Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2329-3322 / 2329-3330
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 112
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Latest articles in this journal

Tetsuji Ohmura, Toshihiko Shakouchi, Shunsuke Fukushima, Koichi Tsujimoto
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 9, pp 1-14; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2021.91001

When there is a wall near the jet, it deflects and flows while being attached to the wall owing to the Coanda effect. The flow characteristics of the incompressible and two-imensional (2D) Coanda-reattached jets have been considerably explained. However, 2D supersonic under-expanded jets, reattached to side walls, have not been sufficiently investigated. These jets are used in gas-atomization to produce fine metal powder particles of several micrometers to several tens micrometers. In this case, the supersonic under-expanded jets are issued from an annular nozzle, which is set around a vertically installed circular nozzle for molten metal. The jet flow at the center cross-section of the annular jet resembles a 2D Coanda-reattached jet that deflects and attaches on the central axis. In this study, the flow characteristics of a supersonic under-expanded Coanda air jet from a 2D nozzle that reattaches to an offset side wall are elucidated through experiment and numerical analysis. For numerical analysis, we show how much it can express experimental results. The effects of supply pressure P0 on the flow characteristics such as the flow pattern, size of shock cell, reattachment distance, and velocity and pressure distributions, etc. are examined. The flow pattern was visualized by Schlieren method and the velocity distribution was measured using a Pitot tube. These results will be also useful in understanding the flow characteristics of a gas-atomization annular nozzle approximately.
Katsuya Kajiwara, Masayuki Anyoji
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 188-207; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.84012

In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of mainstream turbulence intensity (Ti) on a leading-edge separation bubble under low-Reynolds number (Rec) conditions range of 2.0 × 104 to 6.0 × 104. We used a flat plate to fix a separation point at the leading edge. Also, we visualized the behavior of the leading-edge separation bubble using the smoke wire technique and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement. Furthermore, we measured the effect of Ti on the turbulent transition process in the separated shear layer using a hot-wire anemometer. The results indicate that the bypass transition for large Ti causes the turbulent transition, and so accelerates the reattachment of the separated shear layer. The results show that the bypass transition promotes the reattachment of the separated shear layer to maintain the leading-edge separation bubble on the upper surface even at high angles of attack, increasing the stall angle.
Thai Duong Nguyen, Masashi Kashitani, Masato Taguchi
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 159-172; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.84010

In this paper, the lift coefficients of SC-0414 airfoil are estimated by applying modified Yamana’s method to the flow visualization results, which are obtained by utilizing the smoke tunnel. The application of the modified Yamana’s method is evaluated with two calculation methods. Additionally, the lift estimation, wake measurements, and numerical simulations are performed to clarify the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the SC airfoil with flaps. The angle of attack was varied from −5° to 8°. The flow velocity was 12 m/s and the Reynolds number was 1.6 × 105. As a result, the estimated lift coefficients show a good agreement with the results from reference data and numerical simulations. In clean condition, the lift coefficients calculated from the two methods show quantitative agreement, and no significant difference could be confirmed. However, the slope of the lifts calculated from ys is higher and closer to the reference data than those obtained from sc, where ys denotes the height where the distance from the streamline to the reference line is the largest, and sc denotes the displacement of the center of pressure from the origin of the coordinate, respectively. In the case of flaps, the GFs have an observable effect on the aerodynamic performance of the SC-0414 airfoil. When the height of the flap was increased, the lift and drag coefficients increased. The installation of a GF with a height equal to 1% of the chord length of the airfoil significantly improved the low-speed aerodynamic performance of SC airfoils.
Ahmad Zaid Nazari, Yojiro Ishino, Fumiya Ito, Harumi Kondo, Ryoya Yamada, Takanori Motohiro, Yu Saiki, Yoshiaki Miyazato, Shinichiro Nakao
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 25-44; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.82002

This report deals with introducing two new techniques based on a novel concept of complex brightness gradient in quantitative schlieren images, “inverse process” and “multi-path integration” for image-noise reduction. Noise in schlieren images affects the projections (density thickness) images of computerized tomography (CT). One spot noise in the schlieren image appears in a line shape in the density thickness image. Noise effect like an infectious disease spreads from a noisy pixel to the next pixel in the direction of single-path integration. On the one hand, the noise in the schlieren image reduces the quality of the image and quantitative analysis and is undesirable; on the other it is unavoidable. Therefore, the importance of proper noise reduction techniques seems essential and tangible. In the present report, a novel technique “multi-path integration” is proposed for noise reduction in projections images of CT. Multi-path integration is required the schlieren brightness gradient in two orthogonal directions. The 20-directional quantitative schlieren optical system presents only images of schlieren brightness in the horizontal gradient and another 20-directional optical system seems necessary to obtain vertical schlieren brightness gradient, simultaneously. Using the “inverse process”, a new technique enables us to obtain vertical schlieren brightness gradient from horizontal experimental data without the necessity of a new optical system and can be used for obtaining any optional directions of schlieren brightness gradient.
Shujie Li
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 63-76; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.82004

An adaptive exponential time advancement framework is developed for solving the multidimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a variable-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization on hybrid unstructured curved grids. The adaptive framework is realized with cell-wise, variable-order DG refinements and a dynamic assembly of elemental Jacobian matrices. The accuracy and performance gain are investigated for several benchmark cases up to a realistic, three-dimensional rotor flow. Numerical results are shown to be more efficient than the use of uniform-order exponential DG for simulating viscous flows.
Hideharu Takahashi, San Shwin, Ari Hamdani, Nobuyuki Fujisawa, Hiroshige Kikura
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 45-62; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.82003

The secondary flow downstream of a triple elbow layout was studied experimentally and numerically to visualize the flow behavior under swirling inlet flow conditions. The inlet swirling condition was generated by a swirl generator, consisting of a rotary pipe and honeycomb assembly. The experiments were carried out in turbulent water flow condition at Reynolds number Re = 1 × 104 and inlet swirl intensity S = 1. Ultrasonic measurements were taken at four locations downstream of the third elbow. The two-dimensional velocity field of the flow field was measured using the phased array ultrasonic velocity profiler technique to evaluate the flow field with separation. Furthermore, a numerical simulation was performed and its results were compared with the experimental data. The numerical result was obtained by solving three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the renormalization group k-ε turbulence model. The experimental results confirmed that the swirling flow condition modified the size of the separation region downstream of the third elbow. A qualitative comparison between the experimental and CFD simulation results of the averaged velocity field downstream of the third elbow showed similar tendency on reverse flow.
Takuto Sawaguchi, Yoko Takakura
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 1-24; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.81001

The purpose of this research is to clarify causes for the change in aerodynamic characteristics of a road vehicle model due to engine cooling flow in wind-tunnel experiments with the moving-belt ground board, in order to propose methods to reduce the drag and lift. With regard to engine cooling flow, the air-intake system was adjusted with variable opening area and position for the engine loading system of FF and FR with and without a radiator. A simplified 1/5 scale vehicle model was manufactured with transparent externals around the engine for flow visualization. The overall results show that with enlargement of the opening area, the drag and the front lift increased and the rear lift decreased. The flow visualization and the measurements of underfloor velocity and surface pressure indicated the cause of the characteristics changes. Enlargement of the opening area causes flow disturbance by merging of the scavenging flow and the underfloor flow, which has blockage effects for the upstream of each flow with keeping high pressure in the engine compartment and causes pressure loss under the floor behind the engine unit. The difference between the two engine loading systems lies indirection and location of the engine unit, which causes the differences of how the flow features affect the aerodynamic characteristics. The effect of the radiator is to reduce the range of changes in drag and lift. Finally, it is discussed that the principle of reducing drag and lift is to suppress interference of scavenging flow, and concrete methods are proposed.
Ahmad Zaid Nazari, Yojiro Ishino, Yuta Ishiko, Fumiya Ito, Harumi Kondo, Ryoya Yamada, Takanori Motohiro, Yoshiaki Miyazato, Shinichiro Nakao
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 77-101; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.83005

Instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) density distributions of a shock-cell structure of perfectly and imperfectly expanded supersonic microjets escaping into an ambient space are measured. For the 3D observation of supersonic microjets, non-scanning 3D computerized tomography (CT) technique using a 20-directional quantitative schlieren optical system with flashlight source is employed for simultaneous schlieren photography. The 3D density distributions data of the microjets are obtained by 3D-CT reconstruction of the projection’s images using maximum likelihood-expectation maximization. Axisymmetric convergent-divergent (Laval) circular and square micro nozzles with operating nozzle pressure ratio 5.0, 4.5, 4.0, 3.67, and 3.5 have been studied. This study examines perfectly expanded, overexpanded, and underexpanded supersonic microjets issued from micro nozzles with fully expanded jet Mach numbers Mj ranging from 1.47 - 1.71, where the design Mach number is Md = 1.5. A complex phenomenon for free square microjets called axis switching is clearly observed with two types “upright” and “diagonal” of “cross-shaped”. The initial axis-switching is 45° within the first shock-cell range. In addition, from the symmetry and diagonal views of square microjets for the first shock-cells, two different patterns of shock waves are viewed. The shock-cell spacing and supersonic core length for all nozzle pressure ratios are investigated and reported.
Yasuhiro Sugimoto, Masamichi Hamamoto
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 134-145; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.83008

Transurethral ureteral lithotripsy (TUL) is a treatment that breaks stones by irradiating a pulsed laser through an optical fiber. Heat and impulsive force of the laser may affect nearby tissues during treatment. A bubble induced by the pulsed laser plays an important role in laser lithotripsy. It is important to understand effects of the bubble on the surroundings by simulating treatment in a narrow space such as in a ureter. In this study, we observe behaviors of the bubble in the narrow space inside a soft material simulating under in vivo condition. The bubble formed under various laser irradiation conditions exhibits characteristic behavior, and the surrounding elastic wall is compressed and bulged when the bubble grows and collapses. In the case of bubble formed near the elastic wall, the bubble contacts with the elastic wall during growth, and severe large deformation of the elastic wall is observed at bubble collapse. According to the temperature measurement, a temperature rise of 25℃ - 30℃ occurs in the area where the bubbles are in contact. From the above, by presenting the deformation of the elastic wall and temperature increase, we can show useful information to improve the safety for treatment at narrow space.
Ye Yong, Zhou Huajie, Zhou Sihao, Qin Zhangrong, Wen Binghai, Yong Ye, Huajie Zhou, Sihao Zhou, Zhangrong Qin, Binghai Wen
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Volume 8, pp 146-158; doi:10.4236/jfcmv.2020.83009

A square particle suspended in a Poiseuille flow is investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method with the Galilean-invariant momentum exchange method. The lateral migration of Segré-Silberberg effect is observed for the square particle, accompanied by the nonuniform rotation and regular wave. To compare with the circular particle, its circumscribed and inscribed squares are used in the simulations. Because the circumscribed square takes up a greater difference between the upper and lower flow rates, it reaches the equilibrium position earlier than the inscribed one. The trajectories of the latter are much closer to those of circle; this indicates that the circle and its inscribed square have a similar hydrodynamic radius in a Poiseuille flow. The equilibrium positions of the square particles change with Reynolds number and show a shape of saddle, whereas those of the circular particles are virtually not affected by Reynolds number. The regular wave and nonuniform rotation are owing to the interactions of the square shape and the parabolic velocity distribution of Poiseuille flow, and high Reynolds number makes the square rotating faster and decrease its oscillating amplitude. A series of contours illustrate the dynamic flow fields when the square particle has successive postures in a half rotating period. This study is beneficial to understand the motion of anisotropic particles and the dendrite growth in dynamic environment.
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