European Journal of Plant Pathology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0929-1873 / 1573-8469
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 8,182
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European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02516-8

Abstract:
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) have been reported to be responsible for large economic losses of agricultural crops due to their wide host range and variety of suitable climates. The control measures of these parasitic nematodes depend upon synthetic nematicides and a small number bio-based products. Chemical nematicides are eliciting adverse effects on the environment and human health. In the present study, an alternative tool, nano-chitosan was tested for the control the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) in greenhouse-cultivated tomato. The effect of nano-chitosan on morphological (weight and length of shoot and root systems) and biochemical responses (Polyphenol oxidase, Peroxides, Total soluble phenol and Total protein) was assessed. The obtained results indicated that densities of Meloidogyne incognita alone or in the presence of TMV were decreased by nano-chitosan at a range of 45.89 to 66.61%, while root gall desntiy was reduced between 10.63 and 67.87%. Moreover, the density of TMV on tomato leaves singly or in the presence of M. incognita was suppressed at range of 10.26 to 65.00% after 20 days of infection, and reached up to 58.00% after 40 days of infection. However, soil application of nano-chitosan pre infection reduced TMV density only by 5.48%. Morphogenesis of tomato plants such as shoot and root systems were significantly improved. The impacts of nano-Chitosan applications on total soluble phenol, total protein, polyphenol oxidase and peroxides after 20 and 40 days of infections varied.
, Ana M. Pesqueira, Antonio Segura
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02513-x

Abstract:
The mealybug Planococcus ficus is one of the main vectors of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), which was commonly detected in cv “Albariño” planting material before certified stock was available. Mealybug infestations were rare in vineyards in southern Galicia (NW Spain) during the 1990s (2.2% of the vineyards surveyed) and are still rare in inland zones. However, mealybug infestations have spread since 2000, with 15% of surveyed vineyards infested in 2004 and 80% of surveyed vineyards infested in 2016. The spatial and temporal distributions of plants infected with GLRaV-3 were quantified over a 30-year period in an experimental plot established in 1989. The disease progress curve (DPC) was linear for 25 years, with a slow constant rate of spread of less than one newly infected plant per year (0.6%). Since 1992, >82% of infected plants were located on the west side of the plot as were 84% of newly infected plants. Newly infected plants were in contact with infected plants, suggesting vector-mediated transmission, but no potential vectors were found. In 2013, a small mealybug infestation was detected and identified as Pl. ficus. Between 2014 and 2016, the infection rate increased to >21% per year, and in 2019 all plants tested positive for GLRaV-3. This is a valuable case study illustrating how changes to the vector fauna can increase the rate of spread of an economically important virus of grapevine.
Camila Aparecida Carvalho, Edson Ampélio Pozza, Paulo Estevão de Souza, Adélia Aziz Alexandre Pozza, Mário Lúcio Vilela de Resende, Antônio Carlos Mota Porto, André Augusto Ferreira Balieiro, Cristian David Plaza Perez,
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02511-z

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David Galo, Cesar Escalante, Rodrigo Diaz, John E. Hartgerink,
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02512-y

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European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02485-y

Abstract:
Choke disease, which is caused by Epichloë typhina, was first reported in orchardgrass seed production fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon in 1997 and has continued to persist in the system. The disease can cause up to 30% losses in seed yield. Unlike many Epichloë species that are seed transmitted, it is unclear how infection of orchardgrass by E. typhina occurs in the field, or how the disease spreads within plants. In this study, the overall incidence of choke on trap plants placed in a choke-infested field was 41% in 2018 and 9% in 2019. Similar incidence of infection occurred when exposed before (39%) or after (43%) swathing in 2018. Contrary to our hypothesis, plants sprayed with an artificial honeydew had a significantly lower incidence of infection (32%) when compared to the controls (48%). An examination of the spread of E. typhina within tillering plants revealed that development of infected tillers was greater than development of uninfected tillers, which could contribute to the gradual increase in choke in fields over time. These studies contribute to a better understanding of how choke is spread within plants and in orchardgrass seed production fields, which is an important step towards developing control methods to reduce choke in orchardgrass seed production fields.
Guiming Dou, Xing Lü, Fei Ren, Ruhua Li,
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02514-w

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José Guadalupe Florencio-Anastasio, Clemente De Jesús García-Ávila, , , Andres Quezada-Salinas, Juan J. Almaraz-Suárez, Magnolia Moreno-Velázquez, Lervin Hernández-Ramos
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02510-0

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European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02508-8

Abstract:
Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is one of the most important diseases in stone fruits worldwide. Latent infections of fruit by the pathogen often manifest once the fruit is ripe, leading to post-harvest rots. Two microbial strains (Bacillus subtilis -B91 and Aureobasidium pullulans - Y126) have shown antagonistic properties against M. laxa in previous studies. This study assessed the reduction in post-harvest rot of cherry by M. laxa when the two biocontrol (BCAs) strains were applied pre-harvest under field conditions to fruit artificially inoculated with M. laxa. The experiment was carried out for two consecutive years in cherry orchards in Kent. When applied pre-harvest, both strains (B91 and Y126) reduced the incidence of post-harvest rots by 30% - 60%. This promising result helps towards the commercialisation of the two strains, which would reduce reliance on fungicides in commercial cherry production.
Joy Clarke, Helen Grogan, David Fitzpatrick,
European Journal of Plant Pathology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02482-1

Abstract:
The fungal pathogen Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in Agaricus bisporus cultivation and affected mushrooms significantly reduce the yield and revenue for mushroom growers. Biocontrol agents may represent an alternative and more environmentally friendly treatment option to help control dry bubble on mushroom farms. Serenade ® is a commercially available biocontrol product used for disease treatment in plant crops. In this work, the in vitro response of L. fungicola to the bacterial strain active in Serenade, Bacillus velezensis (QST 713) and a newly isolated B. velezensis strain (Kos) was assessed. B. velezensis (QST713 and Kos) both produced zones of inhibition on plate cultures of L. fungicola, reduced the mycelium growth in liquid cultures and damaged the morphology and structure of L. fungicola hyphae. The proteomic response of the pathogen against these biocontrol strains was also investigated. Proteins involved in growth and translation such as 60S ribosomal protein L21-A (−32-fold) and 40S ribosomal protein S30 (−17-fold) were reduced in abundance in B. velezensis QST 713 treated samples, while proteins involved in a stress response were increased (norsolorinic acid reductase B (47-fold), isocitrate lyase (11-fold) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (8-fold). L. fungicola was found to have a similar proteomic response when exposed to B. velezensis (Kos). This work provides information on the response of L. fungicola to B. velezensis (QST 713) and indicates the potential of B. velezensis Kos as a novel biocontrol agent.
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