Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-4077 / 2327-4085
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 856
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Tesfaye Negeri
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 271-289; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.93019

Abstract:
A hybrid process consisting of flotation and magnetic separation has been developed to concentrate multi-phase rare earth minerals associated with a carbonatite ore that contains a significant amount of niobium. The deposit is known to contain at least 15 different rare earth minerals identified as silicocarbonatite, magnesiocarbonatite, ferrocarbonatites, calciocarbonatite, REE/Nb ferrocarbonatite, phosphates and niobates. Although no collector exists to float all the different rare earth minerals, the hydroxamic acid-based collectors have shown adequate efficiency in floating most of these minerals. 92% recovery of total rare earth oxide (TREO) and niobium in 45% mass was possible at d80 of <65 microns grind size. It was also possible to reduce the mass pull to 28%, but TREO and Nb’s recovery dropped to 85%. Calcination of the concentrate followed by quenching and fine grinding to <25 μm allowed upgrading the flotation concentrate by magnetic separation. It was demonstrated that at least 87% TREO and 85% Nb could be recovered in 16% of the feed mass. The paper discusses the overall concept of the flowsheet and the experimental strategies that led to this process.
Tamba Komba
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 301-315; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.93021

Abstract:
The growing world demand for metals necessitates the economic extraction of metals from ores of lesser grades and scheduled waste with potential for metal recovery. In which case, efficient skilled-beneficiation is required to achieve such demand. This research paper examines the potential of ore recovery from magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE waste rock in an open pit mine operation. The waste material contains a marginal cut-off grade between the ore and what has been scheduled to be produced as waste throughout its life of mine (LOM). The waste material has the potential for metal recovery to extend the LOM. The main aim was to investigate the appropriateness of the potential for metal recovery using the already generated waste as a baseline model for subsequent waste production. To achieve this aim, the primary objective was to use Multi-elemental, Geochemical and Petrographic Analysis (MEGPA) on carefully selected waste rock samples. While the specific objectives were to examine the liberation of metals and establish optimal cut-off grade based on suitable size fractions for ore recovery. Multi-elemental, geochemical and Petrographic Analysis were carried out on selected size fractions using various instruments such as Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Disperse X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), reflected and transmitted microscopes. Categorization of results shown the predominant bulk mineral abundance to be tremolite, a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition Ca2Si8O22·(OH)2. Moreover, the result revealed that the economic Ni and Cu sulphides are hosted in pentlandite and chalcopyrite within the waste samples. Liberation of mineral and recovery of metal are in the finer fractions size below 1.5 mm, and that optimum metal recovery is at ≤1 mm. It was concluded from the study that, there is potential for metal recovery from mines waste in finer fractions below 1.5 mm without posing significant metalliferous acid mine drainage (AMD) risk to the mining environment. It is recommended that further study about the influence on the metallurgical processing of the waste at the selected optimum fractions size, and energy requirement for screening the sample is carried out. Since the PSD (particle size distribution) is critical to both the physical separation processes of the waste and the prediction of metalliferous AMD risk, other methods like advanced UAV 3D photogrammetry and digital image processing method could be used to test for both underestimation and overestimation of PSD. This is important as the amount of mineral liberation, metal recovery and sulphur generation are PSD dependent.
Jesús M. Colín de la Cruz, Carmen Gabriela Guzmán, Fermín Castillo Mejía, Benjamin Leal Acevedo, Osvaldo Flores Cedillo, Isabel Gamboa de Buen, Arturo Molina Ocampo, Horacio Martínez Valencia
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 245-256; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.93017

Abstract:
For a long time and until now, rubber is the most used material for the manufacture of tires for motor vehicles. Unfortunately, once the tire meets its life cycle, the remaining rubber cannot be recycled, so the tires are discarded in collection centers and often in clandestine dumps. This represents a serious environmental problem because, in one case, these waste tires become breeding grounds for insects and wildlife that is harmful to humans. In the second case, the tires are burned, releasing highly damaging gases into the atmosphere. On the other hand, concrete is worldwide the construction material par excellence. It is basically composed of cement, gravel and sand. Mixing these three components in different proportions, their mechanical strength in compression can be increased. However, due to its fragile nature, concrete, once a crack is formed, it rapidly advances by fragmenting the material and producing its rapid collapse. In the present work, in order contribute to the care of the environment as well as to modify the fracture mode of the concrete, rubber particles obtained from waste tires were used as sand substitute in hydraulic concrete. In addition, rubber modified samples concrete were lately exposed to 70 kGy of gamma radiation in order to study the effects of this radiation on the mechanical deformation of concrete. The results showed a decrease in the mechanical properties of the concrete with rubber particles with respect to the traditional concrete itself. However, such decreases were offset by the fact that samples with rubber addition do not collapses as fast as the free rubber samples. The acquired data pave the way for research with great benefits, such as the use of recycled tires in concrete for its fracture mode modification in a beneficial way, as well as a possible decrease in the cost of concrete.
Ramona Javadi Doodran, Shayan Khakmardan, Aref Shirazi, Adel Shirazy
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.91001

Abstract:
Gilsonite is a natural, brittle, and glisten tar hydrocarbon, which widely uses in the chemical, paint, and oil industry, besides asphalt production and thermal insulation. Major gangues of Gilsonite are gypsum, pyrite, silica, dolomite, cal-cite, and shale which are known as ash. Due to the fine liberation degree of gangue minerals from Gilsonite, most of the physical mineral processing methods are not applicable. Gilsonite has partially a behavior like coal in flota-tion due to its high carbon content and the similar composition of ash. As a result, flotation is one of the best methods to decrease the ash content of Gil-sonite. In this study, four factors i.e. the dosage of collector, frother, and de-pressant, and solid to liquid ratio in three levels were examined in flotation to reduce the ash content and increase the recovery of Gilsonite. These tests were designed with the Taguchi method by Design-Expert software. Our results showed the lowest ash content of 5.2% was obtained in the condition which 200 g/t Gasoil as collector, 100 g/t MIBC as a frother, 300 g/t sodium silicate as a depressant, and pulp density was 5% solid to liquid weight ratio.
Mairam Abdullaeva, Bektemir Murzubraimov, Dilbar Altybaeva, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Gulzada Kalykova, Aishakan Suiunbekova, Aitgul Osmonova
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 169-179; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.92012

Abstract:
This article is investigating analysis and chemical composition of ceramic pegmatite minerals obtained from the Terek deposit in Toktogul district of Kyrgyzstan. Several methods such as mineralogical studies, magnetic and gravitational enrichments, silicate and chemical analyses of ceramic pegmatite minerals, quartz-feldspathic concentrate and sludge removal have been performed for determination of pegmatite mineral applicability for production of porcelain and earthenware.
Laksmita P. Santi, Didiek H. Goenadi, Donny N. Kalbuadi, Indah P. Sari, Sulastri
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 180-193; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.92013

Abstract:
This study deals with the pre-treatment of coal fly ash (CFA) by using alkaline substance to improve water solubility of Si which in turn readily available to the plants. Selected weight ratios of CFA/NaOH (s:s) were tested and the highest H4SiO4 yield ratio was selected for further study. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to confirm the evidence of structural changes of the CFA upon alkaline treatment. To improve SiO2 dissolution, seven Si-solubilizing fungi, i.e., Aspergillus niger BCC194, A. niger K0909, A. niger A1601, Trichoderma polysporum, T. viride, T. pseudokoningii, and Trichoderma spp, were each inoculated onto pre-treated ash. The results indicated that the relationships between ratio of CFA/NaOH and total and soluble Si were linier (R2 = 0.97** and 0.96**, respectively). Total SiO2 values range from 10.43% to 13.02%, whereas soluble Si contents were 2.30% - 2.64% improved about 300 times compared to un-treated CFA. Both XRD and SEM analyses indicated that alkaline treatment to CFA caused particle damages resulting in increasing soluble Si. Inoculation of pre-treated CFA by T. polysporum up to twelve days of incubation yielded the highest soluble Si. Each fungal species grown on Bunt & Rovira solid media enriched with CFA as Si-source expressed significantly different ability in solubilizing Si from CFA. Citric acid was shown to be stronger compared to acetic and oxalic acids in solubilizing Si from CFA.
Moursalou Koriko, Dodji Zounon, Sanonka Tchegueni, Diyadola Dihéénane Bafai, Koffi Agbegnigan Degbe, Koffi Fiaty, Patrick Drogui, Gado Tchangbedji
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 390-405; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.94027

Abstract:
In the framework of various phosphates discharges valorization, we have realized physicochemical and mineralogical characterizations of these discharges. We have undertaken the physicochemical and mineralogical characterizations of this waste by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Coupled to an Inductive Plasma Source. The results of these analyze show that phosphate sludge and screen rejects could be used in ceramics, in the manufacture of aggregates, in agriculture and other fields. On the other hand, rich magnetic waste could be used in heterogeneous photocatalysis in waste liquids treatment.
Kuppan Venkatesan, Lakshmanan Jothi
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 407-431; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.95028

Abstract:
An organic nonlinear optical material 2-Amino-4-methylpyridinium 2-chloro 4-nitro benzoate (AMPCNB) was synthesized and large size single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study showed that the title compound belongs to monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group. A powder XRD study was performed to ascertain its phase. The UV–VIS-NIR study was performed to investigate the transparency window and lower cutoff wavelength of the compound, no absorption has been observed between 318 and 1100 nm. The third harmonic efficiency of the title compound has been studied using the Z-scan technique using continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser to confirm its saturable absorption and self-defocusing effect. The photo conducting and charge transport properties are analyzed using photoconductivity and dielectric measurements. Theoretical calculation of molecular polarizability, which is helpful in device fabrication, was carried out from Penn gap, Clausius-Mosotti equations and the obtained results were compared. Mechanical properties of the grown crystal were investigated by Vicker’s microhardness study.
Andre C. Zingano, Marcelo Andrade
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 499-511; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.95033

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to understand the behavior of the roof and the cause of roof failure of a coal mining. Eleven roof falls occurred in the mine section in sequence. All the roof falls were surveyed, and the geological features were determined which include rock type, mechanical properties, and thickness. The immediate roof thickness was interpolated to determine the cause of the roof failures which was the inappropriate roof support where the immediate roof is thicker. The average thickness of the immediate roof was determined by the drilling log in 1.2 m (3.9 ft.). The roof support was design based on the average thickness, and the bolt length is 1.5 m (4.9 ft.) in suspension. The challenge was to estimate where the immediate roof gets thicker and to design the support considered to maintain the regular bolt length. This is because the cost and productivity of support operation could increase if the bolt length changes as the roof thickness changes. The idea was to adjust the support for beam building with a fully grouted bolt and rearrange the bolt geometry to keep the roof stable. It means, with the same bolt length the type of roof support would change from suspension to beam building depending on when the roof gets thicker. Two empirical approaches were considered to design the roof support: 1) CMRR and 2) RMR. The entry width is 5 m and the roof support was designed with four bolts per row. Where the roof support must change to beam building, the number of bolts per row changes to five or six. The results of the design and application on underground showed that the approach keeps stable.
Amer Charbaji, Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 257-270; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.93018

Abstract:
Zinc and its compounds, alloys and composites play an important role in the modern day world and find application in almost every aspect that can improve the quality of our lives. This ranges from supplements and pharmaceuticals that are meant to improve our health and wellbeing to additives meant to guard or reduce corrosion in metals. However, over the past several years, a new area of technology has been garnering a great deal of attention and has made use of zinc and its compounds. This is with reference to paper-based microfluidic technology that offers several advantages and that keeps expanding in the amount of applications it covers. In this paper, a review is offered for the applications that have used zinc or zinc compounds in paper-based microfluidic devices.
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