagar Tiongkok. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode semiotik dengan penyajian hasil berupa paparan deskriptif analitis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa novel ini menyingkap peristiwa yang tidak terpublikasikan selama ini, khususnya terkait masalah asmara Raja Bhre Kertabhumi dengan selir dari Cina yang bernama Siu Ban Ci. Kelima penanda tersebut berkorelasi dengan masalah asmara yang secara perlahan, tetapi pasti menjadi faktor yang memperlemah kejayaan Majapahit. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kelima penanda tersebut mengandung makna petaka besar untuk kerajaan.[Understanding the Signs of Majapahit Kingdom's Destruction in the Novel Sabda Palon Pudarnya Surya Majapahit: The Tragedy of Chinese Concubine Love ] This research discusses five important markers in the novel Sabda Palon Pudarnya Surya Majapahit which correlate with the collapse of the kingdom after being led by Bhre Kertabhumi. That five markers are; the watermelon red moon; a set of stars circling the red moon; the shadow of the Kedathon Majapahit fire in the Bhre Kertabhumi semedhi; months consumed by black shadows in the sight of Arya Bangah and Arya Gajah Para; and the collapse of the royal palace gate of Keling when welcoming Chinese merchants. The method used is was a semiotic method with the results presentation in the form of descriptive analytical exposures. The results showed that this novel uncovered the unpublished events so far, especially related to the romance problem that struck Raja Bhre Kertabhumi with his concubine from China named Siu Ban Ci. The five markers correlate with the problem of romance which slowly but surely becomes a factor that weakened the triumph of Majapahit under the reign of Bhre Kertabhumi. This research concludes that the five markers contain great disasters for the kingdom.Keywords: red moon;meaning; Sabda Palon; disaster love
Sujarwoko Sujarwoko
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 89-103; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.627.89-103

Abstract:
Puisi sufistik sebagai abstraksi kehidupan dunia sufi dapat digunakan untuk melihat jatuh bangunnya seorang sufi dalam pendakian rohani. Untuk melukiskan pendakian rohani, puisi sufistik menggunakan imaji alam dan binatang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengungkapkan makna dan mendeskripsikan imaji sufistik alam dan binatang dalam puisi-puisi Abdul Hadi W.M., Sutardji Calzoum Bachri, dan Kuntowijoyo. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori estetika sufistik puisi Braginsky dan metode deskriptif kualitatif dengan data karya-karya ketiga penyair tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan puisi sufistik karya ketiga penyair tersebut menggunakan berbagai imaji alam: cahaya, gelombang, batu, rumput, pohon, dan angin. Imaji binatang yang digunakan, meliputi: kupu-kupu, kucing, cengkerik, gajah, semut, dan singa. Imaji sufistik alam sebagai sarana untuk menggambarkan kedekatan dan penyatuan diri dengan Tuhan, sedangkan imaji sufistik binatang untuk melukiskan hakikat salik dan liku-liku perjalanan rohani yang dialami pejalan yang sedang mengalami hambatan dan ancaman dalam upaya menuju keindahan rohani sebagai puncak keriangan spiritual.[Natural and Animal Sufistic Images in Abdul Hadi W.M., Sutardji Calzoum Bachri, and Kuntowijoyo Poetries] Sufistic poetry as an abstraction of sufi’s life can be used to see the rise and fall of a sufi in spiritual ascent. To describe spiritual ascent, sufistic poetry uses natural and animals images. The purposed of this research were to reveal the meaning and describe the sufistic images of nature and animal s in Abdul Hadi W.M., Sutardji Calzoum Bachri, and Kuntowijoyo poetries. This research used the sufistic poetry aesthetic theory of Braginsky and qualitative descriptive methods with data on the works of the three poets. The results of the research showed that the poetic works of the three poets used a variety of natural images: light, waves, stone, grass, trees, and wind. Animals imagesthat were used includ: butterflies, cats, cloves, elephants, ants, and lions. Natural sufistic images as a means to describe closeness and union with God, while sufistic imagery of animals were used to describe the nature of salik and the intricacies of the spiritual journey experienced by travelers who were experiencing obstacles and threats in an effort to reach spiritual beauty as the peak of spiritual joy.Keywords: sufistic poetry; sufistic images; natural sufistic images; animals’ sufistic images
Buyung Ardiansyah, Dwi Purnanto, Agus Hari Wibowo
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 117-133; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.629.117-133

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan membahas klasifikasi domain sumber pada pembentukan metafora konseptual dan menjelaskan berbagai fungsinya terhadap narasi cerita maupun pembaca. Sumber data penelitian adalah novel Garis Waktu (2016) karya Fiersa Besari. Data penelitian ialah kalimat yang mengandung pembentukan metafora konseptual. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan deskriptif kualitatif dengan pemerolehan data melalui relevances sampling. Pendekatan teori menggunakan penentuan klasifikasi domain sumber metafora konseptual dan strukturalisme kesusastraan. Metode analisis menggunakan metode analisis isi, introspektif, dan padan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan metafora konseptual oleh seorang penulis dalam karyanya memiliki berbagai fungsi. Berbagai fungsi pembentukan metafora konseptual yang dijumpai ialah memberikan nilai filosofis, menampilkan estetika berbahasa, memperkuat dan memperdalam makna yang terkandung, memperluas konsep makna, menghindari kebosanan dan kejenuhan pada diksi, memberikan gambaran fisik terhadap entitas abstrak, memberikan makna yang tersirat, menyederhanakan istilah terhadap konsep yang kompleks, serta memperjelas unsur ekspresif perasaan tokoh. Konsep makna yang merujuk pada pengklasifikasian domain sumber ditemukan sebanyak 14 klasifikasi.[Figurative Language in the Form of Conceptual Metaphor in Fiersa Besaris Novel of Garis Waktu] The research aims to discuss the classifications of source domains in the construction of conceptual metaphor and describe their functions for the story narrations and readers. The researchs data are sentences that have the construction of conceptual metaphors. The approach of the research was descriptive qualitative and relevance sampling was the data collection method. The theoretical approach used was the source domain classifications and structuralism. Data were analysed with content analysis, identity method, and introspective method. The result of the study showed that the constructions of conceptual metaphor by a writer in their content of story have many functions. The functions of conceptual metaphor formations include providing the philosophical value, showing the aesthetic of language, strengthening meaning, expanding the meaning concept, avoiding the boredom of diction, giving the physical perception of an abstract entity, giving hidden meaning, simplifying expressions of complex meaning, and showing the emotion of the characters feeling. The perspective of concept as the comparison in the conceptual metaphor could be understood as a source domain. There were 14 classifications of source domain found in the novel of Garis Waktu.Keywords: conceptual metaphor; source domain; classifications of source domain
Dipa Nugraha, Suyitno Suyitno
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 62-74; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.628.62-74

Abstract:
Babak Agni Pariksha (percobaan api atas Sita) di dalam kisah Ramayana telah menginspirasi banyak sastrawan Indonesia di dalam menghasilkan karya-karya sastra. Selama ini kajian mengenai karya yang terinspirasi oleh Agni Pariksha sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi belum ada yang menggunakan pendekatan sastra bandingan feminis. Di samping itu, masih terdapat keraguan mengenai keterlibatan laki-laki di dalam feminisme dan/atau kritik terhadap sistem patriarki. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan sastra bandingan feminis terhadap tiga sajak: Asmaradana karya Subagio Sastrowardoyo, Sita Sihir karya Sapardi Djoko Damono, dan Sepucuk Surat Sita Sebelum Labuh Pati karya Soni Farid Maulana. Pembacaan cermat dan analisis isi dilakukan atas ketiga sajak untuk menyibak makna laten bernuansa feminisme sembari dibandingkan dengan kisah asli Ramayana. Penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan bahwa ketiga sajak mengkritik representasi ideal dari konstruksi relasi gender heteroseksual di dalam sistem patriarki yang terbangun dari kisah Ramayana. Temuan ini memberikan bukti bahwa laki-laki pun dapat mengajukan kritik terhadap sistem patriarki dari posisi mereka sebagai laki-laki dan sekaligus mengartikulasikan pandangan mereka yang koheren dengan gerakan feminisme[A Comparative Feminist Approach on the Variety of Re-writing Sitas Agni Pariksha in Three Indonesian Poems] Agni Pariksha (Sitas Fire Ordeal) in Ramayana has inspired many Indonesian writers. Previous studies on the writings inspired by Agni Pariksha in Indonesian literature have never used feminist comparative literature approach. Moreover, there have been doubts on the involvement of men in feminism and/or in criticizing patriarchy. This study used feminist comparative literature approach on three Indonesian poems: Asmaradana by Subagio Sastrowardoyo, Sita Sihir by Sapardi Djoko Damono, and Sepucuk Surat Sita Sebelum Labuh Pati by Soni Farid Maulana. These poems were close read and analyzed using content analysis to reveal their potential profeminism messages whilst also compared to the story of Ramayana. This study found that the three poems criticize the ideal representation of heterosexual gender relation construction in the patriarchal system based on the story of Ramayana. The findings suggest that men are able to give criticism towards the patriarchal system from their subject position as men while at the same time also articulate their pro-feminism stance.Keywords: Agni Pariksha; feminist comparative literature; existentialist feminism; subject question;subject in situation
Budi Tri Santosa, Yesika Maya Ocktarani
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 33-43; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.591.33-43

Abstract:
Perempuan Jawa Islam masih dinilai tidak memiliki hak berbicara di era prakemerdekaan Indonesia. Hal tersebut dikarenakan mereka tidak memiliki modal kultural, kapital, dan bahkan modal teologi. Penelitian ini mengkaji tokoh Siti Walidah sebagai perempuan Jawa Islam yang dinarasikan oleh pengarang drama sebagai tokoh yang menyuarakan identitas perempuan Jawa Islam. Penelitian ini menggunakan sumber data primer berupa naskah drama Nyai Ahmad Dahlan (2017) dengan metode analisis dekonstruksi dari Spivak mengenai subaltern. Teknik analisisnya adalah dengan mencermati narasi suara subaltern perempuan Jawa Islam oleh pengarang, kemudian narasi tersebut ditunda pemaknaannya. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa narasi Siti Walidah untuk mengangkat suara subaltern perempuan Jawa Islam terjebak pada ideologi kolonialisme. Secara kolonialisme, perempuan Jawa Islam secara keseluruhan menjadi komoditas Siti Walidah untuk membangun narasinya.[The Deconstruction of Siti Walidah's Subaltern Narration in DyahKalsitorini's Drama Script of Nyai AhmadDahlan (2017):Gayatri Spivak's Subaltern Approach] Islamic Javanese women were still deemed not to have the right to speak in Indonesia's pre-independence era. That was because they did not have cultural capital, capital, and theological capital. This research examines Siti Walidah as an Islamic Javanese woman narrated by a drama author as a character voicing the identity of an Islamic Javanese woman. This research used drama script of Nyai Ahmad Dahlan (2017) as the primary data with a deconstruction analysis method from Spivak on subaltern. The analysis technique was done by examining the subaltern voice narration of Islamic Javanese woman by the author which was then postponed the meaning of the narration. This research found that the narration of Siti Walidah to raise the subaltern voice of Islamic Javanese women who trapped in the patriarchal hegemony and colonialism. In colonialism, Islamic Javanese women as a whole became a commodity of Siti Walidah to build her narration.Keywords: subaltern; nationalis, political identity; Islam
Eggy Fajar Andalas
Published: 30 June 2020
ATAVISME, Volume 23, pp 17-32; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v23i1.617.17-32

Abstract:
Pada September 2014, Gramedia memperkenalkan karya Benny Arnas yang berjudul Cinta Tak Pernah Tua ke publik sebagai kumpulan cerita pendek. Meskipun kedua belas judul cerita yang ada di dalam karya ini ditulis dan telah dimuat sebelumnya dalam berbagai media massa nasional pada rentang tahun 2010-2014, pembaca akan menemukan keterjalinan kisah antarjudul cerita di dalamnya. Hal ini menyiratkan adanya problematik naratif sekaligus genre yang menyertai kelahiran karya ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan menjawab pertanyaan apakah Cinta Tak Pernah Tua merupakan sebuah karya sastra bergenre kumpulan cerita pendek, seperti yang dilabelkan oleh penerbitnya, atau sebuah novel? Mengapa karya ini menjadi problematik jika dilihat berdasarkan genrenya? Dengan melakukan pembacaan dekat dengan perspektif naratologi Gerard Genette, penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan bahwa Cinta Tak Pernah Tua bukanlah kumpulan cerita pendek, tetapi novel meskipun secara genealogis kelahiran kedua belas kisah sebagai satuan cerita yang terpisah. Pemahaman terhadap dimensi genre sebuah karya sastra tidak dapat disandarkan pada faktor-faktor yang berasal dari luar dimensi naratif karya.[Poblematic Genre of Benny Arnas Cinta Tak Pernah Tua] In September 2014, Gramedia introduced Cinta Tak Pernah Tua written by Benny Arnas to the public as a collection of short stories. Although the twelve story-titles in this work have been written and previously published in various national mass media in the range of 2010-2014, readers will find that the stories intertwine. This implies "problematic" narrative as well as a genre that accompanied the creation of this work. This article aims to answer the question of whether Cinta Tak Pernah Tua is a literary work collection of short stories, as labeled by the publisher, or a novel? Moreover, considering its genre, why is this work so problematic? By doing a close reading with Gerard Genette's narratology perspective, this research argues that Cinta Tak Pernah Tua is not a collection of short stories, but was actually a novel although genealogically the twelve stories were produced asseparate storiess. The understanding of a literary works genre dimension cannot rely on factors external to the narrative dimension of the work.Keywords: Cinta Tak Pernah Tua; genre problems; narratology; narrative structure
M. Shoim Anwar
Published: 31 December 2019
ATAVISME, Volume 22, pp 185-199; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v22i2.575.185-199

Abstract:
The population of ethnic Chinese in Malaysia ranks second, after ethnic Bumiputra. Some of ethnic Chinese residents write short stories in order to build an image of themselves. Their work pieces are written in the short story anthology of Menara 7 (1998). This Malay anthology is interesting because its authors speak their mother tongue instead of Malay language. The objective of this research was to describe how the symbolic interactions was constructed on the short stories of Menara 7. By using symbolic interaction theory and the Hermeneutic Circle analysis methods, in short stories written by Chinese authors, the efforts to build image were manifested through the use of titles, characterizations, and cultural missions. It showed that short stories were also used as a meaning of cultural mission internally, as a manifestation of tendentious literature.
Rahmat Setiawan, Sri Nurhidayah
Published: 31 December 2019
ATAVISME, Volume 22, pp 159-171; doi:10.24257/atavisme.v22i2.576.159-171

Abstract:
William Somerset Maugham's short story “The Appointment in Samarra” (1933) narrates a theme of how someone cannot avoid death, but the death is represented through a female figure. The research aims to expose a critic toward the representation of death through female character which is a cultivation of patriarchal ideas through literary works. This research used deconstruction framework as a reference to expose the paradox between woman and death. This was a qualitative research with an intertextuality approach. The data were in the form of quotations in the text and the source of the data was William Somerset Maugham’s short story “The Appointment in Samarra”. The data were collected through documentation technique and analysed with interpretation method. The results showed that the representation of death through woman was a patriarchal discourse and, with deconstructive reading, the narrative presented a paradoxical side; on one side, it presented that woman had horrible character, but on the other side, the horrible character implied power. Dismantling of the patriarchal discourse made the decon-structive process in this text became study of feminist deconstruction.
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