Majalah Kedokteran Bandung
EISSN : 2338-6223
Published by: Majalah Kedokteran Bandung (10.15395)
Total articles ≅ 524
Latest articles in this journal
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 166-171; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2648
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Micropulse Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation (MP-TSCPC) is a new method for treatment for refractory glaucoma with lesser complications than coventional TSCPC. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MP-TSCPC (IRIDEX IQ810 Laser systems, CA) for refractory glaucoma treatment. This was a retrospective study using data obtained from the medical records of patients who underwent a MP-TSCPC procedure at Cicendo National Eye Hospital from July 2018 to September 2019. The outcomes measured were success rate (IOP decreased ≥30% from baseline with or without anti glaucoma medication at first month follow up) and post-operative complications. Fifty-seven eyes from 56 patients with a mean age of 57 years old underwent MP-TSCPC with 3 month follow up. The mean pre-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) dropped from 51.8 mmHg to 36.0 mmHg at 1 month follow up and 36.8 mmHg at the final follow up, representing an IOP decrease of 31% (1 month) and 28% (3 month). There was also a decrease of anti glaucoma medication usage from 2.51 to 2.16. The overall success rate at 1 month follow up was 49% and only 5% complication were found in this study. MP-TSCPC is safe and effective for lowering IOP and decreasing the need of anti glaucoma -medications in refractory glaucoma case. Further long-term evaluation and comparison to conventional TSCPC are still necessary.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 161-165; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2788
The mortality rate of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation is still high and varies in all neurosurgical centers. Currently, minimally invasive surgery to evacuate bleeding has become an option, but not all neurosurgical centers can perform the procedures due to limited resources. In addition, there are several guidelines for determining which patients will undergo a surgery. This study assessed the outcome of selected patients who were operated on using micro neurosurgical procedures or external ventricular drainage for intraventricular hemorrhage between 2016 and 2021. Patients included in this study were recruited from a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia and selected based on the guideline of the 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA). The outcome was assessed by a modified Rankin scale (mRS). There were 301 patients with hemorrhagic stroke but only fifty patients were matched the criteria in the guideline. Male patients constituted the majority of the patients (n=28, 56%) and hypertension has occurred in 37 (74%) patients. The hematoma was mostly located in the intracerebral with intraventricular extension (n=27, 54%) patients. The pre-operative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 23 (46%) patients were comatose and the other was 9–13. Postoperatively, there were 37 (74%) patients with a scale of 13–15, but 10 (20%) patients died. Pair t-test of the preoperative and postoperative scales showed a significant difference, p < 0.01. The outcome of 40 (80%) patients was good (modified Rankin scale of 0–3), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was -0.739 with the Sig.2-tailed was <0.01. The outcome of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation is good when selecting patients following the 2015 AHA/ASA guideline and there is a strong correlation between postoperative GCS with 3-month mRS results.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2615
Nutritional status and parenting styles are two factors that are thought to affect children’s quality of life. This study aimed to assess the relationship between parenting styles, nutritional status, and quality of life of children aged 8-12 years. This cross-sectional observational analytic study used data collected from November 2020 to January 2021 using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) that were distributed in the form of e-questionnaire . The analysis tests used were the Spearman and logistic regression tests with a level of significance of 0.05. The results of the Spearman test showed that there was no correlation between parenting style and quality of life (p = 0.882) and between the nutritional status and quality of life (p = 0.568). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the variables of parenting (p = 0.437; 95% CI = 0.607–3.174; OR = 1.388) and nutritional status (p = 0.432; 95% CI = 0.504–1.341; OR = 0.822) were not associated with quality of life. Thus, there is no significant relationship between parenting patterns and children's nutritional status on the quality of life of children aged 8-12 years.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 143-147; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2690
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading cause of nosocomial infection worldwide with clinical isolates mostly found in Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) or Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR). This makes therapeutic options due to this bacteria limited. Several studies have shown that the pili protein of K. pneumoniae with different molecular weights plays a role in the virulence factor, as they are hemagglutinin and adhesin proteins. Pili protein 65.5 kDa of K. pneumoniae can be considered as the antigen candidate for vaccines. This study aimed to determine the immune response based on the IL-10 level as induced by pili protein 65.5 kDa K. pneumoniae. This study was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences and Faculty of Medicine of Jember University. This was true experimental with post-test only controlled group design on 27 male BALB/c mice which divided into 3 groups: K1, K2, and K3. The groups were induced with sterile PBS, pili protein and Freund’s adjuvant, and Freund’s adjuvant only, respectively. Samples were drawn through cardiac puncture, then serum was taken to measure the IL-10 levels using the ELISA method. Hemagglutination test showed a positive result with 1/8 as the highest titer. Results showed that the mean IL-10 levels were 290.92±45.33; 235.05±44.53; 218.54±64,81 for K1, K2, and K3, respectively. One-way ANOVA test results showed a statistical difference between groups (p=0,019). This research shows that pili protein 65.5 kDa K. pneumoniae decreases the IL-10 level. However, when it is provided with the Freund’s Adjuvant, there is no proof of the immunogenicity when compared to the control group.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 154-160; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2729
Tea is known as one of the favorite beverages globally, together with coffee and cocoa. Tea has been used as a health product or medicinal drug to prevent and treat various diseases. Herbal tea has become one of the most sought-after beverages often consumed by the people for health purposes. This paper reports the antioxidant activities of a herbal tea combination from dried ginger and telang flower (Clitoria ternatea), which is referred to as JaTe in Indonesian, as the abbreviation of Jahe (Ginger, Zingiber officinale) and Telang flower (Clitoria ternatea). The experiment was conducted at the general laboratory of the Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Center, Aretha Medika Utama, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, during the period of November 2021 to the end of December 2021. The JaTe tea was made by combining 2 g dried ginger and 5 buds telang flower that were boiled in 200 mL for 5 minutes. The dried ginger tea, dried telang tea, and JaTe tea were evaluated for the antioxidant activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalte using the Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), while the flavonoid content was evaluated using the Quercetin Equivalent (QE) and the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. The antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-Bis-3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) while the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activities was measured using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. This study showed that ginger tea, telang tea, and JaTe tea formulations have antioxidant activities due to its low IC50 values. The highest phenolic content and flavonoid content was counx in ginger tea with 23.62 μg GAE/100% concentration, followed by telang tea with 7.22 μg QE/100% concentration. JaTe tea has the strongest ABTS scavenging activity with IC50= 1.01% and FRAP activity with IC50=3.59 %. Meanwhile, the ginger tea has the strongest DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 7.76 % and an H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50=13.23 %. Overall, JaTe herbal tea formulation has a strong antioxidant activity.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 184-190; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2647
Lacrimal drainage obstruction is a common disorder of lacrimal system. This obstruction could affect lacrimal punctum, canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and lacrimal duct. The etiology could be congenital or acquired, such as triggered by infection or other conditions. This case series illustrates the procedure of canaliculotomy to reduce the epiphora symptom caused by lacrimal drainage obstruction, specifically in punctum and canaliculi. The aim of this case series was to report the management of punctal and canaliculi obstruction with canaliculotomy procedure. Case 1, an eighty-two years old woman with chronic canaliculitis on the right eye due to Actynomyces sp. infection, underwent canaliculotomy and curetage of canalicular area of the right eye. Case 2, a sixty-years old man with chronic canaliculitis with canalicular fistula on the left eye underwent canaliculotomy with silicone tube procedure on the left eye. Case 3, a sixty-seven years old man with recurrent punctal obstruction due to punctal stenosis of the left eye, previous punctoplasty, underwent canaliculotomy with silicone tube. Identification of the patient's symptoms is very important in determining the diagnosis and management plan for the patient. Canaliculotomy procedure with antimicrobial and steroid medication after procedure leads to a good result in reducing symptoms caused by lacrimal drainage obstruction due to various etiology.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 148-153; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2650
Indonesia is facing increased consumption of calorie-dense foods, such as fast food, among its society. Changes in diet and physical activities towards unhealthy ones can result in an imbalanced lifestyle, leading to various consequences, including hyperlipidemia. Pregnant women experience significant increases in plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Excessive cholesterol levels in pregnant women will result in the formation of fat in the liver. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-fat diet to pregnant Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) on the histopathological features of the liver. A true experimental with post test only control group design was applied in this study, which was conducted from August 2020 to November 2021. Fourteen (14) pregnant female rats were divided into two groups. The first group of rats was fed with a high-fat diet, while the second group, which was the control group, was given a standard diet. The high-fat diet used was 3 mL/rat/day beef brain. After the rats delivered their litters, the rats’ livers were retrieved, then examined histopathologically under a microscope. This research was conducted from No fatty liver was identified in the control group or the treatment group. Hence, a high-fat diet does not affect the liver histopathological features in pregnant Wistar rats.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 131-135; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2854
Smoking is defined as burning dry tobacco leaves and inhaling smoke from the burn. This process may be done using different forms of tobbaco products, including cigarettes (Cigars, Little Cigars, Cigarillos), electronic cigarettes, and hookah (shisha). Smoking can give rise to lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been proven to be the underlying cause in 84% of deaths in lung cancer and 83% mortalities in COPD. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among male students of the Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was performed from January to February 2020 on among medical students of Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data while the SPSS was used for data analysis. From 256 male medical students, only 113 responded to the questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was found to be 19.5% (n=22) with most smoked cigarettes (50%). Most smokers (50 %) were in the lowest age group, 19-21 years. There was an increase in smoking with an increase in income. Of the 22 respondents who smoked, 10 started smoking when they were 14 to 17 years old. In conclusion, the study shows a low prevalence of smoking among male medical students in the College of Medicine of Majmaah University. Most smokers consume cigarettes, and the majority are not considering quitting
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 172-176; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2701
Birth weight can be a potential predictor for short-term and long-term health outcomes. Low birth weight can be an output from maternal malnutrition. Mothers' chronic energy malnutrition risk is detected by measuring maternal mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). This study aimed to analyze the correlation of maternal MUAC with a baby's birth weight. This study was an analytic observational study that used secondary data from October 2021 to January 2022. Data were obtained from Tanjungsari Intergenerational Study Nutrition Working Group from 2014 to 2016. Subjects were 124 pairs of mother and baby who were recruited using total sampling. Data were analyzed using t-test and logistic regression. A significant association of maternal MUAC and the baby's birth weight (t (122) = 3.75, 95% CI 174.5, 564.0, p=0.000) was detected. Underweight (OR 23.3, 95% CI 2.6, 209.0, p=0.005), overweight, and obese (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.42, p=0.006) status was shown to have an association with MUAC. Education level and occupation status had no associations with MUAC. In conclusion, maternal MUAC is associated with baby's birth weight. The determinant factors of maternal MUAC were underweight, overweight, and obese status.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, Volume 54, pp 177-183; https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v54n3.2798
COVID-19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has caused a pandemic with symptoms of upper respiratory infection, respiratory failure, and even mortality. Several asymptomatic patients, with no shortness of breath, were found to experience impaired oxygenation in examination for objective data (happy hypoxia). Thus, objective data are needed, including data on inflammatory parameters (TLC, NLR, LDH, CRP, D-dimer and PCT) to monitor the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory parameters in the initial days of treatment for COVID-19 patients between intubated and non-intubated patients during hospitalization. The study was conducted in the COVID isolation ward of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia, from July 2020 to July 2021. This was a retrospective cross-sectional comparative analytical observational study that involved patients’ first laboratory examination results. The statistical analysis was performed using Mann Whitney test for numerical data and Chi Square test for categorical data. There were significant differences in inflammatory parameters values in both groups (p<0.01). The TLC values of intubated patients were lower than those of non-intubated patients, while the NLR, LDH, CRP, D-dimer and PCT values of intubated COVID-19 patients were higher than those of non-intubated patients.