Lung India

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ISSN / EISSN : 0970-2113 / 0974-598X
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 1,636
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, Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, HariKrishna Raju Sagiraju, Rohitkumar Garg, Brajesh Ratre, Prashant Sirohiya, Nishkarsh Gupta, Rakesh Garg, Anuja Pandit, Saurabh Vig, et al.
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Background: The “second wave” of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. Results: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5–11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18–44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4–0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5–3.1], P< 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2–4.7], P< 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2–13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. Conclusion: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.
, Pb Sryma, Bijay Pattnaik, Saurabh Mittal, Pawan Tiwari, Vijay Hadda, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with a varied clinical presentation. We describe the clinical characteristics of patients with sarcoidosis from a tuberculosis (TB) endemic setting. Methods: We performed an analysis of the sarcoidosis database at a tertiary care facility in North India. Results: Of the 327 patients, 50.8% were male, with a mean age of 42.8 years (range: 16–70 years). Females were significantly older. 42.6% had comorbidities, of which diabetes (17.1%) was most common. More than half (57.1%) were obese. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were elevated in 186 (57.9%). Eleven (3.8%) had hypercalcemia, while hypercalciuria was present in 54 (31.7%). The majority (89.9%) were tuberculin skin test negative (<10 mm induration), while 71.9% were tuberculin anergic. 47.7% had normal spirometry, while a restrictive impairment was the most common abnormality (44.6%). Obstruction on spirometry was present in 8.3%. Nearly half (160, 49%) had involvement of an extrapulmonary site. Most patients were (96%) symptomatic. Cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, weight loss, and fever were the predominant symptoms. A majority had Stage 1 (47.7%) sarcoidosis. Two hundred and eighty-seven (87.8%) patients underwent bronchoscopy or endosonographic (endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration [EBUS-TBNA] or transesophageal bronchoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration [EUS-B-FNA]) sampling. A histopathological diagnosis with the demonstration of granulomas was achieved in 90.8%. The diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-B-FNA was 77.4%. In 13.5% of patients, necrotizing granulomas were present in tissue samples. Conclusion: The clinical profile of patients with sarcoidosis in TB endemic settings has certain differences from nonendemic populations. Bronchoscopy and endosonography allow a confident diagnosis in the majority of patients.
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
The practical difficulties of using spirometry in a 3-year-old girl are highlighted, especially during the COVID-19 era. Oscillometry, a tidal breath-based technique, has shown promising future to reliably assess lung functions in the vulnerable cohort. A simple algorithmic approach has been provided till reference values can be established with multicenter studies.
, Ananda Datta, Sudip Ghosh
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
A 39-year-old nonsmoker male presented with complaints of cough with recurrent mild hemoptysis. Computed tomography of thorax showed nodular lesions on the right lateral wall of trachea. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy revealed multiple nodular lesions on the right lateral wall of lower one-third of trachea. Histopathological examination of biopsy specimen from the nodules was suggestive of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica which is an uncommon airway disorder.
, Deepak Talwar, Sarvinder Singh, Ketan Asawale, Bharat Bhushan
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Various respiratory societies including the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), European Respiratory Society (ERS) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) define severe asthma as asthma that requires or remains uncontrolled despite treatment with systemic corticosteroids or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus another controller such as long acting beta agonist. The management of asthma as an entity is not straightforward due to inter-individual variability in assessment parameters. With the advent of science, targeted therapies are on the emergence for management of severe asthma. A biomarker can be used as a surrogate to phenotype a patient as well as to measure the response to therapy with any drug. Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. From a resource constraint perspective like countries in India, it is imperative to use biomarkers that are easily available are affordable cost. Choosing an ideal biomarkers is also important from a perspective of choosing a particular therapy. The cost associated with the biologicals is high and it is imperative to gauge the treatment effectiveness with the therapy at the earliest considering the out of pocket spends of the patients.
Pawan Tiwari, Manu Madan, Hariharan Iyer, Anant Mohan, Karan Madan, Vijay Hadda, Saurabh Mittal, Randeep Guleria
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has associations with both thrombosis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Management of patients having coexistence of both thrombotic and hemorrhagic manifestations is challenging. Thrombotic conditions require anticoagulation, which can theoretically increase the risk of bleeding and thereby worsen DAH. In this review, we highlight the management of a patient of granulomatosis with polyangiitis with DAH who developed deep vein thrombosis. A systematic review of the literature was also performed summarizing and discussing the issues pertaining to the management of such patients.
, VenkataNagarjuna Maturu, KartikPandurang Jadhav, Arshad Punjani, Harikishan Boorugu
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Background: The effectiveness and safety of macitentan, an endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA) in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), has been demonstrated in numerous randomized clinical trials including SERAPHIN, focused on the reduction of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Our aim was to demonstrate the clinical and echocardiographic progression using macitentan in Indian patients with PAH. Settings and Design: It was a retrospective study of 20 patients with multiple etiologies of PAH who had begun macitentan in routine clinical practice from a single center. There were 55% of patients with existing PAH therapies. Subjects and Methods: The World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), 6-min walking distance, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP), and echocardiographic data such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), and the occurrence of pericardial effusion were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Of the 20 PAH patients, 70% were women. The majority were in WHO FC II (50%), while 35% were in FC III and 15% were in FC IV. The mean age was 43.4 years at the start of the therapy with macitentan. After 6 months of macitentan therapy, 85% showed substantial improvement in their FC, each increased its 6-min walking distance test (P< 0.0001), and there was a significant reduction in plasma levels of NT-pro BNP (P< 0.0001). There has also been an improvement in echocardiographic parameters such as TAPSE and sPAP (P< 0.0001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that macitentan has been well tolerated and beneficial in Indian patients with PAH and further, future research is required to verify these results.
, Ajay Ravi, Anurag Deshpande, K Ramasubramaniam, Manish Aggarwal
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract:
Background: Pulmonologists commonly need to take biopsies of laryngeal lesions, either found incidentally while doing bronchoscopy for other indications or while investigating patients for hoarseness of voice and cough. Biopsy of laryngeal lesions has been conventionally done under general anesthesia to provide adequate samples and minimize risks and patient discomfort. Of late, these biopsies have been done as outpatient procedures, by flexible endoscopes, under local anesthesia. However, vocal cord biopsies are often challenging due to poor patient compliance. We have tested an innovative method, which we have called the “inside-out” method, to circumvent this problem. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the feasibility, yield, and the safety of the “inside-out” technique for taking vocal cord biopsies as an outpatient procedure in awake patients. Material and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Data of 38 patients with vocal cord lesions in whom the above technique was employed were analyzed. Results: The procedure had a diagnostic yield of 78.9% with a sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 100% for detecting malignancy or dysplasia. There were no major complications. Conclusions: The “inside-out” technique was found to be feasible and safe and with a high yield.
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