KnE Life Sciences

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EISSN : 2413-0877
Published by: Knowledge E (10.18502)
Total articles ≅ 1,627
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Tatyana Pivnenko, Julia Karpenko, Viktoria Krashchenko
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 285–289-285–289; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10132

Abstract:
This research aimed to examine the effect of a microbial transglutaminase preparation (Activa® GS, Ajinomoto Co., Inc, Japan) on the structure formation of the myofibrillar protein system of a deep-sea fish species – the giant grenadier – after the addition of various protein substrates. The low content of proteins and their low water-holding capacity in this fish, subjected to various processing methods, leads to significant losses in the initial mass and decreased gelation ability in the muscle tissue system. Various concentrations of transglutaminase were used but these did not ensure the restructuring of the initial muscle tissue of the grenadier. Additional protein substrates with different molecular weights and amino acid composition were added, including gelatin, milk casein, hydrolysates of the skin and milt of the fish, and whole bivalves, which were used to create a firm structure. It was shown that the introduction of gelatin and casein at a concentration of 5% led to the formation of a firm, thermostable structure under the action of the enzyme, while hydrolyzed proteins with low molecular weight at their various concentrations enhanced the expression of water and formation of the fluid consistency. The ability of gastrointestinal tract proteases (pepsin and trypsin) to digest did not depend on the formation of protein-to-protein cross-linking in these combined products. The influence on the growth of the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliates test culture also showed the high degree of product availability. The technology of molded products based on fermented minced muscle tissue of grenadier with added casein, both in the form of semi-finished products and in the form of ready-to-eat products, was developed. Keywords: transglutaminase, muscle tissue, structure formation, deep-sea fish
Ivan Shorstkii, Alexandr Gukasyan, Evgeny Koshevoi, Vyacheslav Kosachev
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 97–111-97–111; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10112

Abstract:
For the successful implementation of alternative protein sourcesforbiorefinery, optimization of the process parameters is crucial. Knowledge of the rheological propertiesis necessary for the design and development of appropriate equipment and process calculations.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the following pre-treatments: temperature, pressure andeffect of initial oil content on the rheological properties of sunflower seedcake and larvae tissue. The rheological behavior of two protein sourceswas determined by using a rotational viscometer with a hydraulic system and thermostatic bath attached to the equipment. Using the mathematical apparatus and experimental data it was observed that the plastic viscosity of the sunflower seed cake corresponded to the viscosity of the vegetable oil, which confirmed the Bingham rheology assumption put forward in this work. For the larvae mass, a Hershey Buckley fluid model was proposed.A positive linear relationship was found for pressure and a negativelinear relationship was found for the oil content of the sunflower seed cake and larvae tissue on shear stress. Keywords: rheological property, sunflower seed cake, larvae, pulsed electricaldischarge, viscoplasticity flow, Bingham model, modelling
Valeria Timganova, Svetlana Zamorina, Maria Bochkova, Anton Nechaev, Pavel Khramtsov, Kseniya Shardina, Sofia Uzhviyuk, Mikhail Rayev
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 48–57-48–57; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10105

Abstract:
Graphene oxide (GO) is very useful for biomedicine, due to its physicochemical properties; therefore, its interaction with cells of the immune system has beenextensively studied. Many studies have aimed toreduce the undesirable effects of GO through chemical modification, including through polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating. Neutrophils are the first to respond to foreign object invasion in the body. Their main functions are the uptake and destruction of foreign particles, including with the help of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Our study aimed to investigate theengulfment of unmodified graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide coated with polyethylene glycol (GO-PEG) by human neutrophils and the effect of nanosheets on the production of ROS.We used sheets of GO (Ossila, Great Britain, average plate size 1-5 μm) and GO-PEG (569 ± 14 nm, PEG coating≈ 20%) at concentrations of 12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL. The uptake of nanosheets was assessed by flow cytometry, taking into account the level of background adhesion of nanoparticles. ROS production was evaluated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LCL).It was found that GO (12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL) was actively internalized by neutrophils, while the uptake of GO-PEG was not detected. GO and GO-PEG particles (25 μg/mLand 50 μg/mL) reduced the total production of ROS by human leukocytes.Thus, the modifying of GOnanosheets with PEG resulted in the abolishment of their active uptake by neutrophils but did not affect the GO inhibitory effect on their oxidative activity. Keywords: graphene oxide surface modification, pegylated graphene oxide nanosheets, nanoparticle uptake, human neutrophils, of reactive oxygen species
Vitaliy V. Chelnokov, Elena Zabolotnaya, Aleksey V. Matasov, Andrey N. Glushko, Stanyslav V. Michailin
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 13–17-13–17; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10099

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to examine the combustion process of the magnetic-electric activation of hydrocarbon-containing waste gases for heat generation. A method for analyzing the composition of the gases was also developed. Keywords: industrial gas combustion, magnetic-electric activation, heat generation
Olga Musina, Mikhail Shetinin
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 21–29-21–29; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10101

Abstract:
A balanced diet contributes to the prevention of nutritionallyrelated diseases. The purpose of this paperwas to demonstrate how tools of the digital economy could be used to help improve nutritional status, using the example of Microsoft Excel. To improve nutritional status, reliable digital information is needed on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients in raw materials and foodproducts. Then the correction of the diet or formulation of an individual product can be carried out. The database “Chemical composition of food raw materials and food products” was developed using Microsoft Excel; this database is a digital tool for quick and reliable information about the nutrient profile of Russian raw materials and food products. Itobtained official state registration under the number 2012620334. The database is a series of spreadsheets that are interconnected by common key fields. For each type of food raw material or food product, the database contains descriptors: the main chemical composition (mass fraction of water, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, mono- and disaccharides, starch, digestible carbohydrates, dietary fibre, ash, organic acids); minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron); vitamins (A, B1 , B2 , PP, C, beta-carotene, retinol equivalent, tocopherol equivalent, niacin equivalent); and energy value. Using the database can help to speed up and facilitate calculating individual and group diets and can assist in adjusting the nutritional status for healthier outcomes. Keywords: healthy nutrition, nutritional status, chemical composition, database, digitalisation, Microsoft Excel
LILIYA Kh. Kotelnikova, Antonina V. Podkorytova, Anna N. Roshchina, I.A. Shashkina
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 251–258-251–258; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10127

Abstract:
In this research, recipes were developed for beverages and desserts based on ”Vitalgar Cardio”, abiogelthat contains alginate, has therapeutic and prophylactic properties, and was produced from laminaria at the SPC ”Vita-Li” LLC. ”Vitalgar Cardio”, in its liquid form, as well as desserts based on it, is a source of soluble dietary fiber (alginates) and chemical elements such as potassium, magnesium and iodine, and is an adsorbent of various toxins, including radionuclides and heavy metals. The developed products have traditional appeal, with a focus on healthy nutrition, which is currently being promoted among the population. Keywords: Lamibaria, Alginate, Fucoidan
Irina V. Miroshnichenko, Nadiia V. Nikulina
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 151–163-151–163; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10117

Abstract:
To design biogas plants, it is necessary to have accurate data about the properties and biogas productivity of the available substrates. Reference data should not be used because the performance of the same substrate can vary significantly. In this research,chicken, horse, sheep and rabbit manure from one of the farms inthe Belgorod region of Russia were analyzed, and the parameters of a biogas station for the processing of this raw material were calculated.The biogas yield of the substrates was determined using the Hohenheim Biogas Yield Test. It was found that the specific biogas yield from the droppings of broilers, laying hens, rabbits, sheep, and horses, and from corn silage were, respectively, 456, 363, 390, 189, 116 and 618 ml/g оDM. The methane content in the biogas was 58.00, 58.50, 57.00, 62.00, 65.00 and 53.60%, respectively. In most cases, the obtained results differed significantly from the data presented in publications of other researchers and reference books.The biogas plant parameter calculations were made according to generally accepted equations, taking into account the characteristics of the studied substrates. Based on the results, it can be concluded that to dispose of the animal excrement of this farm, it is necessary to build a biogas plant with a bioreactor of volume 102.2 m3 and an engine with a power of 12 to 31 kW. The planned output of electric and thermal energy would be 246.19 and 410.27 kWh/day, respectively. Keywords: Hohenheim Biogas Yield Test, rabbit manure, horse dung, sheep manure, chicken droppings, biogas yield of substrates
Zhanna Victorovna Novikova, Sophie Mikhailovna Sergeeva, Dmitry Sergeevich Lavrinovich, Anton Alexeyevich Maksimkin
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 63–69-63–69; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10107

Abstract:
This research examined the scientific basis for an integrated approach to broadening bread and flour products. The effect of chia seeds on the organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators of the ”sweet bun” (brioche) was studied to substantiate the use of plant raw materials in the technology of bread and flour product preparation.Chia seeds contain essential amino acids, vitamins (mainly B), minerals (calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc) and antioxidants, so it is possible to use chia seeds to obtain a product that combines high organoleptic properties and is also enriched with essential substances. The findings from the organoleptic evaluation of the test specimens indicated that the added ingredients significantly affected the appearance, crust color and crumb condition;however,there was no change in the taste and smell of the pastry. The effect of chia seeds on the quality of the products during storage was assessed. It was found that when using chia seeds in the amount of 10% of the mass of flour, after 24 hours the decline in taste, smell,crumb elasticity and friabilitywas less noticeable. In addition, the analysis of the chemical composition of the brioche bun showed thatthe products with chia seeds were highly nutritious. Thus, the content of dietary fiber in the model specimen wastwo times higher than the values of the control specimen (10% of the daily requirement); the content of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids was equivalent to 87.9% and 19.2% of the daily requirement, respectively. The use of chia seeds in a butter bun recipe (brioche) therefore enables theexpansion of the range of food products enriched with essential ingredients. Keywords: bread and flour products, sweet bun, brioche, chia seeds
Elizaveta V. Starikova, Ksenia M. Klimina, Anastasia O. Eudokimova, Ksenia A. Yeruslanova, Denis A. Gudkov, Daria A. Kashtanova, Yulia V. Kotovskaya, Olga N. Tkacheva
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 146–150-146–150; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10116

Abstract:
The microbial community of the human intestine is important for maintaining human health. It has been reported that the gut microbiome changes with age, and it can be enrichedwith certain beneficial bacteria while also losing certain commensal bacteria.Little is known about the gut virome of long-livers. Our research aimed to extract, sequence and analyze the viral fraction of long-livers’ gut microbiota in comparison with those of young adults and the elderly. We were thereby able to characterize the gut virome profiles and viral diversity of three age groups. Keywords: aging, gut microbiome, viral metagenomics, bacteriophages
Ivanova Lyudmila Afanasevna, FomenkoIvan Andreevich, Churmasova Lyudmila Alekseevna, Kuzmicheva Tatyana Pavlovna
Published: 13 January 2022
KnE Life Sciences pp 175–180-175–180; https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v7i1.10119

Abstract:
In this work, the following genuses of mycelial fungi, capable of producing ligninolytic enzymes of various actions, were considered:Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusariumand Altermaria. Fungi of the genus Aspergilluswere capable of producing laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase in the medium. Penicillium mostly produced laccase. Fusariumproduced laccase, aryl alcohol oxidase, manganesedependent peroxidase, manganese-independent peroxidase and lignin peroxidase. Alternariaproduced laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. The results demonstrated the possibility of using specific substrates in the study of enzyme activity, as well as the influence of some factors introduced into the medium on the synthesis of enzymes. The auxiliary influence of these fungi on the synthesis of ligninolytic enzymes in symbiosis with otherswas considered. Keywords: mycelial fungi, ligninolytic enzymes, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Altermaria
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