Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine
EISSN : 2472-0712
Current Publisher: Xia & He Publishing (10.14218)
Total articles ≅ 107
Latest articles in this journal
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2021.00011
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2021.00006
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00077
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00072
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2021.00009
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00062
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00067
Published: 24 February 2021
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2021.00002
Recurrence and metastasis are the foremost causes of morbidity and mortality for breast cancer (BC). Recent studies have highlighted the critical role of the tumor microenvironment, in particular, because it is related to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), in metastasis of BC. TAMs are mainly derived from macrophages that are recruited by C-C motif chemokine ligand 5, which are secreted by cancer cells and cancer-related stromal cells. Although E-cigarettes (E-cigs) were originally proposed as a healthy substitute for conventional cigarette smoking, clinical and experimental evidence has highlighted the potentially lethal effects of this alternative. Several studies have illustrated the immune or macrophage activation and DNA damaging effects of E-cigs. However, the potentially pivotal role of TAM-BC crosstalk during BC progression and metastasis for E-cig vaping has not been explored. This review discussed the significant effect that E-cig use had on the BC tumor microenvironment, which ultimately led to enhanced tumor malignancy and metastasis, with an emphasis on the extent that E-cig uses had on the crosstalk between cancer and immune cells, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms that drive this aggressive phenotype of BC. This review advances our understanding of this matter and provides scientific evidence that could highlight risks associated with vaping and suggest a potential intervention for the treatment of aggressive BCs that present an increased risk of metastasis.
Published: 22 February 2021
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00079
Endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and has recently been proposed to be connected with acute thrombosis, hyper-inflammation, cytokine storm syndrome, immune cell recruitment, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and endothelial apoptosis. Importantly, certain mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as galectin (Gal) 1, Gal3 and Gal8 act in a concerted manner through the N- and O-linked glycans located on the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. We hypothesize that the presence of these factors may cause the ACE2 receptor, integrin β1, and CD44 to generate a Gal-glycan lattice on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 virus. This lattice, in addition to endothelial cells (ECs), may not only influence EC behavior and the inflammatory response, but may also induce conformational changes in the viral structure that can facilitate attachment and entry into the ECs. We believe that further basic science research is necessary to elucidate the composition and role of the Gal-glycan lattices in the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Published: 9 February 2021
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; doi:10.14218/erhm.2020.00069
Plants are a rich source of bio-functional phytochemicals. The present study was designed to investigate the methanol extracts of selected plants for their phytochemicals, antioxidant activity, urease and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitory potential.