Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2155-9570 / 2155-9570
Published by: OMICS Publishing Group (10.4172)
Total articles ≅ 844
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

, Pavana Krishnaraj Acharya, Kavitha Chikkanayakanahalli Venugopal, Sudeep Navule Siddappa
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000716

Abstract:
Aim: To study the awareness and utilization of various rehabilitation measures by visually disabled individuals. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted on 100 people with visual disability of 40 percent or more during January 2016-May 2016. Results: Out of 100 patients, 39 patients had 100 % visual disability, 23 patients had 75% visual disability and 38 patients had 40% visual disability. All the patients were aware about monetary benefits like monthly pension and concessions in travel fares, 12 patients knew about the educational scholarships and job reservations, 14 patients knew about special education and blind schools. 24 patients were already availing the monetary benefits. Other rehabilitation services utilized included low vision aids (1%), mobility training (12%), training in braille script or using special educational devices (14%), vocational training (7%) and job reservation (1%). Conclusion: Although everyone knew about monetary benefits, only few patients were aware about other rehabilitation measures which help them to attain highest possible level of functional ability so that they lead an independent and self-sufficient life.
Shogo Arimura, , Seiji Miyake, Atsushi Kojima, Shuji Sakurai, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Hideaki Hara, Masaru
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000715

Abstract:
Purpose: Lens extraction surgery with ischemic retinopathy may trigger neovascularization, suggesting that lens removal alters the ocular concentrations of angiogenesis regulatory factors. This study aims to identify angiogenic or anti-angiogenic factors exhibiting altered expression in the vitreous after lens extraction in rabbits. Methods: Vitreous samples after lens extraction were analyzed by two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by mass spectrometry to identify candidate factors indicating expression changes. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to semi-quantify protein and gene expression changes. The identified factors were tested by assessing effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Results: Three spots with reduced expression were identified as αA-crystallin by 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. Western blotting revealed that the protein levels in vitreous of αA- and αB-crystallin were significantly lower after lens extraction. αB-crystallin suppressed the proliferation of VEGF-stimulated HRMECs, and the combination of αA- and αB-crystallin was more effective than αB-crystallin alone. Conclusion: The depletion of vitreal α-crystallins after lens extraction may increase VEGF-induced angiogenesis, thereby contributing to adverse outcomes such as vitreous hemorrhage, proliferative membrane, and vision loss after cataract surgery for ischemic retinopathy patients.
Jaspreet Sukhija, Parul Chawla Gupta, Indrish Bhatia, Neha Kumari, Swati Phuljhele
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000748

Daniel Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tinguaro Diaz-Aleman, Daniel Perez-Barbudo, , Manuel Gonzalez De La Rosa,
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000760

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the limits of the optic nerve head (ONH) in color fundus images using Depp learning (DL) for the estimation of its hemoglobin topographic distribution. Also, to evaluate the usefulness of that distribution in glaucoma diagnosis singly or in association with perimetry.Methods: A DL method was trained using 40000 fundus images and applied to 89 normal eyes and 77 confirmed or suspect glaucomas. DL and manual segmentation were compared. The eyes were also examined once with TOP perimetry (Octopus 300) and Spectralis-OCT and twice with Cirrus-OCT and Laguna ONhE, a program which estimates hemoglobin from color photographs, using improved criteria from previous studies.Results: The Sorensen-Dice similarity index between manual and automatic segmentations was 0.993. Intra-class correlation coefficients were similar when comparing the results of the Laguna ONhE indices using the manual and automatic segmentations (confidence intervals: 0.933-0.978). For specificity close to 95%, the GDF index, a factor that measures the distribution of hemoglobin at the nerve, obtained sensitivities between 70.1 and 74.0% (manual vs. automatic segmentations). The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of both OCTs provided sensitivities between 67.1 and 68.8% and the BMO-RMW of Spectralis-OCT 69.7%. Associating several normalized indices, e.g. a new visual field harmony index (Threshold Coefficient of Variation, TCV) and GDF, provided 85.7% sensitivity for 97.8% specificity. GDF correlation with Spectralis-OCT BMO-RMW index was similar to that obtained between this index and the RNFLT of the same instrument. For 95% specificity, the diagnostic concordance (kappa value) between both Spectralis-OCT indices was 0.694 and between its BMO-RMW and Laguna ONhE GDF 0.804-0.828.Conclusion: A fully automatic delimitation of the optic nerve head allows the correct, reproducible and efficient use of the Laguna ONhE method, and its effectiveness is greatly increased if associated with a perimetric harmony index.
Melissa Toyos, Rolando Toyos, Haylie Mulliniks, Jessica Armstrong
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000756

Rini Kusumawardhany
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000755

Abstract:
The commonest cause of penetrating orbital injuries was stick/wood (41.2%). This is to report a case of wood penetrating orbital injury and its management. A 55-years-old woman had wood penetrating injury on lower eyelid. She fell forward on corn stick, accidentally while farming. Visual acuity was 5/20; mild proptosis and chemosis. Restriction of downward and upward gaze (left eye). Head and orbita CT scan and eye ultrasound was normal. A 3, 6 cm wood chip was removed from the wound site, using clamp under general anesthesia. After wound debridement and exploration of foreign bodies and wound area was clean, then the orbicularis and skin are closed with 6-0 polyglactin suture. Post operation visual acuity was 5/9 and improvement in ocular motility restriction. Penetrating or perforating injuries should be evaluated and treated immediately. Depending on the material causing the injury and location of entry, severe vision loss can occur. Systemic, topical antibiotics and tetanus toxoid injection was given to reduce the incidence of endophthalmitis, orbital cellulitis or panopthalmitis.
Alejandra Gonzalez-Calle, Rodrigo Brant, Bruno Diniz, Steven Swenson, Frank Markland, Mark S Humayun, James D Weiland
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000752

Abstract:
We propose a novel attachment method for retinal tissue that utilizes silicone modified with bioactive molecules. This is an experimental study divided into an in vitro section performed in cadaveric pig eyes and an in vivo section performed in rabbits. During in vitro experiments 36 cadaveric pig eyes were used. During in vivo experiments 4 rabbits were used. Different types of silicone went through a laser irradiation process to determine if binding sites for disintegrins could be created. Laser treated silicones that showed disintegrin binding were evaluated with in vitro testing for retina-silicone attachment. The best silicone binding in vitro was implanted into a rabbit’s eye after a full vitrectomy was performed. Post-operative exams were done every two weeks to evaluate placement, attachment and sterilization method. After three months animals were euthanized and eye was enucleated for histology analysis. Attachment strength between silicone-disintegrin-retina, and signs of endophthalmitis during in vivo studies for biocompatibility purposes. A technique to successfully lase and produce an active area on the silicone surface was described. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were evaluated to assess physical ablation/debris field area on the surface, definition of edges, evenness, and symmetry of the lased area allowing us to select MED 4800 silicone family for further testing. Cell culture experiments showed disintegrin binding to the silicone active area. In vitro experiments with cadaveric eyes were performed to test retina-silicone attachment. MED 4860 showed strongest attachment to the retina and it was used during in vivo experiments. A sterilization protocol was tested and proved to be reliable for bioactive materials. Disintegrin coated silicone showed attachment in 2 of 4 rabbits during the 3-month implant period. The adhesion was persistent until reversed with plasmin. All rabbits were implanted for 3 months regardless of attachment, to test the feasibility of the sterilization method. None of the rabbits developed any type of eye infection during the implant period. We successfully lased and produced an active area on the silicone surface to allow disintegrin-silicone binding. Different silicones interact differently with the laser energy, and this is reflected in the strength of the silicone-disintegrin-retina attachment.
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