European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research

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EISSN : 2506-8016
Total articles ≅ 902
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Osaretin N.I. Ebuehi, Kingsley Abhulimen, Daniel O. Adebesin
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 14-21; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2391

Abstract:
Recently, fuel gas from water has become the center of attention because it is a renewable source of energy and eco-friendly. In this study, the hydrogen gas simulated was obtained from the high-temperature water splitting electrolysis model, because it is more efficient than the low-temperature water splitting electrolysis process. It also releases oxygen as a byproduct. The high-temperature electrolysis model is made up of three loops: primary high-temperature helium loop, secondary helium loop, and high-temperature electrolysis loop. Hydrogen gave a temperature of 27.20C, a pressure of 49.5 bars, and a molar flow of 84.02MMSCFD. The hydrogen gas from a high-temperature electrolysis model is simulated with a CO2 gas stream to produce methane and water, also releasing unreacted carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Key parameters such as molar entropy, molar enthalpy, heat flow, and cost flow were evaluated by Aspen HYSYS V8.8. The simulation model used for this work is the Sabatier Process Model. In this model, Continuous stirred tank, Converter, Equilibrium, Gibbs, Plug flow reactors were used to generate methane. The Converter reactor gave the highest yield of methane gas with a mole fraction of 0.2390. Key benchmarks, including temperature, heat flow, cost flow, cost factor were varied to see how they can affect methane gas and other products.
E. Khutsishviliis, Z. Chubinishvili, G. Kekelidze, I. Kalandadze, T. Qamushadze, M. Metskhvarishvili
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 10-13; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2401

Abstract:
The electrical properties of n-type crystals of InAs compound, grown from stoichiometric melt by the horizontal zone melting method, have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2 K-300 K before and after fast neutron irradiation up to high integral fluences of 2×1018n∙cm-2. At a fixed temperature electrons concentration (n) increases almost by one order during irradiation, and practically does not change with increasing of temperature. n increases only slightly by increasing of temperature near 300 K, both before and after irradiation. When ≥ 4×1018cm-3 the change of during irradiation is negligible. Comparison of experimental data of mobility with theory shows that the privileged scattering mechanism of electrons at 300 K is scattering on optical phonons in InAs with 1016-1017 cm-3 and scattering on ions of impurity in InAs with n~1018-1019 cm-3. The analysis shows that during irradiation point type scattering centers of donor-type structural defects with shallow levels in the forbidden zone appear. Consequently, the mobility decreases during irradiation. At 300 K in sample with electrons concentration of 3×1016 cm-3 the mobility decreases by 5 times after irradiation, which is equivalent to the formation of 1.5×1019cm-3 charged point scattering centers.
Razali Thaib
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 34-37; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2411

Abstract:
Buildings with lightweight concrete are currently used as a solution for mass housing construction which is relatively cheaper, although it does not provide indoor thermal comfort due to the use of this building material. Lightweight concrete building materials are able to store heat for a long time, so that at night the heat is released indoors. The combination of building materials and PCM is an efficient way to increase the storage capacity of thermal energy in building components. The purpose of this study was to determine the compressive strength of the concrete if the coarse aggregate (gravel) was replaced by part of the gravel material using the Phase Change Material of beeswax (beeswax) according to the required percentage starting from 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and if the aggregate was fine. (Sand) is partially replaced aby using Rice husk ash with various variations starting from 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%. In addition, this utilization is a good alternative, because there will be a process of utilizing rice husk ash which was previously wasted while these items can be used or processed into additives to the concrete mixture.
Razali Thaib, Hamdani Umar, T. Azuar Rizal
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 22-26; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2405

Abstract:
Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is a combination of electrical technology from photovoltaic solar panels (PV) with building construction. The PV panel was mounted onto the frames attached to the building's main outer wall. When solar radiation energy comes into contact on the PV surface, some part is reflected in the surroundings while mostly absorbed in the PV panel. The energy absorbed is converted into electricity while the rest dissipates into thermal energy, which increases the surface temperature of PV. The increases in the panels' surface temperature negatively impact the electrical output and PV panels' long-term reliability. One of them is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as heat storage materials. This research also emphasizes the use of beeswax as a material for storing heat energy. Using the T-History method by fusing beeswax, show that the temperature range between 49,40 to 57.15 oC with latent enthalpy 151.65 kJ/kg. In this research, we tested the use of PCM as a heat storage material for PV panels. Two types of containers to accommodate PCM are used, triangular containers and semicircular containers. From the test results, it was found that beeswax can function well as a heat storage so that the surface temperature of the PV + PCM panel is lower than that of standard PV. So that the voltage generated is higher than standard PV panels.
Godwin Diamenu
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 27-33; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2406

Abstract:
Power systems in general supply consumers with electrical energy as economically and reliably as possible. Reliable electric power systems serve customer loads without interruptions in supply voltage. Electric power generation facilities must produce enough power to meet customer demand. Electrical energy produced and delivered to customers through generation, transmission and distribution systems, constitutes one of the largest consumers markets the world over. The benefits of electric power systems are integrated into the much faster modern life in such extent that it is impossible to imagine the society without the electrical energy. The rapid growth of electric power distribution grids over the past few decades has resulted in a large increment in the number of grid lines in operation and their total length. These grid lines are exposed to faults as a result of lightning, short circuits, faulty equipment, mis-operation, human errors, overload, and aging among others. A fault implies any abnormal condition which causes a reduction in the basic insulation strength between phase conductors or phase conductors and earth, or any earthed screens surrounding the conductors. In this paper, different types of faults that affected the electric power distribution grid of selected operational districts of Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) in the Western region of Ghana was analyzed and the results presented. Outages due to bad weather and load shedding contributed significantly to the unplanned outages that occurred in the medium voltage (MV) distribution grid. Blown fuse and loose contact faults were the major contributor to unplanned outages in the low voltage (LV) electric power distribution grid.
Helena A. J. Jayaselan, Wan I. W. Ismail, Abdul R. M. Shariff, Nazmi M. Nawi
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 47-54; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2415

Abstract:
In order to reduce excessive fertiliser application, a non-destructive method of spectral data acquisition using spectroradiometer with wavelet analysis was explored to determine the level of nutrients in the oil palm leaves. In spectral data analysis, wavelet de-noising (WD) can be applied to remove background noises and other disturbances such as scattered light that may affect the results of data. Therefore, this study aims to determine and evaluate the best combination of parameters for WD, with respect to nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). These nutrients were studied for three age groups of immature, mature, and old palms. The results were evaluated based on the highest value of coefficient of determination (R2) and lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. The prediction of nutrient content correlation was found to have tremendous improvement using the proposed technique when compared to the original spectra, with highest prediction R2 value of 0.99 for K of mature palms, 0.97 for N of immature palms and 0.95 for P of mature palms. The results of WD for nutrients prediction were found to be better than results from chemometric method of namely multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). It was observed that for each nutrient type and palm maturity level, there were different combination of parameters based on the highest R2 value that best suited them. Therefore, spectroradiometer assisted with optimal wavelet de-noising parameters gives excellent relationship between spectral data and nutrients N, P, and K.
Omer Salih Dawood Omer, Abd-El-Kader Sahraoui, Mukhtar M. E. Mahmoud, Abd-El-Aziz Babiker
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 55-64; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2373

Abstract:
Phase in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The design phase follows it. Traceability is one of the core concepts in software engineering; it is used to follow updates to make consistent items. This paper aimed to cover consistency through bi-directional traceability between requirements and design phase in a semi-automatic way. The Natural Language Processing (NLP) was used to analyze the requirements text and generate a class diagram; then, the generated items can be traced back to requirements. We developed a novel process to support consistency and bi-directional traceability. To ensure our proposed process's practical applicability, we implemented a tool named as Requirements and Design Bi-directional Traceability (RDBT). RDTB receives textual format requirements, performs NLP tasks (Tokenization, Part-of-Speech Tagging, etc.), generates UML class diagram, and finally performs traceability management to ensure consistency of requirements and UML class diagram. The work evaluation reveals good results, which indicates it can be used efficiently as a guide to generate the UML class diagram semi-automatically and manage traceability.
Laura Landa-Ruiz, René Croche, Griselda Santiago-Hurtado, Victor Moreno-Landeros, Josefina Cuevas, Ce Tochtli Méndez, Manuel Jara-Díaz, Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 74-80; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2423

Abstract:
In the present work, it is proposed to include in the theoretical curves of moment-curvature (m- φ) the effect of corrosion by obtaining the decrease in the area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. The corrosion depth will be obtained from the crack width and corrosion length observed in the cover concrete. With the depth of corrosion, the area of steel that is lost will be obtained and this modification will be incorporated into the theoretical procedure to elaborate the m- φ curves. The forces of the steel will be obtained from an elastoplastic model with curved hardening and the forces of the concrete with a model that considers the effect of confinement.
Ba-Viet Ngo, Thanh-Hai Nguyen, Duc-Dung Vo
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 65-73; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.3.2421

Abstract:
This paper aims to reconstruct 3D map based on environmental 3D cloud information of landmarks. A Modified Iterative Closest Point (MICP) algorithm is proposed to apply for merging point clouds through a transformation matrix with values updated using the robot’s position. In particular, reconstruction of 3D map is performed based on the location information of landmarks in an indoor environment. In addition, the transformation matrix obtained using the MICP algorithm will be up-dated again whenever the error among the point clouds is greater than one setup threshold. The result is that the environmental 3D map is reconstructed more accurately compared using the MICP. The experimental results showed that the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the quality of reconstructing 3D cloud map.
Temitayo A. Adeseye, Gafar Suara
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 1-5; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.4.2435

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine 3D-position of selected points within Obafemi Awolowo University. The points were located at Africa Regional Institute for Geospatial Information Science and Technology (AFRIGST), Central Technological and Laboratory Workshops (CTLW), main Bus Stop, Religion ground, New Environmental Design and Management (New EDM), and Spider building. China HuaCe Corporation (CHC) GPS and Promark 3 GPS were used to carry out observation on the selected points. The data gotten were post processed using GNSS solution software for Promark3, Compass software for CHC GPS and the result gotten were compared with the known coordinates of those points. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the most accurate instrument between the two. The occupation time for the two instruments on each station was 45 minutes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi square Variance analysis were conducted, the result showed that there is no significant difference between the observations of the two instruments in comparison with the adjusted coordinate. It can be concluded that any of the two instruments can be used for 3D point positioning to obtain accurate result.
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