Journal of Personality Assessment

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ISSN / EISSN : 0022-3891 / 1532-7752
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.1080)
Total articles ≅ 5,101
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Latest articles in this journal

, Katherine A. Lenger, Mark H. Waugh, Nicole M. Cain, Autumn Rae Florimbio, Emily D. Gottfried, Mark F. Lenzenweger, , Emily K. Shier
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2090370

Abstract:
Indirect assessment is a useful tool in forensic evaluation, especially in cases of threat assessment. To this end, we illustrated the ability to conceptualize a complicated case (i.e., Theodore John Kaczynski) using an indirect approach, with a particular emphasis upon dimensional frameworks of personality. Raters who were unrelated to Mr. Kaczynski’s case and with expertise in relevant domains were asked to study information available in the public domain about Mr. Kaczynski and provide ratings using several assessment instruments. Our aim was not to provide a professional clinical opinion, but rather engage in scholarly discourse about the utility of instruments. Mr. Kaczynski was rated to demonstrate characteristics associated with lone actor terrorists. He showed an elevation on a measure of psychosis, and raters conceptualized trauma as an important aspect of his functioning. He demonstrated impairments in detachment and psychoticism (Criterion B of the AMPD) and interpersonal functioning (Criterion A of the AMPD). Clinical conceptualizations for Mr. Kaczynski emphasized schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders. This analysis of an infamous case about which considerable data are publicly available demonstrates the ease with which indirect and multimethod assessment can be applied and integrated in forensic assessment, using modern conceptualizations of personality pathology.
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2086133

Abstract:
The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual – Second Edition (PDM-2) has emerging evidence supporting its clinical utility, yet one of the main limitations remains the conjecture that considerable training and experience is required. It also remains unclear how the PDM-2 framework compares with current DSM measures of personality pathology such as the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). The aim of the present study is to examine these issues by testing whether less clinically experienced second year doctoral psychology students are able to reliably assess patients’ level of personality pathology using the PDM-2’s Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC-2), and to investigate the convergence between the PDC-2 and the LPFS. Results showed adequate inter-rater reliability for both of the main PDC-2 axes, with 52% of the variance for the overall personality organization (P-Axis) rating, and 29% of the overall M-Axis score being due to rater consensus. Reliability of individual ratings ranged from fair to excellent for the overall scores on both axes (ICC = 0.59 to .90). Results also showed that student evaluations were valid, with the latter’s assessment of the patients’ level of personality organization converging both with the experts’ rating of the PDC-2 as well as the LPFS. Implications for clinical training are discussed.
Hui Tang, , Y. Joel Wong, Shu-Yi Wang, , Zhenzhen Zhang, Qiang Xing
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2090368

Abstract:
The Encouragement Character Strength Scale (ECSS) is a self-report measure of encouragement, which refers to a tendency to enjoy and perceive oneself as being accomplished in communicating affirmations to motivate others. Although it is theoretically assumed as an overarching construct consisting of two domain-specific factors (i.e., perceived ability and enjoyment), there is inconclusive evidence regarding the most optimal factor structure of the encouragement construct. This study evaluated the factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of the Chinese version of the ECSS among teachers and undergraduate students in mainland China. Results showed that the bifactor model of encouragement demonstrated the best fit among undergraduate students and teachers. There was evidence supporting the measurement invariance of this factor structure across type of samples (i.e., teachers and undergraduate students) and gender. Ancillary bifactor indices indicate the superiority of using the ECSS’s overall or general factor over subscale scores. The ECSS total score also showed internal consistency and temporal stability. A review of correlations between encouragement and criterion variables (i.e., kindness, hope, agreeableness, and extraversion) indicates that effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Furthermore, the encouragement general factor was positively correlated with both psychological well-being and work engagement after controlling for the aforementioned criterion variables and demographic covariates.
Mahsa Samiefard, , Hossein Kareshki, Alan W. Stacy
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2081922

Abstract:
Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity differentiates five distinct dimensions: negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The present study, reports the first translation and validation of the recently revised short form of the UPPS-P scale (S-UPPS-P) on a Persian-speaking sample, examining the relationship between impulsivity and working memory. who also completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Wechsler Digit Span Task (WDST). A series of confirmatory factor analyses, and Cronbach’s alpha results supported the factor structure of the scale. The findings supported the S-UPPS-P model’s hypothesized correlations with PANAS, aggressiveness, and the construct validity of the model. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that backward and forward digit span scores of the WDST predicted the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scores over the portion explained by BIS/BAS, PANAS, and aggression scores. To conclude, the revised S-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale was well supported even in a very different population than usually sampled, adding to growing evidence that it assesses distinct but interrelated aspects of the impulsivity construct. Our findings also suggest that attentional capacities and working memory play important roles in the prediction of impulsivity.
, Cassidy L. Tennity, , Hyunah Kim, Christopher T. Barry
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2076237

Abstract:
Adolescent personality assessment measures can aid in the identification of traits that are associated with various types of maladjustment. Externalizing personality pathology traits (e.g., antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorder features) are particularly relevant for many problematic outcomes, yet measures that assess these traits have not been validated extensively in diverse samples. The present study aimed to examine the properties of measures of externalizing personality pathology traits in a sample of White (n = 184) and Black (n = 99) adolescents participating in a residential program for at-risk youth. The fit of the proposed structure for these measures was tested in the sample as a whole and in each racial group separately. Associations between these measures and the count of disciplinary infractions received while in the program were also tested. Measures were found to have less than optimal fit in this sample, especially among Black adolescents. Suggestions for future research and clinical use of these measures are discussed.
, Julia Y. Gorday, Joseph R. Bardeen, Natasha Benfer
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2081921

Abstract:
The negative emotional contrast avoidance model posits that pathological worry is maintained by the avoidance of negative emotional shifts. The Contrast Avoidance Questionnaires (CAQ–Worry and CAQ–General Emotion) aim to assess contrast avoidance beliefs and behaviors. Questions remain around the factor structures of the CAQs, whether such structures replicate in nonundergraduate samples, and whether their domain-specific factors are valid for independent use. This study used bifactor analysis in a large community sample (N = 827) to address these gaps in the literature. Results supported bifactor models of both measures. Complementary analyses supported the multidimensionality of the CAQ–Worry, including its strong general factor and independent use of two domain-specific factors, rather than the original three domain-specific factors. The CAQ–General Emotion’s general factor was strong, but the merits of the Discomfort domain-specific factor require more exploration, and use of the Avoidance domain-specific factor is discouraged.
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2074853

Abstract:
A representative sample (n = 2282) of Swedish adults completed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire, which measures moral intuitions concerning care, fairness, loyalty, authority, and purity. A subset (n = 607) completed a measure of intuitions about liberty. Measurement invariance was estimated across sex, age, education, income, left-right placement, religiosity, and party preference groups, based on multigroup confirmatory factor analyses of two-, three-, five-, six-, and eight-factor models, as well as bifactor models (with methods factors or a general factor). Acceptable configural, metric, and scalar invariance was obtained for most group comparisons, particularly based on the more complex models. The clearest exceptions were (1) configural non-invariance in comparisons involving participants with very low education or income, and (2) scalar non-invariance in comparisons of ideological groups based on three- and six-factor models but not the eight-factor model, which distinguished lifestyle liberty from government liberty.
, William E. Rice, William H. Menton, ,
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2068421

Abstract:
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) includes two self-concept-oriented scales: Self-Doubt (SFD), a measure of low self-esteem, and Self-Importance (SFI), a measure of beliefs that one has special attributes and abilities. Past research has demonstrated that SFD and SFI measure related but distinct constructs. The present study focused on explicating the meaning and clinical implications of low SFI scores. Using three clinical samples (private practice and community mental health and private practice neuropsychology clinics), we investigated whether the presence of interpretable low SFI scores (< 39 T) in the context of interpretable SFD elevations (≥ 65 T) is associated with distinctive MMPI-3 findings, and whether low SFI scores add clinically meaningful information in predicting relevant extra-test criteria. Consistent meaningful findings were obtained with respect to implications of low SFI scores for assessment of depression- and social engagement-related constructs. Additionally, the full range of SFI scores was meaningfully and negatively correlated with depressive disorder diagnoses and suicidal ideation but yielded very small correlations with suicide attempt and nonmeaningful correlations with diagnoses of Social Anxiety or Avoidant Personality Disorder. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that SFI scores could meaningfully increment other related MMPI-3 scales in predicting diagnosed depressive disorders, albeit with small effect sizes.
, Christopher Marcin Kowalski, , , Elena Artamonova, , , Foteini-Maria Gianniou, Theodoros Kyriazos, Donald H. Saklofske, et al.
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2055476

Abstract:
Subclinical sadism, characterized by infliction of cruelty, aggression, or humiliation on another for subjugation or pleasure, provides important information in the prediction of aversive behaviors that have implications for individuals’ and society’s well-being worldwide. Given sadism’s universal relevance, it is imperative that researchers ensure valid and reliable trait measurement not only among English-speaking individuals, but also cross-nationally among countries in which sadism remains relatively understudied. The objective of the current research was to validate the revised version of the Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP-8) (Plouffe et al., 2017 Plouffe, R. A. , Saklofske, D. H. , & Smith, M. M. (2017). The Assessment of Sadistic Personality: Preliminary psychometric evidence for a new measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.043 [Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar] ) across samples of Russian (n = 1087, Mage = 37.36, SD = 10.36), Greek (n = 1195, Mage = 35.64, SDage = 13.08), Serbian (n = 443, Mage = 28.10, SDage = 6.60), and British (n = 511, Mage = 28.50, SDage = 11.62) adults. Overall, results supported the reliability, dimensionality, and scalar/partial scalar measurement invariance of the ASP-8 across cross-national samples. Convergent and discriminant validity were mostly supported through correlations with general personality traits, the Dark Triad, emotional intelligence, mental toughness, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life, aggression, and attitudes toward social groups. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of the ASP-8 in future investigations of aversive traits.
Journal of Personality Assessment pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2022.2057318

Abstract:
The five-dimensional curiosity-scale revised (5DCR) by Kashdan et al. ( 2020 ) is the most comprehensive curiosity inventory available to date. 5DCR measures six facets of curiosity with four items each. Here, we present a German-language adaptation of the 5DCR and comprehensively validate this adaptation in a diverse sample of adults from Germany (N = 486). Moreover, we provide new evidence on the original English-language 5DCR in a parallel sample from the UK (N = 483). In both countries, we investigate the six facets' reliability, factorial validity, and convergent and discriminant validity with a large set of individual-differences constructs. In addition, we analyze the measurement invariance of the curiosity facets across the UK and Germany and across socio-demographic subgroups defined by age, sex, and education. Findings demonstrate that the new German-language adaptation of 5DCR and its English-language source version show psychometric properties similar to the original studies by Kashdan et al. ( 2020 ) in the United States. All six curiosity facets reach at least partial scalar invariance across cultures, sex, education, and mostly also across age groups. The findings support the six-faceted theory of curiosity and show that 5DCR allows for a valid assessment of curiosity across cultures.
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