Archaeologia Lituana

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1392-6748 / 1392-6748
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 167
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Latest articles in this journal

Gintautas Vėlius
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 62-96; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.3

Abstract:
The article describes the archaeological research of the Našlaičiai (Orphans’) Cemetery in Vilnius carried out over the period of 2017–2020. The remains of the Lithuanian post-war partisans shot in the KGB Internal Prison between 1956 and 1963 had been searched for more than a decade. Only in 2016 the historian D. Indrišionis suggested a solid hypothesis, based on archival documents and documented facts, that the remains of the partisans could be hidden together with the bodies of the executed criminals in the Našlaičiai Cemetery, then operating in the suburbs of Vilnius. Performed archaeological research confirmed this version, and the remains of all the partisans shot in the Vilnius KGB Internal Prison during the mentioned time period were found in the cemetery. The article presents a brief history of the Našlaičiai Cemetery, analyses the archival sources and methodology used in the research, and provides a detailed description of the course and the results of the archaeological research.
Andris Kairišs, Irina Oļevska
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 10-36; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.1

Abstract:
Archaeological sites as part of cultural heritage satisfy a broad range of interests of different stakeholders. Along with satisfying cultural, social, scientific, etc., interests, their role is no less important in strategic socio-economic development.Unlocking asocio-economic potential of archaeological sites requires clear vision of how to conserve and protect each particular site, how and by what means to maintain and manage the object as well as what to do with it next. It is widely acknowledged that archaeological sites, in particular those having the status of archaeological monuments, play a socially important role, but their maintenance and development often require significant investment. While the laws make owners of archaeological sites, both private and public, solely responsible for conservation, restoration and maintenance of cultural monuments in their property, there should be appropriate mechanisms that mitigate the financial and legal burden and support owners along the way.Based on the review of legal regulation, scientific literature, information of the authorities and mass media, multiple expert interviews, consultations with professional archaeologists, and using an integrated socio-economic and legal approach to the researched issue, the article provides theoretical and practical insight into the actualities of archaeological heritage development potential in Latvia (making international comparisons) and possible solutions thereto.
Egidijus Šatavičius
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 37-61; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.2

Abstract:
The article analyzes the archaeological material of Kapčiamiestis Stone Age site, which was excavated in 2006–2007. A brief overview of the site’s history and heritage conservation and management works is provided. The article analyzes the geomorphology of this area and its development in the late ice age and the Holocene, describes in detail the stratigraphy of the study site and various erosive processes that have intensively affected it. Although the findings were not found in abundance during the research, it is an object that has existed for a short time and is characterized by the homogeneity of the assemblages. Based on the information gathered during the research and the typological-technological criteria of the flint inventory, the site dates back to the end of the Final Paleolithic (10th millennium BC) and belongs to the late Swiderian cultural tradition. It is currently the oldest excavated Stone Age site on the southernmost outskirt of Užnemunė Region.
Atas Žvirblys
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 118-146; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.5

Abstract:
Clay pipes are quite a common finding in the study of urban cultural strata, a dozen thousand fragments of them are counted in the collections of Lithuania museums. Nevertheless, the terminology of these of tobacco pipes is not yet quite settled in Lithuania, and archaeologists who investigate urban areas do not even have a methodical material published in Lithuanian. The article aims to distinguish and define the methodological aspects of the analysis of clay tobacco pipes dated from the first half of 17th century to 19th century, which would be suitable for the Lithuanian context. At the beginning of this article, the history of clay tobacco pipes research is analyzed in a methodological aspect, the links to the whole development of archaeology science are presented, and the current tendencies in the tobacco pipes researches are described. The other chapters focus on the matters of clay pipes terminology, methods of analysis, and dating. Considering the locally produced and imported pipes found in Lithuania, methodical matters of recording and describing these findings are analyzed, as well as possible interpretations of the collected data.
Liudvikas Vasiliauskas
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 147-156; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.6

Abstract:
The article discusses the Swedish 3 pounds regimental cannon, produced in 1786.X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chemical element analysis data from cannon barrel alloys are also presented and discussed. As well as influence of their composition on the operation of cannons.
Žygimantas Buržinskas
Published: 30 December 2021
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 22, pp 97-117; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2021.22.4

Abstract:
This study presents data reflecting the urban development of Merkinė in the 16th–18th centuries. The old names of the city streets and the development of the street structure are analyzed. After the analysis of historical sources, the approximate location of the lost masonry and other town buildings is presented, as well as the data of residential and public town buildings and the manor house. In the 16th–18th centuries, wooden buildings dominated in the town, but sources testify that, especially before the mid-17th century war, brick residential buildings were also built in the main town streets. Along with the town hall, the parish church dominated in the structure of the town, as well as the churches and monasteries of the Jesuit residence and the Dominican convent, and on the top of the town a wooden St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s Church stood, which was to be prominently seen in the town’s skyline.
Grzegorz Osipowicz
Published: 28 December 2020
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 21, pp 27-40; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2019.21.2

Abstract:
The article presents the results of traceological studies of two harp seal bacula, from the Šventoji 3 site (coastal Lithuania). As a result of the microscopic observations carried out, technological and functional microtraces were discovered on both artefacts. The analysis of the use-wear traces, which are better readable only on one of the artefacts, allowed for a hypothesis that they arose as a result of contact with well-tanned and dry hide. This made it possible to assign to the studied artefacts the function of objects of everyday use, having direct contact with this material. The findings were illustrated with the current knowledge on the use of bacula in prehistory, historical times and among archaic communities known from ethnographic observations.
Rūta Brindzaitė
Published: 28 December 2020
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 21, pp 117-131; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2019.21.7

Abstract:
Studies aimed at considering the impact of industrialisation, urbanisation and modernisation on human health in 19th-century society are becoming increasingly relevant. Although it is exceptionally rare to encounter human skeletal material from the 19th century in present-day Lithuania, this study explores whether changes which occurred in that century had any impact on human health. This research presents the preliminary results of an anthropological analysis of the human remains discovered in Panevėžys Cemetery, with material spanning the 18th–19th centuries. In total, 90 individuals were examined, including 57 males, 15 females and 18 nonadult individuals. Fractures and nonspecific inflammatory lesions were the most prevalent pathological changes. However, the values of the average height of males and females did not reveal a significant change in stature. Overall, the results demonstrated inconsistent evidence of the effects of urbanisation on the skeletal population. It can be concluded that both the sample size and the observed pathologies represent only part of the community. Therefore, a more representative sample and additional analyses are required in the future, to provide comprehensive results and more solid conclusions.
Heidi Luik, Liina Maldre
Published: 28 December 2020
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 21, pp 41-58; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2019.21.3

Abstract:
Archaeological investigations in Tornimäe in the eastern part of the island Saaremaa took place in 1963, 1968 and 2004. Artefacts found during the excavations are mainly dated to the Viking Age. Most of the finds are pottery shards, some metal artefacts were found, and also animal bones. The majority of mammal bones are bones of domestic animals. Nearly half of these are caprine bones, bones of cattle, pig and horse are less numerous. Wild game bones are few, only seals were hunted more often. Bird and fish bones are also represented. Only a few bone artefacts were among the finds, more fragments of bone items were found among the animal bones during the identification of osteological material. The bone artefacts found in Tornimäe are rather simple items which do not require special skills from the bone worker and could have been made by the users of these artefacts. The uses of bone artefacts are well suited with the location of the site at the seashore.
Justina Kozakaitė, Rūta Brindzaitė, Žydrūnė Miliauskienė, Aistis Žalnora, Rimantas Jankauskas
Published: 28 December 2020
Archaeologia Lituana, Volume 21, pp 142-154; https://doi.org/10.15388/archlit.2020.21.9

Abstract:
This article briefly presents the history of the human osteological collection stored at the Faculty of Medicine of Vilnius University. The birth of such collection can be traced back to the mid-19th century (1855) with the establishment of the Museum of Antiquities. Until the mid-20th century, human skeletal remains were gathered sporadically and selectively, by collecting either skulls or long bones. Since the late 20th century, the policy of selection has changed and nowadays the collection consists of systematically assembled anthropological material of scientific value. The assemblage currently comprises more than 9.000 skeletal remains dating back from the Mesolithic to the Late Modern Era.
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