Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-4077 / 2327-4085
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 832
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P. B. Asha, Sneha Sarika Murthy, C. R. Prakash Rao, V. Ravi Kumar, R. Kiran, C. N. Suresha
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 9, pp 38-47; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2021.91003

Abstract:
Hybrid metal matrix composites (Hmmc) are found to be more superior than the conventional composite materials because of their improved mechanical properties, which can be suited for an extensive range of engineering applications. Automobile and aerospace industries widely make use of hybrid composites as they possess excellent corrosion, wear resistance, low density, and high strength. This paper displays the strategy to build the hybrid composite utilizing Stir casting Method. Present investigation includes the creation of composites utilizing boron carbide (2%, 4%, 6% volume) and Red mud (2% volume) as the reinforcements and Structural aluminium as the matrix. Experimental investigation of wear analysis of the composites was carried out according to the L9 Taguchi method. The designated number of experiments was accomplished to probe the impact of control factors on the specific wear rate (SWR) of the developed composites. ANOVA was carried out and Wt%. Reinforcement was found to be the decisive factor on the SWR of the developed hybrid composite. The Confirmatory test was successfully carried out and the computed error was found to be varying from 0.878% to 2.58%.
Onigbajumo Adetunji, Seidu Saliu Ojo, Akinlabi Oyetunji, Newton Itua
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 9, pp 61-74; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2021.91005

Abstract:
A system-level evaluation was used to analyze the induction furnace operation and process system in this study. This paper presents an investigation into the relationship between the instantaneous chemical composition of a molten bath and its energy consumption in steelmaking. This was evaluated using numerical modelling to solve for the estimated melting time prediction for the induction furnace operation. This work provides an insight into the lowering of energy consumption and estimated production time in steelmaking using material charge balancing approach. Enthalpy computation was implemented to develop an energy consumption model for the molten metal using a specific charge composition approach. Computational simulation program engine (CastMELT) was also developed in Java programming language with a MySQL database server for seamless specific charge composition analysis and testing. The model performance was established using real-time production data from a cast iron-based foundry with a 1 and 2-ton induction furnace capacity and a medium carbon-based foundry with a 10- and 15-ton induction furnace capacity. Using parameter fitting techniques on the measured operational data of the induction furnaces at different periods of melting, the results from the model predictions and real-time melting showed good correlation between 81% - 95%. A further analysis that compared the relationship between the mass composition of a current molten bath and melting, time showed that energy consumption can be reduced with effective material balancing and controlled charge. Melting time was obtained as a function of the elemental charge composition of the molten bath in relation to the overall scrap material charge. This validates the approach taken by this research using material charge and thermodynamic of melting to optimize and better control melting operation in foundry and reduce traditional waste during iron and steel making.
Ramona Javadi Doodran, Shayan Khakmardan, Aref Shirazi, Adel Shirazy
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 9, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2021.91001

Abstract:
Gilsonite is a natural, brittle, and glisten tar hydrocarbon, which widely uses in the chemical, paint, and oil industry, besides asphalt production and thermal insulation. Major gangues of Gilsonite are gypsum, pyrite, silica, dolomite, calcite, and shale which are known as ash. Due to the fine liberation degree of gangue minerals from Gilsonite, most of the physical mineral processing methods are not applicable. Gilsonite has partially a behavior like coal in flotation due to its high carbon content and the similar composition of ash. As a result, flotation is one of the best methods to decrease the ash content of Gilsonite. In this study, four factors i.e. the dosage of collector, frother, and depressant, and solid to liquid ratio in three levels were examined in flotation to reduce the ash content and increase the recovery of Gilsonite. These tests were designed with the Taguchi method by Design-Expert software. Our results showed the lowest ash content of 5.2% was obtained in the condition which 200 g/t Gasoil as collector, 100 g/t MIBC as a frother, 300 g/t sodium silicate as a depressant, and pulp density was 5% solid to liquid weight ratio.
Scott Gampert, Abu Bakar Siddique, Tariq A. Khraishi
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 9, pp 14-37; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2021.91002

Abstract:
The problem of void growth and interaction is of importance to understanding the mechanics of failure in metals exhibiting ductility. In this work, the growth and interaction of voids in 6061-T6 aluminum were studied experimentally. Specifically, holes of varying numbers and relative placement were investigated for their normalized area growth with applied displacement. Flat dog-bone specimens were carefully drilled in their gauge area with no (zero) holes, one hole, and two holes (arranged vertically or horizontally) for experimentation after polishing. The growth of holes, captured by video recordings, exhibited exponential behavior and was influenced greatly by the number and arrangement of holes with the horizontal voids growing the fastest and the vertical ones growing the slowest. Also, the ensuring deformation of the sample was studied using load-displacement curves, pictography and videography, SEM imaging and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The methods revealed that although the major part failure is due to large crack formation, it was preceded by intense dislocation slip activity and the formation of micro cavities. Also, the AFM quantified the three-dimensional nature of crystal or grain deformation and how it is greatly influenced by distance and location from the hole. Lastly, theoretical understanding of hole growth was offered.
Adeyinka Olaseinde, Mxolisi Brendon Shongwe, Joseph Babalola, Adeshina Luqman Adisa
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.81001

Abstract:
The products of refractory materials are used for lining furnace, incinerators and kilns among other uses and they have the potential of withstanding high temperature without deformation. The objective of the research was to charac-terize the clay soil sample collected from Tshwane University of Technology in Pretoria. The sample, collected from a location Latitude 25.0969°S and Longi-tude 28.1624°E, was oven-dried, pulverized and sieved in the laboratory. Min-eralogical and elemental compositions of the sample were determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analytical methods. The XRF analysis revealed Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 as the major constituents, while the other elements occur in minor quantities. Mineralogically, the three samples contain Montmorillonite, Kaolinite and Bentonite, while Samples A contained Quartz in addition to ear-lier mentioned minerals, samples B and C contained Albite.
N. Saikumari, S. Monish Dev
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 459-471; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.86029

Abstract:
Environmental sustainability apart from spoken at different levels needs to investigate the management of industrial activities in terms of eco-friendliness. It is well known that effluents from various industries become a major source of environmental degradation in particular water pollution. Thus water analysis report turns to be more significant, to determine the quality and standard of life maintained in a typical ecosystem. This study includes the analysis of physico-chemical factors of raw as well as treated water samples from Korattur Lake employing nano sized adsorbents like titania with tuned structural and morphological properties through organic plant extract. The XRD analysis, BET analysis, DRS-UV analysis, SEM and TEM analysis have been carried out and reported. The marked influence of leaf extract as a template is reflected in reduced crystallite size (12.4 nm) with maximum surface area 105 m2/g along with bathochromic shift of absorption edge. The usual indicators of contamination level at a given source namely Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD-85%), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD-94.5%), Dissolved Oxygen (88%), Total Suspended Solids (TSS-75.6%), Electrical Conductivity (74.5%), Chloride (89%), Nitrate and Phosphate contents etc. were used to ascertain the efficiency of contaminants removal using tea leaf extract mediated nano titania. The reliability factor of the treatment process was found to be less than 1, revealed the effectiveness and reliability of nano material.
Ze Eric Parfait, Noah Pierre Marcel, Nnomo Elobi Didine, Nfor Clins Wiryikfu, Betene Ebanda Fabien, Ngahiyi Abbé Claude Valery, Atangana Ateba
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 341-352; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.85021

Abstract:
In this work we determine the physical and mechanical properties of local composites reinforced with papaya trunk fibers (FTP) on one hand and particles of the hulls of the kernels of the garlic (PCNFA) in the other hand. The samples are produced according to BSI 2782 standards; by combining fibers and untreated to polyester matrix following the contact molding method. We notice that the long fibers of papaya trunks improve the tensile/compression characteristics of composites by 45.44% compared to pure polyester; while the short fibers improve the flexural strength of composites by 62.30% compared to pure polyester. Furthermore, adding fibers decreases the density of the final composite material and the rate of water absorption increases with the size of the fibers. As regards composite materials with particle reinforcement from the cores of the winged fruits, the particle size (fine ≤ 800 μm and large ≤ 1.6 mm) has no influence on the Young’s modulus and on the rate of water absorption. On the other hand, fine particles improve the flexural strength of composite materials by 53.08% compared to pure polyester; fine particles increase the density by 19% compared to the density of pure polyester.
Achille Désiré Omgba Betene, Fabien Ebanda Betene, Florian Martoïa, Pierre J. J. Dumont, Ateba Atangana, Pierre Marcel Anicet Noah
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 205-222; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.84014

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the study of the physical, biochemical, structural, and thermal properties of plant fibres of Rhecktophyllum camerunense (RC), Neuropeltis acuminatas (NA) and Ananas comosus (AC) from the equatorial region of Cameroon. The traditional use of these fibres inspired researchers to investigated their properties. This study aims at improving the state of knowledge with a view to diversifying applications. The fibres are extracted by retting. Then, their apparent density was measured following the ASTM D792 standard and their water moisture absorption and moisture content were also evaluated. Their molecular structure was studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the biochemical composition was performed according to the analytical technique for the pulp and paper industry (TAPPI). A TGA/DSC analysis was also performed. The results reveal that the AC, NA and RC fibres have densities of 1.26 ± 1.06, 0.846 ± 0.13 and 0.757 ± 0.08 g·cm-3 respectively. They are also hydrophilic with a water absorption rate of 188.64 ± 11.94%, 276.16% ± 8.07% and 198.17% ± 20%. They have a moisture content of 12.21%, 10.36% and 9.37%. The studied fibres exhibit functional groups that are related to the presence of hemicellulose, pectin, lignin and cellulose. The cellulose crystallinity index was found to be 67.99%, 46.5% and 59.72% respectively. The fibres under study have the following chemical composition: an extractive content of 3.07%, 14.77% and 8.74%; a pectin content of 4.15%, 7.69% and 3.45%; a hemicellulose content of 4.90%, 15.33% and 7.42%; a cellulose content of 68.11%, 36.08% and 65.15%; a lignin content of 12.01%, 25.15% and 16.2%; and an ash content of 0.27%, 1.53% and 0.47% respectively. The thermal transitions observed on the thermograms correlate with the TAPPI chemical composition. It is observed that these fibres are thermally stable up to temperatures of 200°C, 220°C and 285°C. These results make it possible to envisage uses similar to those of sisal, hemp and flax fibres.
Bobet Ouanmini, Nassio Sory, Seynou Mohamed, Remy Bakiono, Zerbo Lamine, Sanou Issiaka, Sawadogo Moustapha, Millogo Younoussa, Gilles Escadeillas, Ouanmini Bobet, et al.
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 301-315; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.84018

Abstract:
Peanut shells from Burkina Faso were characterized using mineralogical, microstructural and chemical methods to perform its possibility to be used as reinforce in adobe bricks. It consists of cellulose (48 wt%), hemicellulose (3 wt%) and lignin (28 wt%). The peanut shells were characterized by high porosity and showed water absorption around 198% at 72 hours. Its chemical composition is essentially composed of silica, iron oxides, alumina and calcium oxide. Its microstructure showed that the peanut shells were a compilation of microfibers with high porous of borders. In watery solution, the peanut shells released polyphenols. Thermal conductivity of peanut at 25 °C was 0.155 ± 0.021 W/mK. The physico-chemical characteristics of peanut shells were similar to those found with agricultural by-products used in adobe reinforce.
Muwanguzi J. B. Abraham, Rukenzo Gift, Sebukeera Hennery, Guloba Asuman, Ajidiru Rita, Dumba Dexter, Muvawala Joseph
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 8, pp 316-329; doi:10.4236/jmmce.2020.84019

Abstract:
Uganda aspires to exploit its abundant iron ore resources to supply the required raw material for developing its iron and steel industry across all the phases of the value chain. The country imports USD 369 million worth of iron and steel products annually, 60% of which are raw materials for the steel processing plants. The National Planning Authority, the government planning agency, undertook a study to assess the possibility of using the iron ore deposits available in the country, as a source of supply for iron and steel production. In the study, available geological literature was collected from various sources and analysed in order to understand the mode of iron ore mineralization in Uganda, particularly, that in the South West. A field excursion to the deposits was conducted in order to ground truth the information obtained from literature research; carry out a detailed reconnaissance study so as to benchmark the likely scenarios required in the development of the iron and steel value chain; and establish the likely mining and processing requirements of the deposits. The reconnaissance survey confirmed the existence of hematite deposits that visually show characteristics of high-quality iron ore (55% - 68% Fe) suitable for iron production. From surficial investigations, the deposits are mainly comprised of thin beds of mineralisation. The deposits occur in the form of massive hematite, which is amenable to mining and direct feed to the ore processing plants, and specularite hematite (a metamorphic platy variety), which normally requires mineral processing for amenability to reduction processes. From the analysis, the country has sufficient deposits of a high grade that can support a steel industry, though more detailed quantifications and characterisations need to be prioritised by the government.
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