Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 2157-1422 / 2157-1422
Published by: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (10.1101)
Total articles ≅ 1,100
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Wang Min, Jenny Huanjiao Zhou
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041188

Abstract:
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), consisting of multiple, dilated capillary channels formed by a single layer of endothelium and lacking parenchymal cells, are exclusively to the brain. Patients with inherited autosomal-dominant CCMs carry loss-of-function mutations in one of three genes: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. It is not known why CCM lesions are confined to brain vasculature despite the ubiquitous expression of CCM proteins in all tissues, and whether cell types other than endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to CCM lesion formation. The prevailing view is that the primary defects in CCMs in humans are EC-intrinsic, such that EC-specific deletion of any one of the three genes in mice results in similar CCM lesions. An unexpected finding is that Ccm3 deletion in pericytes (PCs) also induces CCM lesions. CCM3 deletion in ECs or PCs destabilizes PC–EC associations, highlighting the importance of these interactions in CCM formation.
Michel V. Levesque,
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041153

Abstract:
Extracellular signals act on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate homeostasis and adapt to stress. This involves rapid intracellular post-translational responses and long-lasting gene-expression changes that ultimately determine cellular phenotype and fate changes. The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors (S1PRs) are examples of well-studied GPCR signaling axis essential for vascular development, homeostasis, and diseases. The biochemical cascades involved in rapid S1P signaling are well understood. However, gene-expression regulation by S1PRs are less understood. In this review, we focus our attention to how S1PRs regulate nuclear chromatin changes and gene transcription to modulate vascular and lymphatic endothelial phenotypic changes during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Because S1PR-targeted drugs approved for use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases cause substantial vascular-related adverse events, these findings are critical not only for general understanding of stimulus-evoked gene regulation in the vascular endothelium, but also for therapeutic development of drugs for autoimmune and perhaps vascular diseases.
Peter Baluk, Donald M. McDonald
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041178

Abstract:
Button-like junctions are discontinuous contacts at the border of oak-leaf-shaped endothelial cells of initial lymphatic vessels. These junctions are distinctively different from continuous zipper-like junctions that create the endothelial barrier in collecting lymphatics and blood vessels. Button junctions are point contacts, spaced about 3 µm apart, that border valve-like openings where fluid and immune cells enter lymphatics. In intestinal villi, openings between button junctions in lacteals also serve as entry routes for chylomicrons. Like zipper junctions that join endothelial cells, buttons consist of adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin) and tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, and others). Buttons in lymphatics form from zipper junctions during embryonic development, can convert into zippers in disease or after experimental genetic or pharmacological manipulation, and can revert back to buttons with treatment. Multiple signaling pathways and local microenvironmental factors have been found to contribute to button junction plasticity and could serve as therapeutic targets in pathological conditions ranging from pulmonary edema to obesity.
Michael O'Hare, Joseph F. Arboleda-Velasquez
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041159

Abstract:
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly versatile and evolutionarily conserved mechanism with an important role in cell fate determination. Notch signaling plays a vital role in vascular development, regulating several fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, arterial/venous differentiation, and mural cell investment. Aberrant Notch signaling can result in severe vascular phenotypes as observed in cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Alagille syndrome. It is known that vascular endothelial cells and mural cells interact to regulate vessel formation, cell maturation, and stability of the vascular network. Defective endothelial–mural cell interactions are a common phenotype in diseases characterized by impaired vascular integrity. Further refinement of the role of Notch signaling in the vascular junctions will be critical to attempts to modulate Notch in the context of human vascular disease. In this review, we aim to consolidate and summarize our current understanding of Notch signaling in the vascular endothelial and mural cells during development and in the adult vasculature.
Harvey G. Roweth, Elisabeth M. Battinelli
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041174

Abstract:
The formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels is essential for both the development of multicellular organisms and (patho)physiological processes like wound repair and tumor growth. In the 1990s, circulating blood platelets were first postulated to regulate tumor angiogenesis by interacting with the endothelium and releasing angiogenic regulators from specialized α granules. Since then, many studies have validated the contributions of platelets to tumor angiogenesis, while uncovering novel roles for platelets in other angiogenic processes like wound resolution and retinal vascular disease. Although the majority of (lymph)angiogenesis occurs during development, platelets appear necessary for lymphatic but not vascular growth, implying their particular importance in pathological cases of adult angiogenesis. Future work is required to determine whether drugs targeting platelet production or function offer a clinically relevant tool to limit detrimental angiogenesis.
Steven J. Mentzer, Maximilian Ackermann, Danny Jonigk
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041157

Abstract:
COVID-19 has been associated with a range of illness severity—from minimal symptoms to life-threatening multisystem organ failure. The severe forms of COVID-19 appear to be associated with an angiocentric or vascular phase of the disease. In studying autopsy patients succumbing to COVID-19, we found alveolar capillary microthrombi were 9 times more common in COVID-19 than in comparable patients with influenza. Corrosion casting of the COVID-19 microcirculation has revealed microvascular distortion, enhanced bronchial circulation, and striking increases in intussusceptive angiogenesis. In patients with severe COVID-19, endothelial cells commonly demonstrate significant ultrastructural injury. High-resolution imaging suggests that microcirculation perturbations are linked to ischemic changes in microanatomic compartments of the lung (secondary lobules). NanoString profiling of these regions has confirmed a transcriptional signature compatible with microischemia. We conclude that irreversible tissue ischemia provides an explanation for the cystic and fibrotic changes associated with long-haul COVID-19 symptoms.
, Emma B. Hodcroft, David L. Robertson
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041390

Abstract:
Our understanding of the still unfolding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic would have been extremely limited without the study of the genetics and evolution of this new human coronavirus. Large-scale genome-sequencing efforts have provided close to real-time tracking of the global spread and diversification of SARS-CoV-2 since its entry into the human population in late 2019. These data have underpinned analysis of its origins, epidemiology, and adaptations to the human population: principally immune evasion and increasing transmissibility. SARS-CoV-2, despite being a new human pathogen, was highly capable of human-to-human transmission. During its rapid spread in humans, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved independent new forms, the so-called “variants of concern,” that are better optimized for human-to-human transmission. The most important adaptation of the bat coronavirus progenitor of both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 for human infection (and other mammals) is the use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Relaxed structural constraints provide plasticity to SARS-related coronavirus spike protein permitting it to accommodate significant amino acid replacements of antigenic consequence without compromising the ability to bind to ACE2. Although the bulk of research has justifiably concentrated on the viral spike protein as the main determinant of antigenic evolution and changes in transmissibility, there is accumulating evidence for the contribution of other regions of the viral proteome to virus–host interaction. Whereas levels of community transmission of recombinants compromising genetically distinct variants are at present low, when divergent variants cocirculate, recombination between SARS-CoV-2 clades is being detected, increasing the risk that viruses with new properties emerge. Applying computational and machine learning methods to genome sequence data sets to generate experimentally verifiable predictions will serve as an early warning system for novel variant surveillance and will be important in future vaccine planning. Omicron, the latest SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, has focused attention on step change antigenic events, “shift,” as opposed to incremental “drift” changes in antigenicity. Both an increase in transmissibility and antigenic shift in Omicron led to it readily causing infections in the fully vaccinated and/or previously infected. Omicron's virulence, while reduced relative to the variant of concern it replaced, Delta, is very much premised on the past immune exposure of individuals with a clear signal that boosted vaccination protects from severe disease. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has proven itself to be a dangerous new human respiratory pathogen with an unpredictable evolutionary capacity, leading to a risk of future variants too great not to ensure all regions of the world are screened by viral genome sequencing, protected through available and affordable vaccines, and have non-punitive strategies in place for detecting and responding to novel variants of concern.
Aline Bauer, Hazal Tatliadim, Cornelia Halin
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041186

Abstract:
To ensure proper immune function, most leukocytes constantly move within tissues or between them using the blood and lymphatic vessels as transport routes. While afferent lymphatic vessels transfer leukocytes from peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes (dLNs), efferent lymphatics return lymphocytes from LNs back into the blood vascular circulation. Over the last decades, great progress has been made in our understanding of leukocyte migration into and within the lymphatic compartment, leading to the approval of new drugs targeting this process. In this review, we first introduce the anatomy of the lymphatic vasculature and the main cell types migrating through lymphatics. We primarily focus on dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, the most prominent lymph-borne cell types, and discuss the functional significance as well as the main molecules and steps involved in their migration. Additionally, we provide an overview of the different techniques used to study lymphatic trafficking.
Jeremy A. Herrera, Martin A. Schwartz
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041220

Abstract:
Mechanical variables such as stiffness, stress, strain, and fluid shear stress are central to tissue functions, thus, must be maintained within the proper range. Mechanics are especially important in the cardiovascular system and lung, the functions of which are essentially mechanical. Mechanical homeostasis is characterized by negative feedback in which deviations from the optimal value or set point activates mechanisms to return the system to the correct range. In chronic diseases, homeostatic mechanisms are generally overcome or replaced with positive feedback loops that promote disease progression. Recent work has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to mechanical homeostasis in a number of biological systems and that perturbations to miRNA biogenesis play key roles in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of miRNAs in mechanical homeostasis and how these mechanisms are altered in disease.
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a041167

Abstract:
This review highlights new concepts in vascular patterning in the last 10 years, with emphasis on its beauty and complexity. Endothelial cell signaling pathways that respond to molecular or mechanical signals are described, and examples of vascular patterning that use these pathways in brain, skin, heart, and kidney are highlighted. The pathological consequences of patterning loss are discussed in the context of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and prospects for the next 10 years presented.
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