ISSN / EISSN : 13926748 / 13926748
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 148
Latest articles in this journal
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 139-150; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.6
This article represents a summary of the author’s past 12 years of research on several mummy sets. As mummy studies expand as a sub-specialty of biological anthropology, it is important to highlight the significant contribution that the study of preserved remains can provide to both archaeology and history.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 116-138; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.5
In 2014–2015, an unknown 16th–17th-century cemetery was discovered at the Subačius Street 41 plot in Vilnius. The uncovered human remains are considered to be one of the most abundant and best-preserved anthropological material in the territory of present-day Vilnius. Paradoxically, historical sources do not mention this burial site, although the abundance of the interred individuals does not imply an accidental burial, but perhaps a functioning cemetery for some time. In such exceptional cases, the only source of information is the synthesis of archaeological and anthropological research data.This article presents preliminary results and a brief overview of bioarchaeological (demographic, paleopathological, and dental research, height reconstruction) investigation. A total of 151 individuals were studied, with almost half (45%) of them consisting of children. Almost 60% of the individuals had one or more pathological lesions. The average height of male individuals was estimated 168.2 cm, the average height of females was 157.8 cm. The aim of this study can be defined as twofold: an attempt to identify the people buried outside the city walls and systematize for the first time the bioarchaeological data of one-out-of-many Vilnius populations. Currently, the Subačius Street 41 population does not resemble a typical urban community, so the study itself is the first attempt to reveal the osteobiography of these 16th–17th century Vilnius residents.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 151-166; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.7
Preservation of immovable cultural heritage is one of the main challenges for contemporary society. Nowadays very often organizations responsible for heritage management constantly have to deal with lack of resources, which are crucial for proper heritage preservation, maintaining and protection.The possible solution of these problems could be automated heritage monitoring, based on the 3D and AI technologies. 3D scanning technology is the most accurate method to capture the situation of an evolving cultural heritage object or complex at a given time. As a cultural heritage object or complex is evolving continuously, AI based comparison of two 3D point clouds created at different time allow to reliably trace potential changes. Proposed solution is realized by project financed by Research Council of Lithuania „Automated monitoring of urban heritage implementing 3D technologies”. The first results of the project are presented at this article.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 167-170; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.8
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 75-115; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.4
This article explores the finds and post-excavation reports of earlier archaeological investigations in the five Kernavė hillforts. The detailed analysis of the assembled finds, discovered features and structures made it possible to revise and improve the prieviously suggested evolution model for the Kernavė hillforts. It reveals the evolution of the hillforts to have been much more complicated and that, over time, their function has changed rather significantly more than once. The finds recovered during earlier excavations were not classified into primary, secondary and de facto refuse. New examination of refuse – in this case, of pottery sherds, allowed for identification of single events, short-term activities and long-term settlement on the hillforts as well as distinct functional areas. The authors discuss whether the term “hillfortˮ is appropriate for use in scientific historiography. The issue of actual contemporaneity of the hilfforts in hilffort complexes is also raised.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 10-23; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.1
During archaeological investigations in Nida settlement in 1974–1978, 2011–2013 and 2016 a lot of stratigraphic data from considerably wide area was gathered. Based on stratigraphy Neolithic paleosol of Nida settlement can be distinguished and it can be used as proxy for reconstruction of paleorelief. Paleosol was recorded in former depressions or on eastward slopes of former dunes. Large area in western part of the settlement was affected by aeolian processes where paleosol did not survive and in the eastern part former surface plunge deeply under groundwater level, these limited the territory considerably for paleorelief reconstruction. Analysis of the paleosol and stratigraphy displayed layering of artefacts in some parts of the settlement, which was interpreted as at least two periods of human activity. Also, in some parts of Nida very thick layer (> 1 m) with artefacts have been recorded which formed because of combination of anthropogenic activity and natural processes. An important insight is made about ancient topographic location of Nida settlement. Based on geological, botanical and geophysical data from Nida and other parts of Curonian spit we argue that earlier interpretation is not supported by recent data and we suggest that Nida settlement was in eastern part of the spit, on the shore of Curonian lagoon.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 24-39; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.2
The Economic Archaeology formed in late 20th century and is defined as an essential subdiscipline of the archaeological research. It is a study of the relationships between past populations and their natural and cultural resources, encompassing production, distribution, consumption, and stratification. Economic relations are one fundamental key for understanding the workings and transitions of past societies and for grappling with how and why those societies varied. The aim is to recreate economic strategies and models of communities in natural and cultural environment by analyzing various communities with sophisticated structure through economical and archaeological theories and methods. This article aims to introduce goals and issues of economic archaeology as well as methodological possibilities to exam and enable to understand the histories and consequences of past economic strategies that have been employed. Moreover, this article describes the main formation stages of economic archaeology, considering the issues addressed by scientists during certain periods, and presents risks for this particular study of archaeological research.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 20, pp 40-74; doi:10.15388/archlit.2019.20.3
The article is dedicated to the application of AMS 14C dating method of cremated bones and samples of related charcoal, which is rather new for the East Baltic region. The data of 3 Western Balts cemeteries from Lithuania are analysed. Results of radiocarbon dating are compared to the estimated typological chronology of the artefacts. The OxCal simulation is applied in order to obtain the most probable dates. The study lays the foundation for further spatial and static analysis of selected data.
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 19, pp 207-217; doi:10.15388/archlit.2018.19.12
[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian] The amulets referred to in this paper were found mainly in the eastern part of the Frankish tribal lands. There, in the Rhineland, Christianity did not hold as much ground in the 6th and 7th centuries as during later periods. Therefore, members of the Frankish aristocracy (a clear indication of the social strata the owners of the jewelry belonged to are the materials, i.e., precious metals, that the pieces were made of) preferred to rely on tried and tested amulets based on the native religious conventions rather than on Christian imagery (e.g., baptismal crosses).
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 19, pp 183-193; doi:10.15388/archlit.2018.19.10
[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian] A group of monuments, specific by their external morphological features, stands out among the late medieval fortifications on the territory of the Volyn land. The abovementioned fortifications have the form of hills (“mottes”) with the upper sites of different sizes. The tradition of constructing such hillforts spread on the territory of Volhynia from the European side. Those hillforts were the first chivalrous castles. Judging by the current level of knowledge about these fortifications on the territory of Volhynia, several groups can be distinguished. Polissia fortifications (Kamin-Kashyrsky, Lyuboml, Vetly), which are the remains of small cities, volost-sotnia centers of the 14th century, are clearly distinguished. The second group includes the fortifications represented by the medium-sized hills in Korshiv and Gorodyshche I, which, apparently, were the castles of the outstanding feudal lords. The third group is represented by the classic examples of the European complexes of “mottes and baileys” in Ratno, Falemychi, Pyatydni, Khotyn, which, apparently, were the courtyards of knights. A peculiar position is occupied by an artificial mound in the middle of the lake (crannog) in Kachyn village. Such fortifications functioning on the territory of Volhynia can be referred to the second half of the 13th to the 16thcenturies. During their existence, the social functions of these constructions could have changed.