Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1392-5016 / 1392-5016
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 453
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Latest articles in this journal

Tatjana Bicjutko, Līva Goba-Medne
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 60-76; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.4

The ambitious objectives of European language policy and the strive for competitiveness have led to an increasing emphasis on foreign language competence at the level of national education systems. Using Spolsky’s onion model of language policy (2004) and Engeström’s Expansive Learning theory (1987, 2008), the study attempts to determine the formative influence of the existing multilayered language policy on the professional development of Latvian educators with the aim to compare the situation for teachers and teacher educators in respect of their English language proficiency.Given the prioritisation of English and strategic differences in foreign language management in relation to teachers and faculty, the activity systems analysis points to significantly higher demands and concomitant pressure in respect of English language competence of academic staff, and the lack of incentives to increase their proficiency for teachers. Remedying the existing situation through policy making, both systemic and individual perspectives should be taken into account, as their interplay affects the agency of educators in achieving the goals.
Iveta Kestere, Irena Stonkuviene, Zanda Rubene
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 97-109; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.6

The “New Man” is a utopian concept that involves creating an ideal man and replacing the imperfect human being. The beginning of the ideas of creating the new man can be found in ancient Greece and Rome, in the works of utopians and educators, as well as in theological texts. Although this ideologeme as one of the constructs of modernity was fully formed by the end of the 19th century, the efforts to practically implement it are connected with the establishment of (para)totalitarianism. One of the best-known examples of such an attempt was the ambition to create the New Soviet Man. After giving up aspirations to create a perfect biological individual, in the long-term perfective, the main focus was laid on forming an ideologically correct New Man, a builder of communism. Education was seen as one of the key means of achieving this objective. Seeking to identify how the image of the New Man was reflected in the curriculum (primary in particular), 36 textbooks published between 1925–1985 and used in the state schools of Soviet Russia and the Baltic States were analysed.Although the concept of the New Man includes both the male and female person, the most frequently considered is a male. This article aims to discuss how textbooks represent the Soviet woman by considering the following aspects: what was specific to the New Soviet Man – Woman? What did the Soviet regime expect from women in the context of the New Soviet Man project? How did the project of New Man reflect the gender equality idea?
Vilma Žydžiūnaitė, Marius Daugėla
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 160-174; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.10

Becoming and being a teacher in higher education is a long process of individual transformation. The research aims at highlighting the meaning of time and relations in regard to teachers’ professional self-awareness through their interactions with students in higher education. The research design was qualitative in which the phenomenological methodology according to Max van Manen version was applied. Findings revealed that temporality and relationality are social constructs that shape the teacher-student interactions in higher education as they are loaded with worldviews that guide their educational actions and and their relationships. Thus their subjectivities and life-world educational experiences-based worlds are built on temporalities. A higher education teacher’s professional self-awareness is a developmental process which requires from the person reflection on his/her own experiences. Teachers through interactions with students balance between expectations and requirements which encourage both sides to find ways of integrating creative methods into the teaching and learning processes. Through working with students, teachers step into the “unknown” and learn within togetherness. Being in togetherness brings bilateral interchange between teachers and students, which motivates both sides to be self-aware. These reciprocal interactions invite participants to grow and seek mutual interchange through different experiences and contexts.
Karolina Rybačiauskaitė
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 175-183; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.11

In this article it is argued that the optical metaphor and critical practice of diffraction further developed by Donna Haraway and Karen Barad might be no less significant than the widely spread notion of reflection, when the questions of various practices of knowledge are addressed. By considering Paul Ramsden’s approach to learning/teaching and its underlying theory in higher education alongside Karen Barad’s methodology of diffraction, it is shown that Ramsden’s understanding of learning/teaching is rather based on the theoretical assumptions of diffractive practice. His notion that teaching/learning are closely related and actively shaping each other, and that learners are not disconnected from the environment and their previous experiences with the subject matter and learning process itself, adds to Barad’s onto-epistemological position that knowers know the world at the same time as being the part of the world in its ongoing intra-activity. Ramsden’s understanding of relation is diffractive, because it is not about predefined binary entities and their fixed identities, but about layers and entanglements of various previous experiences and reactions to the learning environment. In addition, looking at learning/teaching processes through a different perspective also leads to a different approach to teaching and other ways of problem-solving. Both Ramsden and Barad distrust homologies, analogies, and causality-based conceptions of knowledge sharing. Instead, the ability to respond to an always new learning/teaching environment is assessed, which implies a diffractive type of sensitivity to the context, iterative process of re-turning, and the creation of dangerously indeterminate relationships and commitments. In this way, some of Barad’s philosophical notions, i.e., the diffraction pattern, intra-activity, re-turning, and others, also may acquire new practical content.
Lina Bairašauskienė
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 110-126; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.7

The research takes on a transdisciplinary approach, focusing on paths of how female school principals construct and develop professional identity. Two major approaches to professional identity include a feminist standpoint and a social constructionist approach. The former claims are that females are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of work life due to gender role stereotypes, prejudices, and unequal power distribution. The latter subscribes to the notion that a person’s identities are multiple and fluid due to their cultural, historic, and social situatedness. According to a feminist standpoint, female identities are developed very differently from their male counterparts as a systemic hierarchy of inequity above the principalship is recognized. Despite the fact that the number of female school principals has been growing in the field of education management, a masculine approach is still being applied in this sphere due to the prevailing dominance of power culture in the society. The study is framed as an ethnographic case study. It aims to understand, investigate, and discover the patterns of how professional identity, as a cultural construct, is acquired in the context of concepts of agency, power relations, subjectivities within gender, and social analysis, encompassing multiple interactions in institutionalized processes and systems by which they are formed, shaped, and reshaped over time.
Birutė Ambrazevičiūtė
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 127-144; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.8

The focus of the article is on the process of becoming a teacher. Many researchers have concluded that this process is of profound, complex, ever-evolving nature, during which teachers attempt to define their role and their entity. Identity itself brings out another problem of identification with the subject. Thus, more and more studies have been exploring professional teacher identities in different fields regarding the interaction between subject and teacher identities. The aspects of professional identity development among teachers of stage performers from the specific field of artistic education have been chosen for the research due to the lack of scientific research worldwide so far. The arts school case study of professional identity among teachers of stage performers from the development point of view has showed that the professional identity development of teachers among stage performers of an arts school is of a wide scope and possesses its own features. In the course of first socialization, the performer identity is perceived, while the teacher role is selected during the second socialization. No identity conflict has been observed between performer and teacher identities, they help maintain the mission of an artist. Everyday pedagogical practice, knowledge and skills by means of reflection and conversation contribute the understanding of what a teacher role is. Creativity and openness are essential for interaction with the milieu.
Brigita Miseliūnaitė, Gintautas Cibulskas
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 216-234; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.14

The 2019 guidelines for the renewal of general education programs in Lithuania state that there is a lack of coherence between the goals of education, the implementation of the curriculum, and the assessment of students’ achievements. The description of Lithuanian primary, basic and secondary education (2015) states that the main result of education is the gradually acquired competencies indicating the spiritual, intellectual and physical maturity of a person, which include knowledge, understanding, abilities and attitudes. This presupposes that state maturity exams should be designed to reflect the competencies, knowledge, understanding, abilities and attitudes that indicate a person’s maturity. Based on this idea, a qualitative study was conducted in 2020. Its aim was to determine the indicators of personal maturity in Lithuanian conceptual educational documents. To achieve the research goal, we applied the data collection method (document analysis) and the data processing method (content analysis). Qualitative research has shown that a person’s maturity in Lithuania is identified based on a set of competencies. To complete their general education, students should have the following competencies: social, emotional and healthy lifestyles; cognition; creativity; civil, cultural communication. A review of the scientific literature presupposes that at the stage of late adolescent personality development, a person is yet to be in search of their identity. The documents emphasize that competencies are assessed in teacher-student interactions by accumulating qualitative evidence of competencies. Meanwhile state maturity exams measure three groups of cognitive abilities: knowledge and understanding, application of knowledge, and advanced thinking abilities. Personal values and beliefs are not reflected in state maturity exams. The conclusion of the research is that maturity exams do not reflect the maturity of a person described in the conceptual documents of Lithuanian education.
Giedrė Paurienė, Irena Žemaitaitytė
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 145-159; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.9

The article analyzes the experiences determined by biographical circumstances that encourage individuals to choose the profession of a teacher in the pursuit of their vocation. Based on people’s biographies, it can be argued that many separate stages of human life, viewed as a whole, provide a meaningful context that can help understand the phenomenon of vocation and reveal its links to the development of professional competencies and to the efficiency of the educational system. The research usually explains the efficiency of an educational organization through pedagogical, managerial, economic and institutional aspects and defines it by qualitative characteristics that are related to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, results achieved by children, efficient use of resources, and the improvement of the teaching process. The aim of the article is to reveal a person’s vocation to become a teacher as a condition, on the one hand, leading to the pedagogical educational process through informal learning, and, on the other hand, making the educational system more efficient. The analysis and results of the qualitative research data are based on the abductive theory construction according to Peirce and the methodology of the Grounding Theory according to Strauss / Corbin. The research revealed that the choice of pedagogical profession and the perception of vocation are evoked by biographical circumstances. The pedagogical potential noticed and mentioned by the close people as well as the preferences for certain activities from childhood and the perception of one’s needs become a basis for the further development of existing competences. Thus, when a competent educator who experiences strong dedication to an educator’s profession gives lessons in an educational institution, the effective and purposeful activity of the educator interacts with the efficiency building of the education system.
Ilze Briška, Gunta Siliņa-Jasjukeviča
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 30-41; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.2

Cultural understanding is a basis for competence-oriented general education. Teachers are responsible for applied content and methods that are used to purposefully lead school students to that result.The aim of this study is to identify actual goals for the development of teacher education curriculum, professional development, and teaching aids by investigating in-service teachers’ challenges in the successful promotion of students’ cultural understanding in general schools.The readiness of teachers to promote the cultural understanding of primary school students was explored in a mixed-methods study. The findings indicated aspects that teachers consider relevant as well as the main problems and gaps between theoretical principles recognised as essential by educational policy, and teachers’ beliefs and practices.
Lilija Duobliene, Sandra Kaire, Irena Zaleskiene
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, Volume 45, pp 10-29; doi:10.15388/actpaed.45.1

The article familiarizes the reader with the main goals and implementation structures of the DIALLS (Dialogue and Argumentation for Cultural Literacy Learning in Schools) three-year project (2018–2021), supported by EU Research and Innovation program HORIZON 2020. The project is coordinated by Cambridge University in partnership with 9 EU universities. In Lithuania project activities are implemented by the Institute of Educational Sciences at Vilnius University. The theoretical concept of Social Responsibility in the context of Cultural Literacy and Educating for an Active Citizenship is analysed in the theoretical part of the article. Some empirical data on addressing the concept of Social responsibility in the National Educational Policy documentation is presented and discussed from the view of DIALLS projection. Finally, some concluding points on addressing the concepts of Social responsibility, participation, cooperation and citizenship in the national educational policy documentation are drawn up.
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