#### Shiraz E-Medical Journal

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EISSN : 1735-1391
Total articles ≅ 669
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Published: 19 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.118177

Abstract:
Context: COVID-19, like the other pandemics, apart from its impacts on peoples' health, has had diverse huge impacts on psycho-socio-economic aspects of societies globally. Hence, applying appropriate interventions to reduce the indirect burden of this pandemic is as important as patients’ care. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to review the main interventions against the economic and psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This scope review was conducted to determine what measures have been taken by governments against different non-medical (economic and psychosocial) consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors reviewed the relevant articles published from December 2019 to December 2020 through three databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The interventions in three areas of economic, social, or psychological were exerted, and in the review of the articles, the country and the target population were considered. Finally, the results were categorized and presented descriptively. Results: Regarding the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in psychosocial and economic aspects of societies, governments, especially in developed countries, have established measures to reduce the burdens of these consequences. Apart from interventions related to the general population, at-risk and vulnerable groups and also those with low socio-economic status are specific target populations for interventions. Conclusions: The future of the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain and unpredictable. Governments and their decisions will play a vital role in determining the trend of the pandemic. Therefore, it is the responsibility of governments, especially in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), to support vulnerable people and protect them against the devastating socio-economic and psychological effects of this pandemic using all their capacity.
Published: 19 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.114456

Abstract:
Context: Contact tracing is a cornerstone community-based measure for augmenting public health response preparedness to epidemic diseases such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is no an agreed data collection tool for the unified reporting of COVID-19 contact tracing efforts at the national level. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the COVID-19 Contact Tracing Minimal Dataset (COV-CT-MDS) as a prerequisite to develop a mobile-based contact racing system for the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: This study was carried out in 2020 by a combination of literature review coupled with a two-round Delphi survey. First, the probable data elements were identified using an extensive literature review in scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Web of Science (WOS). Then, the core data elements were validated using a two-round Delphi survey. Results: Out of 388 articles, 24 were eligible to be included in the study. By the full-text study of the included articles and after the Delphi survey, the designed COV-CT-MDS was categorized into two clinical and administrative data sections, nine data classes, and 81 data fields. Conclusions: COV-CT-MDS is an efficient and valid tool that could provide a basis for collecting comprehensive and standardized data on COVID-19 contact tracing. It could also provide scientific teamwork for health care authorities, which may lead to the enhanced quality of documentation, research, and surveillance outcomes.
Hamed Taheri, Roya Rafaiee, Hamed Ghazvini, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Raheleh Rafaiee
Published: 18 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.119448

Abstract:
Keywords SARS-CoV-2 Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia COVID-19
Mohammad Bagher Khosravi, Farid Zand, Arvin Hedayati, Seyedeh Maryam Tabibzadeh, Ehsan Amiri-Ardekani,
Published: 18 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.119033

Abstract:
Keywords Medical Education Shiraz Burnout COVID-19
, , , Fatemeh Azizmohammadi, Amir Keshavarzian
Published: 17 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.115669

Abstract:
Context: according to the corruption perceptions index (CPI) 2018, Iran ranked 148 among 183 countries. This position shows the crucial importance of considering corruption and its negative effect on Iran and its health care system. In this review, we aimed to shed the light on corrupt practices in Iran’s health care system and recommend some practical strategies to combat them. Evidence Acquisition: This is a narrative review based on Vian's conceptual model of corruption in the health sector to evaluate and analyze corruption in Iran's health system. Review of the literature and documents without any time limitation were conducted in several databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Farsi sources including Iran Medex, scientific information database )SID(, and Magiran, and also the official websites of the Ministry of Health and news agencies. Results: Unfortunately, to the best of our review, there is less published evidence about the extent and types of corruption in Iran's health system. Based on Vian’s model, reviewed literature revealed that Iran's health system is prone to corruption. This system is monopolistic and self-authorized, low transparent and accountable, and required law enforcement in many areas. Evidence to clarify the situation of citizen voice was not found. Conclusions: Based on this study, evidence shows corruption in financing, service provision, and resource generation of Iran's health system. It could affect not only performance of this system but also its responsiveness and effectiveness. To combat, Iran should apply multiple strategies such as; improving good governance, strengthening legal system over the health system, reducing monopoly and discretion stepwise and manageable, enhancing community participation, and finally updating ethics codes in the health system.
Hadi Hamidi Parsa, , Alireza Koohpaei, Babak Farzinnia, Mohsen Barouni
Published: 16 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.114421

Abstract:
Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed heavy direct and indirect economic burden on the people and the health system. Objectives: The present study aimed to estimate the economic burden of COVID-19 in Qom Province, using the step-down cost accounting (SDCA) method. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study included all COVID-19 patients in Qom Province from February 19, 2020, to June 19, 2020. The patients’ data were collected in the form of major cost groups with integrated health system (IHS), health information system (HIS), and a financial software called Roozamad. The governmental, out-of-pocket, and opportunity costs paid by patients and hospitals were calculated and evaluated using SDCA in Microsoft Excel software. Results: The incidence of COVID-19 infection was 518 per 100,000 populations in Qom Province in the aforementioned period. The total government costs for the treatment of the patients were calculated to be 2,229,216,930,370 Rials (8,916,867 $). Among the major governmental cost groups, personnel costs accounted for the highest total expenditures. In addition, out-of-pocket costs of patients and their families equaled 30,038,013,060 Rials (120,152$). The costs of final service departments accounted for more than half of the total costs. The opportunity costs were calculated as 420 billion Rials (15.68% of total costs). Conclusions: According to the findings, the direct and indirect costs associated with the treatment of COVID-19 patients can impose a heavy economic burden on the households and health care system. Therefore, disease prevention strategies such as observing health protocols are recommended to reduce the burden of the disease.
Published: 13 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.111526

Abstract:
Context: Persia has been the cradle of science across human history. Many of today’s concepts in science, such as the finite speed of light and alcohol distillation, were first proposed by Persian scientists. Mohammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) is undoubtedly one of the greatest Persian scientists over human history. Evidence Acquisition: In this paper, in addition to a brief review of the history of pharmacy and chemistry sciences in Persia, Rhazes’ valuable books in the fields of pharmacy and chemistry, along with a brief description of them, were introduced. Data were extracted from different historical and bibliography books and also the citation databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Results: Rhazes’ books and treatises in the fields of pharmacy and chemistry have been classified into three categories: 1) the books and treatises containing some sections on pharmacy like Al-Hawi fi al-Tibb (Liber Continens) and Al-Mansouri fi al-Tibb, 2) those written merely on pharmacy, like Qarabadin (pharmacopeia), and 3) the books focusing on alchemy (kimia), like Sirr al-Asrar (Secret of secrets) and Al Asrar (Liber Secretorum). Three volumes of Al Hawi fi al-Tibb were applied as a reference in pharmacology in Western universities for many years. Sirr al-Asrar is his most important book on alchemy, describing raw materials used in alchemy, experimental apparatus necessary for alchemical investigations, and detailed procedures for the chemical manipulation of arsenic and sulfur. Conclusions: These valuable manuscripts demonstrate the ancient heritage of Persians and the great roles and contributions of Persian scientists in the history of science.
Nazaninzahra Sepehri, , , Seyed Ali Hosseini, Kamran Moazzemi
Published: 13 October 2021
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.119138

Abstract:
Keywords SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 Kidney Transplant Liver Transplant