#### International Journal of Petroleum Technology

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EISSN : 2409-787X
Total articles ≅ 52
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Huijing Fang, Shubo Yang, Guocan Zhang, Huaimin Xu
Published: 15 April 2022
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.54653/2409-787x.2022.09.1

Abstract:
Time-depth relationships (TDRs) can connect seismic and wireline logs, both essential characterization data of reservoirs. The seismic well tie is always a complex work on account of the complicated reservoir structures. Since seismic and logging data are responses of reservoir architectures, the seismic well tie can be efficiently improved constrained by the reservoir architectures. This study adopts a clastic reservoir as the study area. Three architecture modes (i.e., normal cycle mode, inverse-normal cycle mode, and homogeneous-normal cycle mode) are summarized based on combinations of architecture elements. For the generation of the synthetic seismograms, optimized wavelets (i.e., wavelet A, wavelet B, and wavelet C) are suitable for the wells belonging to normal cycle mode, inverse-normal cycle mode, and homogeneous-normal cycle mode, respectively. Precise TDRs are established by matching the synthetics and seismic traces. Wells belong to the same architecture mode and have similar TDRs. The two-way travel time is shortest in the same depth interval of homogeneous-normal cycle mode compared to other architecture modes.
Samuel Mubenesha, Chike George Okoye-Chine, Franscina Katuchero Ramutsindela, Joshua Gorimbo, Mahluli Moyo,
Published: 18 October 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 99-115; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.8

Abstract:
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis has been studied in the literature as a greener pathway to cleaner and sustainable hydrocarbons production. However, the cost to upscale laboratory FT formulations to pilot scale is significantly expensive. This work proposes a cheaper and scalable low-temperature FT modified iron ore catalyst that is mechanically suited for fixed bed reactors. The mechanical strength reported in this investigation was three times more than commercial alumina spherical pellets and, therefore, suitable for pilot scale scenarios. A manufacturing cost analysis of iron ore was estimated to be US$38.45/kg using the CatCost model, and the conventionally prepared iron catalyst was US$71.44/kg using the same model. The manufacturing cost estimations of modified iron ore were found to be 46% cheaper than a conventional commercial iron catalyst. The catalytic performance of the modified iron ore catalyst showed a CO conversion of 72.1% ±4.24, with WGS and C5+ selectivity 48.6% ±1.96 and 83.2% ± 5.24, respectively. These findings were comparable (both in CO conversion and product selectivity) to the ones reported by other researchers.
O.N. Shemelina, V.P. Ovchinnikov, Y.N. Pavelyeva, S.S. Shemelin
Published: 18 October 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 93-98; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.7

Abstract:
The article presents the definition of problems in the well support from external local sealing loads. The conditions of local sealing loads are identified. The calculations were carried out according to the equations. A model of the stress-strain state in the well support has been created. The parameters of the effect of compression on the absolute value of strength are determined.
E. Bakhshi, A. Shahrabadi, N. Golsanami, Sh. Seyedsajadi, X. Liu, Z. Wang
Published: 12 October 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 55-79; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.5

Abstract:
The more comprehensive information on the reservoir properties will help to better plan drilling and design production. Herein, diagenetic processes and geomechanical properties are notable parameters that determine reservoir quality. Recognizing the geomechanical properties of the reservoir as well as building a mechanical earth model play a strong role in the hydrocarbon reservoir life cycle and are key factors in analyzing wellbore instability, drilling operation optimization, and hydraulic fracturing designing operation. Therefore, the present study focuses on selecting the candidate zone for hydraulic fracturing through a novel approach that simultaneously considers the diagenetic, petrophysical, and geomechanical properties. The diagenetic processes were analyzed to determine the porosity types in the reservoir. After that, based on the laboratory test results for estimating reservoir petrophysical parameters, the zones with suitable reservoir properties were selected. Moreover, based on the reservoir geomechanical parameters and the constructed mechanical earth model, the best zones were selected for hydraulic fracturing operation in one of the Iranian fractured carbonate reservoirs. Finally, a new empirical equation for estimating pore pressure in nine zones of the studied well was developed. This equation provides a more precise estimation of stress profiles and thus leads to more accurate decision-making for candidate zone selection. Based on the results, vuggy porosity was the best porosity type, and zones C2, E2 and G2, having suitable values of porosity, permeability, and water saturation, showed good reservoir properties. Therefore, zone E2 and G2 were chosen as the candidate for hydraulic fracturing simulation based on their E (Young’s modulus) and ν (Poisson’s ratio) values. Based on the mechanical earth model and changes in the acoustic data versus depth, a new equation is introduced for calculating the pore pressure in the studied reservoir. According to the new equation, the dominant stress regime in the whole well, especially in the candidate zones, is SigHmax>SigV>Sighmin, while according to the pore pressure equation presented in the literature, the dominant stress regime in the studied well turns out to be SigHmax>Sighmin>SigV.
Myongjin Lee, Yun Gan, Chunyang Yang, Chunlei Ren, Xingjian Xue
Published: 12 October 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 80-92; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.6

Abstract:
Ni-cermet anode demonstrates excellent catalytic activity and electrical conductivity but suffers from carbon deposition issue. To utilize Ni-cermet anode while preventing carbon deposition, a synergic strategy is employed to design anode electrode. In particular, Zr is incorporated into Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ lattice to tailor oxygen storage and catalytic properties of Ni-Ce0.8-xSm0.2ZrxO2-δ anode for improving electrochemical oxidizations of various fuel species. An inert thick YSZ microtubular substrate with radially well-aligned microchannels open at the inner surface is used to support multi thin functional layers of solid oxide cell, i.e., Ni current collector, Ni-Ce0.8-xSm0.2ZrxO2-δ anode, YSZ/SDC electrolyte, and LSCF cathode. The thick YSZ substrate is able to inhibit the ratio of fuel to product gases in the thin anode functional layer, which favors the prevention of carbon buildup in the thin anode layer when synergistically combined with Ni-Ce0.8-xSm0.2ZrxO2-δ anode material. The microchannels embedded in the YSZ substrate can also avoid too much dilutions of the fuel in the anode functional layer. The cell is fabricated and tested with both hydrogen and methane as the fuel. A short-term test is conducted with methane as fuel and good stability is obtained. The fundamental mechanisms for the prevention of carbon buildup in anode functional layer are also discussed.
Esther Neyrolles, Alain Valtz, Eric Boonaert, Christophe Coquelet
Published: 3 September 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.4

Abstract:
In this work, new isothermal experimental data of vapor-liquid equilibrium of the isobutane and ethyl mercaptan binary system are presented. The pressure and temperature conditions are up to 1 MPa and between 298 and 343K. The experimental apparatus is based on a “static-analytic method” specially developed for low-pressure measurements. Two online capillary samplers are used to take vapor and liquid samples that are analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The classical Peng Robinson Equation of State is used to correlate the experimental data. The van Ness test is used to check the consistency of the data. The measured data are also compared to predicted values from two predictive models, and a good agreement is found between the PSRK UNIFAC and the PPR78 models and the experimental measurements.
Shuai Wang, Fei Mo, Zhilin Qi, Xiaolong Peng, Wende Yan, Xiaoliang Huang
Published: 15 July 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.3

Abstract:
Coalbed methane (CBM) is produced before coal mining at the Qinshui Basin in China to utilize CBM and reduce CH4 volume fraction for coal mining. However, the volume fraction of CH4 often reaches the range between lower and upper explosion limits after CBM production, which is a great threat to coal mining safety. In previous work, we analyzed the feasibility of injecting CO2 into coalbeds to control CH4 volume fraction for mining safety and simultaneously enhancing CBM recovery. In this paper, we extended our work to propose a model to calculate the critical CO2 volume fraction for CO2 injection. We simplified the gas mixture during coal mining as the CO2/CH4/air mixture. The model of the critical CO2 volume fraction was then built based on the explosion limit formula for the CO2/CH4/N2 mixture. The formula for the critical CO2 volume was derived using the critical CO2 volume fraction. The model of the critical CO2 volume fraction was applied in a CBM reservoir at the South Shizhuang Block in the Qinshui Basin. The CO2 injection rate for this block was optimized to obtain the highest CBM recovery using the reservoir simulation method. Results show that the critical CO2 volume fraction is 7.97%, which makes the CH4 volume fraction out of the explosion limits. The optimum CO2 injection rate for this block is 8000m3/d which improves the CBM recovery up to 86.24%.
Malek Hassanpour
Published: 13 July 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 15-33; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.2

Abstract:
With regard to the wide application of Transformer Oils (TO) as an energy stream on an industrial scale with fast progress towards green TO generation and regeneration technologies, the current review takes into investigation the TO generation industries based on the screening step of industrial projects by Iranian evaluator teams of in-charge organizations. The present review encompassed the TO generation and regeneration technologies from traditional, typical, and recently developed practices in this regard. The technologies extended to introduce green TO generation practices in connection with fossil fuel resources. By the way, a comparison has been done based on technologies posed for TO with the used motor oil reprocessing techniques and used lubricant oil regeneration technologies. To sum up, the current review comprised basic knowledge to select the best technologies for decision-making models in future industrial developments. The prominent achievement of the current review can be mentioned to the aggregation of industrial data for further processing in decision-making theory, criteria, and alternatives selections.
Jian Wang, Hui Zhang, Huashan Jiang, Lin Pan
Published: 1 July 2021
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2021.08.1

Abstract:
Permeability is one of the key parameters in reservoir property studies. The existing well log interpretation models could not predict the permeability accurately due to the complexity and ambiguity of well logging curves, and the prediction results may demonstrate significant contradictions with the production data. Based on the comprehensive analysis of cores, well logs, laboratory tests, and thin section observations, we take the first member of Liushagang Formation (L1) in Weizhou 11-1N Oil Field as the target, and select median grain size, porosity, and resistivity to establish a multiple nonlinear regression interpretation model of permeability. The accuracy and applicability of this model is validated by the laboratory test data and oil production performance. This permeability interpretation model is easy and practical to operate. Furthermore, it bridges the geological characteristics and the production performance.
Julio Ariel Dueñas Santana, Amelia González Miranda, Jesús Luis Orozco, Yanelys Cuba Arana, Dainelys Febles Lantigua, Jonathan Serrano Febles
Published: 31 December 2020
International Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 7, pp 60-73; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787x.2020.07.6

Abstract:
Accidents in the processing and storage of hydrocarbons can cause severe damage to people, not only within the facility but also in nearby places. In those cases, the occurrence of a major accident is considered. Moreover, there are many studies on how to determine the impact on people of these types of events. However, there is a real need to establish a methodology that integrates risk analysis techniques with other artificial intelligence ones and, in this way, to include the likelihood of the domino effect. For this reason, this research aims to determine the individual risk due to the domino effect of toxic, fire, and explosion accidents that can occur in a hydrocarbon processing area. For this purpose, a logical sequence of analysis of eight fundamental stages was made. In addition, the Bayesian and Petri networks are developed to determine the joint probability of the domino effect at different levels and the damages caused by toxicity, respectively. Finally, the individual risk is obtained, expressed using isorisk maps. As main results, these maps confirm that three deaths can occur up to 200 meters, while 250 will cause approximately four in just 10 years, values that decrease to 500 meters and are considered high according to specialized literature. Hence, this methodology is vital to quantify the possible damages of toxic accidents, fires, and explosions on people in the hydrocarbon processing industry.