Asian Journal of Medicine and Health

Journal Information
EISSN : 2456-8414
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 541
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, Felix Emeka Anyiam
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 79-95; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030384

Abstract:
Background: Despite progress made so far in identifying intervention models to improve drug use, irrational use of drugs has remained a serious global health problem. The study intends to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on rational prescribing among prescribers in selected local government areas of Rivers State. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that measured the effect of educational intervention on rational prescribing of drugs among prescribers in public health facilities in two selected Local Government Areas (LGA) of Rivers State: Ikwerre LGA (KELGA) which served as the control and Port Harcourt LGA (PHALGA) which served as the intervention by using cluster sampling with randomization. Paired data were analysed using McNemar’s Chi-square test and the paired t-test. The level of significance was set at P≤ 0.05. The EPI-INFO version 7.02 statistical software was used in the analysis. Results: Findings showed that the largest category of prescribers was nurse/midwives representing 48.61% and 44.4% in the intervention and control LGA respectively. There was an improvement in the knowledge and attitude of respondents in the facilities in the intervention LGA at one month and three months post-intervention (P<0.05). The average number of drugs per encounter (ANDPE), the percentage encounters with an antibiotic (PEA), the percentage encounters with an injection (PEI) were lower for the interventions group compared to the control (P<0.05). Percentage generic drug prescription (PGD) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control (P=0.001). Conclusion: Educational intervention was an effective and sustainable means of improving rational prescribing in the state. Update courses and continuing medical education on rational drug use should be held periodically for health care professionals by the State and National Primary Health Care Development Agency as well as other interested stakeholders.
Kurnia Murbowaseso, Eni Mahawati,
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 55-78; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030383

Abstract:
Objective and Background: The process of sampling the air quality of chimney emissions is a job that has the risk of causing work-related disorders and diseases. This study examines the relationship between the risk of ergonomics in work postures with material safety data sheet complaints on sampling activities. Methods: Analytical observational method with cross sectional approach. using the Nordic Body Map questionnaire and the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) assessment sheet. Primary data and secondary data were analyzed using Rank Spearman statistical test. Results: The level of risk of ergonomics in work postures at each stage of activity varies from low risk (value 2-3), medium (value is 4-7), and high (value 8 -10). Meanwhile, the level of MSDscomplaints was low (score 28-49) 11.1%, moderate complaints (score 50-70) were 44.4% and high complaints (score 71-91) were 44.4%. The results of the analysis test showed that there was a relationship between the level of ergonomics risk of working postures at 6 stages of activity, namely pre sampling, side preparation, climbing stairs, raising equipment, lowering equipment, and descending stairs (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the other 4 stages of activity, namely sampling with a probe, sampling with a gas analyzer, measuring water content, and measuring particulate levels, there is no relationship between the level of ergonomics in work posture and complaints of MSDs, to reduce the risk of M.S.D.s complaints, efforts can be made through redesigning work stations that are not ergonomic with the use of tools to reduce workload.
Issah Sumaila, , Rosaline Bierema Dassah
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 40-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030382

Abstract:
Introduction: Increased prevalence of hypertension (HTN) has been attributed to commonly known risk factors such as obesity, low level of nutritional knowledge, lack of exercise, alcohol intake, and tobacco use. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, and associated risk factors of hypertension among residents of the Yamfo community in the Ahafo Region of Ghana. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study of 174 participants aged ≥40 years were enrolled using simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural/lifestyle risk factors and knowledge of hypertension. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23. Results: Prevalence of hypertension was 63.2% (95% CI: 55.7–70.1) in adults 40 years and above. Risk factors that were significantly associated with hypertension were lack of physical activity (p=0.030), alcohol consumption (p=0.001), consumption of meals prepared with oil (p=0.016), reduced frequency of fruit consumption (p=0.008) and reduced frequency of vegetable consumption (p<0.001). Increasing age (aOR,1.9; 95%CI (1.3-2.4); p=.049), physical activity (cOR,2.12, 95% CI (1.07-4.21), p=.032), alcohol consumption (aOR, 57.03; 95% C1 (4.48-726.59); p=.002), and knowledge on the cause of hypeternsion (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI (1.93-5.17); p=.032) were observed as determinants of hypertension. Conclusion: Majority of the study participants were hypertensive, with the majority of them having knowledge on risk factors of hypertension. Majority of participants had the opinion that hypertension is inevitable, because it comes with old age. Enough (Intensive) education concerning hypertension could be extended to the community, about the different, but equally relevant risk factors of hypertension, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, reduced fruit and vegetable consumption and inappropriate diet. This could be achieved by organizing outreach programs by the community health workers in places like markets and churches in order to remit the elderly that they can still be healthy in old age, and at schools and on social media to inculcate positive health behavior in the youth.
Ruth Nimota Nukpezah, Issaka Basit, Ayuba Osman, Gifty Mary Wuffele, Baba Freeman Aziza, Obed Duah Kwaku Asumadu, Wisdom Peprah, Salifu Yula,
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030380

Abstract:
Background: Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading measure to prevent cross-transmission of COVID-19. The compliance of nurses with handwashing guidelines is vital in preventing COVID-19 disease transmission among patients. Globally, few studies have explored this subject, especially on the nursing students’ perceptions and barriers of standard hand hygiene precautionary measures amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Purpose: The study aimed to assess the perceptions and barriers associated with standard hand hygiene practice during the COVID-19 era among first degree nursing students undertaking their clinical rotation at the Tamale Teaching Hospital of Ghana. This study was conducted in April 2021. Materials and methods: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design with a quantitative approach. The study population consisted of first degree student nurses of the University for Development Studies who were on clinical rotation at the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana. The exclusion criteria were nursing students from other tertiary institutions who were having their vacation practicum at the hospital. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants from the wards of the hospital. A standard statistical formula was used to arrive at a sample size of 120. Data was collected by using a paper-based self-designed structured questionnaire in English language that has closed- and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages were used in representing data. By using a chi-square test, a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant when the association between independent and dependent variables was cross-tabulated. The statistical software that was used for analyzing the data was SPSS version 23. Results: The study had a total of 120 participants with a mean age of 26.48 and a standard deviation of 3.49. On the distribution of perception about hand hygiene, findings indicated that 105 (87.5%) had good perception. Religion and sex respectively were significantly associated with hand hygiene perceptions (χ2= 13.118, p=0.011; χ2=12.49, p=0.014). Conclusion: Though few of the student nurses had a satisfactory perception regarding hand hygiene, it is a cause to worry about since there exist other barriers influencing standard hand hygiene practices at the Tamale Teaching Hospital. Recommendation: There is the need for the quality assurance unit of the hospital to ensure strict compliance to COVID-19 protocols by all categories of health professionals by seeing to it that standard hand hygiene practices are adhered to, irrespective of religious background.
Sanjit Mandal, , Manoj Kumar Murmu
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030378

Abstract:
Background: The environment and lifestyle of most children has led to the reduction of their motor activity, as they live in small spaces and lack the proper playing conditions. Coordination is about controlling all the body parts while doing different activities of children. It is about making and maintaining connections between the brain and the muscles that control movement of the children. Objective: To compare the coordinative abilities between rural and urban male soccer players. Methodology: A group of sixty (N=60) male soccer players aged between 13-18 years were randomly allowed for this study from different club of north 24 parganas district, West Bengal. They were further divided into two groups of 30 each (i.e., N1=30; rural players and N2=30; urban players). The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. Orientation ability, Differentiation ability, Reaction ability, Balance ability and Rhythm ability were the Coordinative abilities selected for the study. The independent sample t- test statistical technique was used to analyzed the significant difference of coordinative abilities between rural and urban male soccer players and the level of significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: The results showed that there was significant difference between rural and urban male soccer players, in respect to their Coordinative abilities on the sub variables i.e. reaction ability, orientation ability and differentiation ability. However insignificant difference was found for rhythm ability. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the rural male soccer players were better in Orientation ability, Differentiation ability, Reaction ability and Balance ability in comparison to urban male soccer players.
Muhammed Zubair, Nighat Fatima
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 24-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030379

Abstract:
The present study is a case report of a man who was initially diagnosed with “interstitial lung disease” (ILD) or pulmonary disease which is supposed to be an umbrella term for a large group of disorders responsible for scattered fibrosis of the lungs. It is an irreversible scenario. The causative factors for the above mentioned diseased conditions are yet to be found, and all of them are grouped under interstitial pneumonias. The patient underwent detailed clinical investigations on several parameters such as CT pulmonary angiography, Lower limb venous Doppler, D-dimer test, Real Time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) for the novel SARS-CoV -2, Ultra-sonography (USG) of the abdomen, C-reactive proteins (CRP), complete blood count (CBC), Legionella antigen test, specific Mycoplasma IgM antibody assay, the total parameters of the renal functioning test of the blood serum, pro-calcitonin (PCT) level, and the acute coronary syndrome panel (POCT). After detailed investigations the patient was diagnosed with ILD and medications specific to the disease was prescribed. The medications that were prescribed were ceftriaxone with injection pantoprazole, paracetamol, levofloxacin, enoxaparin, amiodiprine, and furosemide. He was also advised to continue his own other medications along with these and contact at the emergency services of the hospital in case of any urgency. He was also advised for follow up visit. The patient responded to the applied therapeutic interventions and survived from the suffering. Thus, here a detailed case reporting has been conducted with the particular disease along with its diagnosis and management.
Belema Brenda Ijoma,
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030377

Abstract:
Background: The case of sexual behavior in adolescents is increasingly worrisome because teenage sexual behavior is now exceeding the limits and quite alarming. This is supported by research an increasing pattern in adolescent pregnancy in sub-Sahara Africa. Methods: An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of knowledge and perception of 200 adolescent females was carried out in a semi-urban area in Rivers state, Nigeria. Results: About 61% of the respondents are reportedly sexually active and 39% are not sexually active while 70.0% of the respondents had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy and 30.0% had good knowledge of teenage pregnancy. About 33.3% of respondents with good knowledge of teenage pregnancy was between 13 – 16 years old and 56.67% of individuals with good knowledge had tertiary education. It was observed that 76% of the sexually active respondents had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy and only 60.3% of the non-sexually active persons had poor knowledge. The analysis shows that most of the sexually active persons had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy (chi-square = 5.78 p =0.016) and the likelihood of poor knowledge was 1.2 times (95% C.I: 1.0 – 1.5) more among the sexually active adolescents. The findings also showed that 52% think peer pressure leads to teenage pregnancy, 78% indicated that poor sexual education at school lead to teenage pregnancy, 71.5% indicated that substance abuse led to teenage pregnancy. Other factors and consequences as indicated by the respondents include: Unsupervised teenagers (83.5%), rape (86.5%), social media (81.5%), Poverty (72.0%), Unsafe abortion (87.5%), stigma and isolation (93.5%). Conclusion: The study showed a relatively poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy especially among sexually active female adolescents. Sexual education and increased awareness are recommended to curb the spread of teen pregnancy in this region.
Rabia Arshad, , Sara Arshad, Fatima Rehman, Muhammad Nadeem, Ruqyia Shabir, Abdul Mateen, Rabia Rehman, Arham Ihtesham, Waleed Inayat Mohamed
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030376

Abstract:
Aims: Thyroid disease is a pathological state associated significantly with diabetes mellitus (DM) Type 1 and Type 2. As the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the rise in our population, so the purposed significance of our study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients of our local population. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study conducted among patients of diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) from September 2020 to March 2021 while their visit in Holy family hospital, Rawalpindi, for a routine clinical check-up on an OPD basis. Methodology: A total of 96 patients with diabetes mellitus on regular medication, 20 to 60 years of age, were included. Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperlipidemia, pregnant females, and those taking medication that can affect thyroid functions (dopamine antagonists, antiepileptics, oral contraceptives, lithium, glucocorticoids) were excluded. A venous blood sample was drawn and sent to the laboratory to analyze thyroid function tests for the presence or absence of any thyroid dysfunction. Data analysis was done through SPSS.v.23. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis was used, and a p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.97 ± 10.29 years. The majority of the patients, 37.50%, were between 41 to 50 years of age. Out of 96 patients, 61 (63.54%) were male, and 35 (36.46%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1. The majority of patients, 69 (71.88%), had type II diabetes mellitus. The frequency of thyroid dysfunction found in diabetic patients was 30 (31.25%), with hypothyroidism in 19 (19.79%) and hyperthyroidism in 11 (11.46%) patients. Conclusion: This study deduced that there is a high frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients. In the same vein, hypothyroidism was the common thyroid dysfunction associated with diabetes mellitus.
Ugochukwu Chioma, Helen Anthony Waribo, Donatus O. Onwuli
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 127-133; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i930374

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, viral load, and some immunomodulatory trace elements in ART and ART-naïve HIV patients in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 150 subjects (males and females) between the ages of 20 and 79 were recruited for the study, out of which 50 subjects were apparently healthy (those who tested negative for HIV), and were used as the control group, while the remaining 100 subjects were those who tested positive for HIV, and were used as the test group; out of this 100 subjects, 70 subjects were on anti-retroviral therapy (ART), while the remaining 30 subjects were not on anti-retroviral therapy (ART naïve). About 13 mls of venous blood was collected from the antecubital fossa of each subject. 3mls was dispensed into an EDTA-anticoagulant bottle, and used for the estimation of CD4+ and CD8+ counts using a BD fluorescent activated cell sorter count (FACSC count) automation. Also, 5mls of the venous blood was dispensed into another EDTA-anticoagulated bottle; it was spun to obtain the plasma which was used to analyze the viral load using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COBAS TaqMan 48 Analyzer. Then, another 5 mls of the venous blood was dispensed into lithium heparin bottle; it was spun to obtain the plasma, which was used for the analysis of copper, iron, zinc and magnesium by colorimetric method using semi auto-analyzer WP 21E, and selenium using atomic absorption spectrophotometer with graphite furnace technique SN-SG 710690. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean levels of CD8+ T-cell, iron and magnesium between the HIV-positive subjects (ART HIV-positive and ART-naïve HIV-positive) and the control. However, the mean levels of CD4+ T-cell and plasma copper were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the HIV-positive subjects compared to the control; also, the mean levels of the CD4+ T-cell in the ART-naïve subjects were significantly lower compared to the ART subjects. The viral load in ART-naïve subjects were significantly higher compared to the ART subjects and control. However, the mean levels of zinc and selenium were significantly lower in the HIV-positive subjects compared to the control. Conclusion: Based on these results, it may be stated that some immunomodulatory trace elements such as zinc and selenium were deficient in HIV-positive subjects, and as such, addition of zinc and/or selenium supplements in the treatment regimen for HIV-positive subjects may be helpful in boosting their immunity and effective management.
, Green Kinikanwo
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i930375

Abstract:
Aim: To review the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis in the antenatal population in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria and to perform a retrospective VTE risk assessment of the patients with a view of determining those patients that would have needed VTE prophylaxis. Design: It was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria from the 1st of February to the 30th of April, 2020. Materials and Methods: The following data were extracted from the hospital notes of 347 consecutive antenatal patients: history/demographic characteristics, risk factors for VTE, thromboprophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of VTE, using the RCOG guideline 37a of 2015 as a benchmark for comparison. Data was analysed with the aid of a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, version 18. Results: VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis was not a routine practice at the UPTH. Apart from antenatal admission, the most frequent VTE risk factors in pregnancy were BMI ≥30, Parity ≥ 3, Age > 5 years and current pre-eclampsia at 48.48%, 41.04%, 36.04% and 15.56% of the study population respectively. 131 (37.75%) of the 347 antenatal population fulfilled the criteria for venous thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) but they were not assessed and the drug was not given. 63 (18.16%) of the study population was to receive LMWH from 28 weeks of pregnancy while 68 (19.60%) of them were to be given from the first trimester. The prevalence of VTE was however very low at 0.02% (1 patient out of the 347 maternities), irrespective of the fact that 41 (11.82%) of the patients had symptoms and signs of VTE. Conclusion: 131 (37.75%) out of the total 347 antenatal patients fulfilled the criteria to be given thromboprophylaxis but the prevalence of VTE was low at 0.02%. It was therefore recommended that a unified Nigerian national guideline should be written.
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