Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 2301-7171 / 2541-092X
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 433
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 265-273; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.265-273
Background: The condition of failure to thrive in toddlers due to chronic malnutrition and making children too short for their age is called stunting. Purpose: This research was conducted to analyze the risk factors of stunting in children. Methods: The study was conducted from mid-May to mid-August 2020. This study developed a model for maternal empowerment in preventing and managing stunting using a cross-sectional design, then implementing the model using a quasi-experimental non-randomized pre-post control group design. The population involved was all mothers with children under five years old in Posyandu Ngariboyo, Candirejo, and Plaosan, obtaining 250 mothers. Meanwhile, the study sample was 150 mothers who had children under five years old in Posyandu Ngariboyo, Candirejo, who met the inclusion criteria. Results: Mothers with good characteristics increased their knowledge of stunting prevention and control by 0.42 times (p=0.01). Mothers with good knowledge increased their maternal commitment by 0.23 (p=0.01), and mothers who had good commitment reduced stunting by 0.45 (p=0.01). Furthermore, mothers with good knowledge increased the family support by 0.24 (p=0.01). In addition, good family support also reduced stunting by 0.26 (p=0.01). Conclusion: Mother's knowledge contributes to the prevention and management of stunting. Children's physical health, family support, nutritional status, and home environment are also important factors in stunting prevention and management. Family support is needed by mothers to realize their commitment to carrying out early detection, prevention, and control stunting.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 312-320; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.312-320
Background: This unending Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which worsens by various mutation findings, has brought about several changes across various sectors, including in health service sectors. Meanwhile, in particular, antenatal visits and childbirth cannot be separated. Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the pregnancy outcome differences before and during the pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated antenatal visits, obstetric complications, postpartum conditions, and maternal motivation to undertake antenatal visits reviewed from the birth reports and medical records of mothers who gave birth and took antenatal care at primary healthcare centers in Surabaya, Indonesia, during January to July 2019 and January to July 2020. The total sampling method included 381 samples out of 688 mothers. Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis to perceive the differences in conditions before and during the pandemic. Results: Statistical analyses showed no significant differences (p-value > 0.05) in the number of antenatal visits (p = 0.09), obstetric complication (p = 0.10), postpartum condition (p = 1.00), and maternal motivation in undergoing antenatal visits (p = 0.87). The most common obstetric complication was postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: This study establishes that there are no differences in the incidence of complications, postpartum conditions, antenatal visits, and maternal motivation before and during the pandemic.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 227-236; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.227-236
Background: High sodium consumption is one of the risk factors for hypertension. Excess salt intake may be affected by an individual’s ability to detected taste. However, decreased salt sensitivity can increase consumption of salty foods. Purpose: This review aims to analyze the salt taste threshold and its relation to salt intake among hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods: The review was conducted using five electronic databases and fourteen articles reporting on salt taste threshold, salt intake, and blood pressure. Open access articles, original research, published over the past ten years, and subject’s age over eighteen years both healthy and with specific clinical conditions, and have blood pressure data were identified and included in the study. Results: There were fourteen studies that measured salt taste threshold through detection threshold and/ or recognition threshold. Ten studies reported salt consumption through Na-FFQ, SQ-FFQ, 24-hour food recall, discretionary salt, adding salt questionnaire, salt use behavior questionnaire, salt preference questionnaire, and sodium excretion. Most studies showed that high salt consumption is higher in the group with high salt taste threshold and high salt taste threshold tends to be more in hypertensive group. The result also showed a significant correlation between salt consumption both through self-reported questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Conclusion: Although the correlation between salt taste threshold, salt intake, and hypertension can be found a matching method with adequate statistical power is needed to get more accurate results.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 237-245; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.237-245
Background: Corona Virus (COVID-19) is a new respiratory viral infectious disease that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Subsequently, as of May 31, 2022, the government of South Sulawesi reported 143,276 confirmed cases, 2,463 deaths, and 140,395 recovered patients. Purpose: To analyze the impact of behavior, travel history, and comorbidities on the incidence of COVID-19 in South Sulawesi. Methods: This is observational research with a cross-sectional study design and was conducted from January–April 2022 in 7 districts of South Sulawesi Province. A population of 650 respondents with a total sample of 161 patients confirmed positive and 189 suspected of having COVID-19. The Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: There was a relationship between travel history (p0.00; OR 2.19), knowledge (p0.03; OR 1.74), and actions (p0.00; OR 0.18) on the incidence of COVID-19. Additionally, no relationship was reported between comorbidities (p0.85), attitudes (p0.90), and level of knowledge (p0.08>(0.05) on the incidence of COVID-19. The most influential variable in the rapid spread was travel history, with an exp(B) value of 2.19 CI (95%) (LL=1.26; UL=3.80). Conclusion: The results showed that travel history, knowledge, and actions made a major contribution to the spread of COVID-19 in South Sulawesi Province.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 274-282; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.274-282
Background: Stunting occurs when a toddler's growth is not age-appropriate, characterized by a child's body length or height being less than age-appropriate. Reducing stunting requires integrated interventions, including both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Efforts to address the indirect causes of stunting are summarised in nutrition-sensitive interventions, which account for 70% of stunting interventions. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the effect of sensitive interventions on efforts to reduce stunting among children under five years of age at Puskesmas (Community Health Centre) in Bangkalan Regency. Methods: The study was conducted in March-September 2020 with an analytical cross-sectional design. The population in this study were all children aged 1 to 5 years who were in the working area of Bangkalan District in January - December 2019, totaling 430. A sample of 207 was taken by random cluster sampling. The independent variables in this study were clean and healthy living behaviour (PHBS), access to family planning services, and insurance ownership (only BPJS because this insurance is the most commonly owned by the community). In comparison, the independent variable was stunting in toddlers. The data used were primary and secondary data using closed question questionnaires, Maternal and Child Health books, and cohorts of pregnant women/toddlers. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: It was found that sensitive interventions that affect the incidence of stunting were PHBS with a p-value = 0.03 and BPJS ownership variables with a p-value = 0.04, which means that PHBS and BPJS affect the incidence of stunting in children under five. Meanwhile, the variable access to family planning does not affect stunting. Conclusion: Sensitive interventions affecting stunting incidence are PHBS and BPJS ownership.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 303-311; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.303-311
Background: Based on the Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report, Indonesia is one of the countries with a triple burden of TB, and TB disease can attack all age groups, including children. East Java Province in 2019 was ranked third in the highest number of pediatric TB cases in Indonesia. Purpose: This study aims to describe the distribution trend of tuberculosis cases in children in East Java Province in 2017-2018 based on BCG immunization coverage, cases of malnutrition, amount of healthy houses, and households with PHBS. Methods: The research design was a descriptive study with a correlation study design. The populations were all districts/cities in East Java Province, with as many as 38 districts. The data analysis technique to describe the trend distribution of tuberculosis in children was the health mapper software on a computer developed by World Health Organization (WHO). Results: The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in children in East Java from 2017 to 2018 tends to increase. The city of Surabaya became the area with the highest incidence of tuberculosis in children from 2017 to 2018. Based on a spatial map, most districts or cities with BCG immunization coverage, cases of malnutrition, several healthy homes, and high PHBS households experience tuberculosis incidence in children is high. Conclusion: Based on the map, spatially, districts or cities with high cases of tuberculosis in children mainly occur in areas with cases of malnutrition, the number of healthy home environments, and high coverage of BCG immunization as well.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 283-292; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.283-292
Background: The government established a vaccination program to deal with highly reactive COVID-19 cases in Indonesia. In obtaining accurate predictions of the dynamics of the compartment model of COVID-19 spread, a good parameter estimation technique was required.. Purpose: This research aims to apply Particle Swarm Optimization as a parameter estimation method to obtain parameters value from the Susceptible-Vaccinated-Infected-Recovered compartment model of COVID-19 cases. Methods: This research was conducted in April-May 2020 in Indonesia with exploratory design research. The researchers used the data on COVID-19 cases in Indonesia, which was accessed at covid19.go.id. The data set contained the number of reactive cases, vaccinated cases, and recovered cases. The data set was used to estimate the parameters of the COVID-19 compartment model. The results were shown by numerical simulations that apply to the Matlab program. Results: Research shows that the parameters estimated using Particle Swarm Optimization have a fairly good value because the mean square error is relatively small compared to the data size used. Reactive cases of COVID-19 have decreased until August 21, 2021. Next, reactive cases of COVID-19 will increase until the end of 2021. It is because the virus infection rate of the vaccinated population is positive . If occurs before the stationary point, then the reactive cases of COVID-19 will decrease mathematically. Conclusion: Particle Swarm Optimization methods can estimate parameters well based on mean square error and the graphs that can describe the behavior of COVID-19 cases in the future.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 246-255; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.246-255
Background: Supplementation of iron (Fe) tablets are essential to prevent pregnant women from iron deficiency anemia. Several other factors, such as knowledge, attitude, side effects, and personal access to information about iron tablet supplements, reduce the compliance of pregnant women to consume iron tablets. This study uses a combination of interventions, Short Message Service (SMS) reminders, and counseling. Purpose: This research aims to discover the effects of SMS reminders and counseling as well as factors that influence pregnant women's compliance in consuming Fe tablets. Methods: 170 pregnant women in Balowerti Public Health Center were divided into control and intervention groups. Each group received pre and post-test. The intervention group was given the treatment of SMS reminders and counseling for seven days before the post-test. The data analysis was using McNemar's paired test. Results: McNemar test results obtained the effects of the SMS Reminder and counseling on knowledge (p = 0.01), attitude (p = 0.00), and adherence (p = 0.00) of pregnant women in the intervention group as compared to the control group at the time of the post-test. The logistic regression analysis found that the factors that influence the compliance of pregnant women to consume Fe tablets (p <0.05) during the post-test comprise attitude and number of Ante Natal care (ANC). Conclusion: SMS reminders and counseling interventions improve pregnant women's adherence, knowledge, and behavior to consuming iron tablets. This result is important as a strategy to reach women's empowerment in reproductive health.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 321-330; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.321-330
Background: The effort to control and prevent COVID-19 in health facilities is to optimize the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) according to guidelines set by the government. The compliance of healthcare workers using the specified PPE will affect the control and prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic. Purpose: The study aims to measure the prevalence of COVID-19 in healthcare workers and to find out an overview of knowledge level and compliance with the use of PPE among healthcare workers in East Java Province during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This research was an observational study with a descriptive cross-sectional design. The study population was around 183,501 healthcare workers in East Java Province, with criteria of healthcare workers who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and were willing to be respondents. This study used a probability sampling method with a simple random sampling technique consisting of 129 healthcare workers. The variables used were knowledge level, compliance with the use of PPE, and the history of COVID-19 infection. Primary data have collected by an online questionnaire platform from September 3rd, 2020 to September 12th, 2020. Results: The prevalence of COVID-19 among healthcare workers in East Java was 6.20%, and all the healthcare workers infected with COVID-19 have a good level of knowledge and compliance with the use of PPE in health facilities. Conclusion: Most healthcare workers have good knowledge and compliance with using PPE.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 10, pp 293-302; https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v10i32022.293-302
Background: The incidence of Dengue Haemoragic Fever (DHF) in the Pamekasan District is still high. Mortality of DHF was always happening in Pamekasan District from 2016 to 2020. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the risk factors of DHF mortality in the Pamekasan District (2018-2020). Methods: The study was conducted from October 2020-June 2021 with a case-control study. Total population was 293 cases. The sample was 54 respondents (1:2) with proportional random sampling. The inclusion criteria were families living under the same roof for a minimum of 17 years. The variables were dengue mortality, age, sex, education, history of DHF, comorbidities, access to health services, delay in treatment, family income, residence, and family knowledge. Data were collected through interviews and documentation study. The analysis in this study used univariate (frequency) and bivariate (crosstabs use OR). Results: Risk factors of DHF mortality in Pamekasan District are children (OR = 2.05; 95% CI=0.59-7.04), low education (OR=1.16; 95% CI=0.30-4.46), history of dengue (OR=3.57;95%CI=1.09-11.66), comorbidities(OR=17.50; 95% CI=4.25-72.05), difficult access to health services (OR=3.10; 95% CI=0.79-12.09), delay in treatment (OR=5.20;95% CI=1.50-18.0), low income family (OR=1.16; 95% CI = 0.30-4.46) and low of family knowledge about dengue (OR = 7.00; 95% CI = 1.99-24.58). Meanwhile, protective factors are female (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.22-2.23) and rural (OR = 0.48 ; 95% CI = 0.13-1.73). Conclusion: Risk factors of DHF mortality in Pamekasan District (2018-2020) are the history of DHF, comorbidities, delay in treatment, and low family knowledge about DHF. ABSTRACTBackground: The incidence of dengue fever in Pamekasan District is still high. Mortality of dengue was always happen in Pamekasan District since 2016 to 2020. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of dengue mortality in Pamekasan District (2018-2020). Methods: This research was case-control study. The study was conducted from October 2020-June 2021 in Primary Health Care selected at Pamekasan District. Total sample was 54 cases. Data was collected by interviews and documentation study. Analysis using uinvariate and bivariate (OR test). Results: Based on the results of OR test, risk factors of dengue mortality in pamekasan district (2018-2020) are: children (OR = 2.05 ; 95% CI = 0.59-7.04), education ≤ 9 yeras (OR = 1.16; 95% CI= 0.30-4.46), history of dengue (OR= 3.57 ; 95% CI = 1.09-11.66), comorbidities (OR=17.50; 95% CI=4.25-72.05), difficult access to health services (OR=3.10; 95% CI=0.79-12.09), delay in treatment (OR=5.20 ; 95% CI = 1.50-18.0), low income family (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.30-4.46) and low of family knowledge about dengue (OR = 7.00; 95% CI = 1.99-24.58) while protective factors are : female (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.22-2.23) and rural areas (OR = 0.48 ; 95% CI = 0.13-1.73). Conclusion: Risk factors of dengue mortality in Pamekasan District (2018-2020) are history of dengue, comorbidities, delay in treatment and low of family knowledge about dengue.