Acta medica Lituanica
Latest articles in this journal
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 20-28; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.3
BackgroundBreast cancer is the most frequent oncological disease as well as the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Decline in mortality in economically strong countries is observed. This decline is mostly related to early diagnosis (improvement in breast cancer awareness and mammography screening program (MSP)) and more effective treatment. In the end of 2005, the MSP started in Lithuania. The main aim of this article was to evaluate breast cancer mortality during 22 years in Lithuania, as well as changes before the start of the MSP and during its implementation, in order to assess the influence of the MSP on mortality. Materials and MethodsAnalysis was based on data from the population-based Lithuanian Cancer Registry. Analysis of changes in mortality included the period from 1998 to 2019. Age standardized mortality rates were calculated for assessment of changes. Join-point regression analysis was used. ResultsApplying the segmental regression model, it was found that during the study period mortality was statistically significantly decreasing by -1.1% each year. Mortality among women under the age of 50 decreased both before and during the implementation of MSP. Mortality in the target population also was already decreasing until the implementation of the program, but since 2006 significant reduction in mortality was observed in this group. ConclusionsOverall breast cancer mortality is decreasing in Lithuania. After the implementation of MSP the largest reduction in mortality was observed among the target population, however, it is not as pronounced as it could be with the well-organized MSP.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 49-58; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.7
Parkes Weber syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital condition characterized by capillary cutaneous malformation, limb hypertrophy and multiple arteriovenous fistulas of the affected extremity. Another feature is a port-wine stain on the affected area. PWS is caused by genetic variations in the RAS p21 protein activator (RASA1) gene which affects the development of the vascular system. We report a case of a female neonate presenting with dyspnoea and cardiovascular insufficiency at the time of birth. The left upper extremity (LUE) and shoulder were enlarged (circumference at the midpoint was 17cm compared to 11cm on the right arm), edematous, hyperemic with a port-wine stain. Structural changes of the bones of LUE were discovered on X-ray. Echocardiography revealed right-sided volume overload, a large ductus arteriosus, a possible pathology of the aortic arch and branch arteries. Chest X-rays showed cardiomegaly. Therapy with milrinone and diuretics was started. A multislice CT angiography scan revealed arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between a. subclavia sin. and v. brachiocephalica sin, arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and a dilated a.subclavia sin. of 11 mm, as well as dilatation of other arteries of the LUE. Next generation sequencing revealed a pathogenic variation (c.2245C>T, p.Arg749*) in the RASA1 gene in the heterozygous state. Four consecutive embolizations of the AVM and AVF were performed in the first 16 months.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 35-42; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.5
Background. Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is a genetic testing procedure that is performed before the implantation of embryos for the identification of genetic abnormalities. It is commonly performed when one or both expecting parents have such abnormalities and are at a high risk of passing them to their offspring. The aim of this case report is to describe the first successful IVF/ICSI/PGT procedure in Lithuania.Case report. A 27-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man, a married couple, were referred to VUHSK Santaros Fertility Center after trying to conceive for 4 years. In a previous relationship, the woman got pregnant spontaneously and decided to terminate the pregnancy. The husband does not have any children. During the medical examination, the transvaginal ultrasound revealed a low antral follicle count and low anti-Müllerian hormone level for the woman. Semen analysis for the male patient showed severe oligoastenospermia, which confirmed the previous abnormal spermogram results. Chromosome analysis revealed normal karyotype for the woman (46,XX) and Robertsonian translocation for the husband (45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10)). After the interdisciplinary medical team counselling, an ICSI with PGT-SR was suggested for the couple. The woman underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol for 11 days. Only one embryo with no unbalanced rearrangements was identified and transferred to the woman. On the 14th day post oocyte retrieval, the first serum β-hCG result was received – 39.5 mIU/ml, and the normal gestational sac at 5 weeks and 3 days was confirmed by ultrasound examination.Conclusion: the first successful pregnancy was achieved in Lithuania and the first IVF/ICSI/PGT-SR newborn in Lithuania was born in 2019 – a vaginal birth of a healthy girl with gestational age of 38 weeks and 4 days and a weight of 2820 g; the Apgar score was 10/10. The IVF/ICSI/PGT procedure was successfully implemented by the multidisciplinary team in VUHSK.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 12-19; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.2
Background. The research provides comparative analysis of the burnout syndrome among medical students in Lithuania and Germany and determines relations between burnout and lifestyle, health complaints and seeking for psychological help.Materials and methods. The research was conducted in April 2019 using an anonymous self-administered e-based questionnaire. The sample size was 261 medical students (age mean 20,5 ± 1,8, 46 males, 215 females): 131 from Vilnius University (VU), 67 from Lithuanian University of Health Science (LSMU) and 63 from Heidelberg University (HU), Germany. The 15 items MBI-SS scale was used to identify burnout syndrome among students (Cronbach α =0,74). Emotional exhaustion (>14), cynicism (>6), and professional efficacy (
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 5-11; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.1
Front-line health-care workers in the Emergency Department (ED) are at an increased risk of infection during the airway management of patients with known or suspected Emerging Viral Diseases (EVD) like Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The primary route for transmission of the virus from an infected patient to the ED staff is due to aerosolized droplets, and the transmission risk is high despite wearing adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). There are limited evidence-based guidelines for airway management during these viral infections, especially with a focus on the principles of airway management in a busy, fast-paced ED. This article provides an overview of the principles of airway management in suspected or confirmed EVD patients, including COVID-19, particularly in the context of ED, and also considering strategies in resource limited setting. These principles should be adapted to suit your local department and hospital policy on airway management as well as national guidelines.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 29-34; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.4
Background. Although the relationship between reproductive factors and breast cancer is internationally proved, reliable data on former USSR countries are scarce. This study examines the association of parity, age at the first childbirth, number of children, and breast cancer risk in Lithuanian women.Methods. The study that included women from 40 to 79 years old was based on a dataset that was made up linking all records from the 2001 census, all cancer incidence records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry and all death records from Statistics Lithuania between 6th April 2001 and 31st December 2009. Cox’s proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for parity, age at the first childbirth, and number of children.Results. If compared to nulliparous women, parous women had a lower risk of breast cancer (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78–0.89) and this risk further decreased with an increasing number of children. Women who gave birth after the age of 25 had a significantly higher risk of breast cancer. This disadvantage became statistically insignificant or decreased after controlling for total number of children.Conclusions. Parity and age at the first childbirth are strong predictors of breast cancer risk among Lithuanian women.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 59-62; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.8
Bronchial anthracofibrosis has been defined as airway narrowing associated with dark pigmentation on bronchoscopy without an appropriate history of pneumoconiosis or smoking. We present a case of a 67-year-old, non-smoking female patient who was referred to our clinic for two years of persistent cough. Spirometry was within normal limits. Radiological evaluation showed right middle lobe atelectasis and positron emission tomography-positive mediastinal lymph nodes. Bronchoscopy revealed black airway discoloration and distortions. In conclusion, we propose monthly radiological controls before an invasive procedure in such cases if a strong suspicion of malignancy/tuberculosis is not present.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 28, pp 43-48; doi:10.15388/amed.2020.27.2.6
Unicornuate uterus with non-communicating rudimentary horn is a type of congenital uterine abnormality that occurs as a consequence of the arrested development of one of the two Müllerian ducts.Patients with unicornuate uterus have increased incidence of obstetric and gynaecological complications.We present a report of a clinical case of a 28-years-old female, who was referred to the hospital for evaluation of her infertility.The patient reported primary infertility and inability to conceive after 3-year period of regular unprotected intercourse.Transvaginal ultrasound, along with the preoperative evaluation were completed; however, no anomalies or irregularities were reported.Combined diagnostic simultaneous laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were performed to establish the diagnosis of unicornuate uterus with non-communicating rudimentary horn.The patient conceived spontaneously after diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.During and after pregnancy, our patient and her child experienced numerous complications (cervical incompetence, acute chorioamnionitis, acute fetal distress, pneumonia, septic shock) and procedures (cervical cerclage, urgent cesarean section, intensive care unit treatment) without significant fetal or maternal compromise.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 27, pp 17-24; doi:10.6001/actamedica.v27i1.4262
High-grade well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour tumours (NETs) of gastrointestinal tract are rare; they can arise in any part of the digestive system and usually present in advanced stages. Low incidence and wide heterogeneity in the biological behaviour of such lesions pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Loco-regional NETs should be resected whenever feasible, potentially with a curative intent. Management of a metastatic disease is often more complex, primarily aimed at the alleviation of symptoms, prevention of further complications, and prolongation of survival. Current literature describing the optimal treatment plan for such patients is sparse and further studies are necessary to enhance our understanding of the disease. Here we present a case of high-grade well-differentiated cecal NET with an associated carcinoid syndrome that was diagnosed following the incisional hernia repair.
Acta medica Lituanica, Volume 27, pp 25-32; doi:10.6001/actamedica.v27i1.4263
Background. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome diagnosed for 1 out of 36000–45000 newborns and 90% of the patients have a clinical manifestation before 65 years of age. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing tumours in several organs or their systems. The most common tumours are retinal or central nervous system hemangioblastomas (60–80%) and VHL-associated renal lesions. Contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CECT) is the gold standard for the diagnosis and characterization of renal tumours. The best treatment option for VHL syndrome-caused renal tumours are nephron-sparing treatment techniques (cryotherapy, radiofrequency, or microwave ablation), which require imaging control. All these innovative treatment techniques are extremely important for VHL patients, because they increase the quality of life by staving off renal dialysis and preventing distant metastases. Case report. Our case report presents a 16-year-old female with multiple renal cysts observed on ultrasound examination and clinically and molecularly diagnosed with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (deletion of the entire VHL gene). After that, for past 11 years multiple renal tumours were removed by cryoablation and patient monitoring on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MRI) and CECT control scans was conducted. Conclusions. Active multidisciplinary patient follow-up, routine radiological examinations, and correct treatment tactics allow controlling the progression of renal cell carcinoma and other tumours associated with VHL syndrome, maintaining a normal organ function for a long time, and preventing distant metastases and fatal disease outcomes.