Scientific Journal of Review

Journal Information
EISSN : 2322-2433
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 10
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, Muhammad Shahzad Nazir, Muhammad Imran Chandia, Muhammad Shakeel Khosa, Hafiz Muhammad Jamsheed Nazir
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 7, pp 572-590; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v7i1.2501

Abstract:
Protection types of equipment are the mainstay of a power system. Recently, gas insulated metal-enclosed switch-gear (GIS) has developed the most important part of a power system protection. High-pressure gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear may suffer overheating and can cause fatal accidents. The miniaturization and high performance of electrical equipment highlight the importance of thermal analysis. In this paper, the model simplification method of gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear is studied and the complex structure of GIS is simplified according to the heat source of GIS. The heat source of GIS includes Joule heat of conductor and contact resistance heating. Furthermore, this paper considers the cooling effect of natural convection SF6. By employing the method of AC electromagnetic analysis and fluid-solid coupling analysis, harmonics under the effect of eddy current losses and the contact resistance method for the convection heat dissipation (for shell and air) have been selected. Finally, obtain the temperature distribution of gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear. The simulation results are verified by temperature rise test. Thermal simulation analysis of gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear is carried out, which can provide a theoretical and experimental reference for further research and design of improved protected products.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 7, pp 563-571; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v7i1.2492

Abstract:
Generally, it has been pronounced that the demand for animal products worldwide will drastically increase due to population boom in turn putting pressure on animal production systems. In view of meeting animal protein demand, suggestions have been put forward to the effect that mini-livestock production, which include rabbits should be part of the mainstream animal production strategies. However, it has been noted that commercial rabbit production has been adversely affected by the high cost of feeding and use of traditional feed stuff (grain and soya bean) that have direct competition with humans for food. There has been an unbearable continued increase in the cost of traditional feed resources (soya been, maize, millet, groundnut, fish meal etc.) in the past decade, which in turn has led to exorbitant rabbit feed prices and consequently expensive rabbit meat and their products. This on the backdrop that feeding is a very critical aspect of rabbit production enterprise that influence overall performance (growth, mortality, reproduction, carcass and meat quality) in rabbits. In this aspect, it has been recommended to explore non-classical (alternative or non-traditional or non-conventional) feed resources to depart from exorbitant cost of feeding and the cost related influence of feed resources due to direct competition between rabbits and humans for food, while maintaining improved rabbit productivity. A series of studies have been carried out targeted on some local non-classical feed resources on account of their nutritional values, as energy and protein sources in rabbits’ diets. The inferiority and unbalance nutritive quality of some of the non-classical feed resources is a major challenge which restrict their successful use in rabbit production. Initial assessment of some non-classical feed resources has reported low nutritive value that distinctly depress voluntary feed intake and nutrient digestibility which in turn adversely affect weight gain in rabbits. However, some non-classical feed resources tested have shown marked potential as energy and protein substitute sources in rabbits’ diets to enhance production. This point to the fact that successful use of non-classical feed resources can mitigate the current high cost and shortage of traditional feedstuffs, and also lessen the potential high competition between rabbits and humans on food. The purpose of this review is to discuss the use of non-classical feed resources and their influence on some performance indicators.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 6, pp 555-562; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v6i11.2462

Abstract:
Efficiency of rabbit meat production has been optimized using 2 or 3 way crossbreeding schemes based on specialized paternal and maternal breeds and/or lines in order to enhance desired growth, reproduction, carcass and meat quality properties. Crossbreeding schemes allow good attributes of the paternal line genotype to counterbalance the shortcomings of the maternal line genotype and good characteristics of the maternal line genotype to counterbalance the shortcomings of the paternal line genotype. Traditionally, some specific breeds/lines have been observed to deliver their best as sire breeds through passing on outstanding genes on growth rate in the progeny, while other breeds/lines are impressive when used as dam-breeds/lines based on their superiority in reproductive traits, of litter size at birth or at weaning. This emanate from the fact that regardless of how much intense selection has been applied to different meat rabbit breeds/lines neither one has been excellent in catering for all preferred attributes of growth, reproductive, carcass traits and meat quality properties to satisfy various markets and consumer demands. The use of genetically selected paternal and maternal lines has improved productivity in terminal crossbreeding schemes. In this regard, the raw material that offers the opportunity for efficient meat production through crossbreeding is the genetic diversity of rabbit breeds. From biological point of view, genetic diversity is the basis for utilization of breeds combination that perform at levels consistent with the targeted market requirement. However, it has been noted that comparison of different crossbreds’ studies have been problematic, due to the fact that performance results are taken from rabbits slaughtered at the same age, but differing in their slaughter weight. This is on the backdrop that early and late maturing genotypes will differ in carcass composition and meat quality at the same slaughter weight due to differences in degree of maturity. The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness of crossbreeding on growth traits, reproduction, carcass and meat characteristics in rabbits.
Hasan Karimzadegan
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 6, pp 547-554; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v6i9.2444

Abstract:
This research is a comprehensive study of land transportation external costs that influence on the national economy. It includes detailed analysis of various land transportation costs by using the best available data. It provides monetized estimate approaches for estimate external costs. There are many efforts to get these external costs from consumers and producers. External costs are much expanded that this report is going to present a lot of information about the external costs of land transportation and different ways of estimating them in financial terms. So this study has an economical approach to turn the externalities into the monetized and it can help to assess the planning and policies in Iran. This work is done due to the people and society’s decision for choosing policies, according to benefits and social costs that it’s known as a good approach in the world. Environmental economists discover some new methods to account these effects as financial facts, in order to change the view point of traditional cost benefit analysis and instead of that, replace marginal social cost and marginal social benefit. External effects are a general expression that includes costs and benefits which can’t reflect the market’s prices. The costs and benefits are so important for planning of land transportation. It is one of the most comprehensive studies in Iran, including many costs categories that are often overlooked. It is help to apply economic evaluation techniques. The costs that are in the attention of the past studies and recognition of land transportation divided to 20 groups. In this study after study economic evaluation techniques Hedonic approach that depends on the real exchanges of market can have more real results. Hedonic is better than the others approach. The avoid cost and controlling costs are not the same with real costs. The contingent valuation method not based on the market exchanges and people reveal their willingness to pay. Due to limited time and resources when decisions have to be made, it’s offered to use the benefits transfer method for Iran. The benefits transfer method is a way that we can use the studies of external costs and we also use them in a reasonable way and in some more places.
Manisha Kumari Deep
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 6, pp 542-546; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v6i9.2434

Abstract:
Leadership is usually used as a measuring tool for organizational success. All the responsibility of a successful leadership lies on the shoulder of a leader. A failed organization marks with the failure of an unsuccessful leadership. The first section of this paper discusses overview of leadership. The second section discusses the successful traits of a leader followed by theories and styles of leadership. Here a different concept on leadership has been proposed. Self-organized leadership has been introduced here with an intension of change to be experimented by organizations for better functioning. Self-organized leadership will adapt the principles prevailing in the nature for seamless organization and leadership. Finally, we conclude the section by discussing the pros and cons of self-organized leadership.
Ali Naghipour, Abozar Bastami, Amir Hossein Ezati
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 6, pp 535-541; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v6i7.2421

Abstract:
Phosphonium salts have the general formula and are derived from the sub-ion phosphonium tetrahedral , such as phosphonium iodide . Generally, phosphonium is attributed to an organic derivative, such as tetra-phenyl phosphonium chloride and tetra tetra-methylphosphonium iodide. In this project, the phosphonium compounds [C2H5COO (CH2PPh3Br)] and its copper (II) complex [C2H5COO (CH2PP3Br)] [Cu2Cl6] were prepared and identified. Phosphonium species were prepared from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with terphenylphosphine. Then the final compounds were prepared using the reaction between the phosphonium compound with Na2 [Cu2Cl6]. Then, using spectroscopic methods, preparation of these compounds was investigated.
Abozar Bastami
Scientific Journal of Review, Volume 6, pp 519-528; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjr.v6i3.2405

Abstract:
Phosphonium salts have the general formula R4P+X- and are derived from the sub-ion phosphonium tetrahedral(pH+4), such as phosphonium iodide[p(CH3)+4]-. Generally, phosphonium is attributed to an organic derivative, such as tetra-phenyl phosphonium chloride and tetra tetra-methyl phosphonium iodide. In this project, phosphonium compounds [C6H5(CH2pph3Br)], {C6H4 -1- (CH2Cl) -3- (CH2pph3Cl)} and palladium complexes, [C6H5 (CH2pph3)]2[pd2cl2Br2], [C6H4 -1- CH2Cl) -3-(CH2pph3)]2 [pd2Cl6] were prepared and characterized. Phosphonium salts was prepared from the reaction of 1,3-bis (chloro-methyl)-benzene and tri-phenyl phosphine. Then, through the reaction between phosphonium compounds andNa2[pd2Cl6] final complexes were prepared. Next phosphonium salt was prepared from the reaction between benzyl bromide and tri-phenyl phosphine. Then, final complexes were prepared through a reaction between phosphonium compounds and Na2[pd2Cl6].
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