Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 23017171 / 2541092X
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 321
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 94-102; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.94-102
Abstract:Background: An increase in diphtheria cases has occurred in East Java Province since 2011. The resistance level to diphtheria is considered as the most important cause. Purpose: The study aims analyzed the immunity level immunity to diphtheria in adolescents aged 16-18 years old in Bangkalan and Kediri Districts. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study, conducted on students in eleven grade of senior high schools (SMAN) from both districts. The inclusion criteria included being 16-18 years old and students in eleven grades of senior high schools in Bangkalan and Kediri. This study was approved by their parents/guardians. The exclusion criteria included immunocompromised students and those who have a history of diphtheria infection. The data were obtained from 204 samples, 89 samples in Bangkalan, and 115 samples in Kediri. The antidiphtheria antibodies examination was carried out by the Vero cell method. The antibodies levels were grouped according to WHO standard, consist of vulnerable, basic, full, and long-term. Further analysis was done with 2 tiers of immunity, consist of immune and vulnerable. Results: The immunization coverage for basic and booster diphtheria vaccine is better in Kediri than in Bangkalan. In contrast, levels of antibodies samples in Bangkalan District is better. The participants who were immune in Bangkalan were higher than those in Kediri (91% vs. 44.3%). Conclusion: The immunity adolescents of Bangkalan is higher than in adolescent Kediri District. The adolescents in Kediri have a greater risk to get infected by the disease
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 112-119; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.112-119
Abstract:Background: The highest new case of leprosy in Indonesia was occupied by East Java Province for four consecutive years, with the number of new leprosy patients as many as 3880 in 2017. Purpose: This study aims to determine the characteristics of individual factors and risks factor for new leprosy cases. Methods: This research is observational analytic research with case control research design. The population of the case is new lepers that were diagnosed since January-September 2018. Meanwhile, the control population is skin poli patients who have not been diagnosed with leprosy and tuberculosis. Sampling technique used was simple random sampling. Variables studied were individual characteristics (age, gender, income) and individual risk factors including immunization status, contact history and population status. Results: Majority of the (57.90%) case respondents never received BCG immunization. 78.90% of the respondents case had history of contact with lepers before. 89.50% of respondents in cases and controls were permanent residents in Mojokerto Regency. Results of analysis of immunization status and contact history has significant influence to the new leprosy case. Status of not having BCG immunization (OR= 5.16; 95% CI= 1.23
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 103-111; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.103-111
Abstract:Background: East Java Province is the region with the highest incidence of diphtheria in Indonesia. In the past three years, the number of diphtheria cases amounted to 758 cases and resulted in three mortalities. Objective: This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics and diphtheria immunization status of patients in East Java province in 2018. Methods: This study employed descriptive research with cross-sectional design. This study utilized secondary data of publication profiles from the East Java Provincial Health Office in 2018. The population was the entire diphtheria patients in East Java province, 2018. The samples were taken by using the total population sampling technique. The variables in this study were epidemiological characteristic and immunization status of diphtheria patients. The data analysis employed a univariate analysis by providing the frequency table. Results: Based on the records, diphtheria infected the children more often but, in 2018, it was also found in adults. This circumstance is proven by the findings that the patients were aged ≥19 years (33.11%) and were males (50.60%). In 2018, diphtheria patients number experienced an increase and decrease fluctuatingly as well as quite prevalence in some areas in the province of East Java. Diphtheria patients were predominanted by incomplete immunization status and unimmunized patients. Conclusion: The completeness status of diphtheria immunization has a very important role in the incidence of diphtheria cases in East Java Province in 2018, particularly the status of patients who is not complete and unimmunized.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 147-154; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.147-154
Abstract:Background: Umrah pilgrims have a high potential risk of getting infected by Meningococcus Meningitis . Even though meningitis cases had never happened in Indonesia, The vaccination carried out less than 14 days in the Port Health Office Class I of Surabaya (PHO) was still found in December 2018. Purpose: The research aims to analyze the accuracy of Meningococcus Meningitis immunization in the Port Health Office Class I Surabaya (PHO) at Tanjung Perak Port Work Area in December 2018. Methods: The research was carried out in a quantitative descriptive study with a cross-sectional study design. The research samples included all Umrah pilgrims who were vaccinated with Meningococcus Meningitis immunization. The variables consisted of age, time-range of vaccination implementation, gender, and domicile/residence of respondents. The data analysis was carried out using univariate analysis and displayed in the form of a frequency table. Results: This study indicated that almost all pilgrims were vaccinated in more than or equal to 14 days (76%). Meanwhile, the others (24%) were vaccinated at less than 14 days, i.e., at 5-6 days before departure. The majority of pilgrims with a history of vaccinations on less than 14 days of departure were female (56.12%) and lived in Surabaya (55.27%). Conclusion: The majority of the pilgrims in PHO Class I of Surabaya had carried out Meningococcus Meningitis vaccination promptly. However, a small number of pilgrims did not carry out vaccinations under the specified time. Female pilgrims, mostly domiciled in Surabaya, dominated the vaccination on less than 14 days.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 137-146; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.137-146
Abstract:Background: The number of Umrah pilgrims is three times higher than hajj pilgrims. The Hajj pilgrims’ welfare can be monitored through an established surveillance system, while Umrah pilgrims’ welfare hasn’t had a surveillance system. Purpose: This study aims to develop an Umrah pilgrims’ health surveillance system in the Port Health Office (PHO)Class I of Surabaya. Method: This research was a descriptive study conducted at Port Health Office Class I of Surabaya in February-August 2018. The data was collected by in-depth interviews. The informants were the officers of Surabaya Port Health Office Class I, the Hajj Guidance Group (KBIH), and the operational manager of Umrah airline. The research variables were data collection, analysis, reports, reports of extraordinary conditions, dissemination, and utilization of results at the Port Health Office (PHO) Class I of Surabaya Results: The general objective of Umrah pilgrims’ health surveillance system is the availability of epidemiological information on Umrah pilgrims’. The data collection was conducted actively and passively on the departure, in Saudi Arabia, and on arrival. The data analysis and interpretation aim to determine the frequency, distribution or proportion of Umrah pilgrims based on demographics, disease history, vaccination status and suspected findings. The information obtained was disseminated to the internal party of PHO Class I of Surabaya, stakeholders across sectors or programs and communities. System evaluation uses the attribute approach and takes place once a year. Conclusion: The system is developed based on the components of data collection, data processing, data analysis and interpretation, and dissemination
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 155-162; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.155-162
Abstract:Background: The total estimates of people living with depression have increased by 2% from 2005 to 2015. Depression cases can be managed by screening for depression that has good validity. Purpose: This study aims to assess the validity of a depression screening instrument and provide suggestions for the development of depression screening programs. Methods: This study used an analytic observational study and the design study was a cross- sectional approach. The data were analyzed and presented in a descriptive manner. The sample size was 57 adolescents in senior high school. This screening used The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire for instrument screening and Zung Self Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire for gold standard. The screening was performed with interviews according to questionnaire guideline. The final screening evaluation was conducted by a psychologist. Results: The interview conducted using the screening instrument guideline gathered 47 respondents (82.46%) who have the tendency of depression and the gold standard showed 1 respondent (1.75%) who has the tendency of depression, while the prevalence based on the gold standard was 1.75%. The results of the validity test showed sensitivity 1 (100%), specifications 0.17 (17.85%), negative predictions 1 (100%), and positive predictions of 0.02 (2.12%). Conclusion: The validity result of screening instrument is not good enough. The weakness of this study is the results cannot be applied widely
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 85-93; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.85-93
Abstract:Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a non-communicable disease that causes the highest mortality in the world, including in Indonesia. Risk factors for CHD are divided into modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors. Purpose: This study aims to discover the description of risk factors that are modifiable in coronary heart disease patients at Dr Soetomo Regional Public Hospital. Methods: It was a descriptive observational study with cross sectional study design. The study population was coronary heart disease patients who were doing outpatient treatment at the Integrated Heart Service Center (PPJT) of Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital. The number of study sample was 72 respondents using accidental sampling technique. Data sources used are primary data using questionnaires and secondary data using medical record. Data were collected during November 2018. The location of this study was Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital. The data analysis technique chosen was univariate analysis and presented in the form of a frequency distribution table. Results: The results of the study showed that the characteristics of respondents were mostly between 56-65 years old (43,05%) and male (70,84%). Risk factors found on the respondents were smoking (84,72%), hypertension (72,22%), hyperlipidemia (68,05%), diabetes mellitus (81,94%) and poor physical activity (77,77%). Conclusion: Modifiable risk factor that was mostly found on coronary heart patients was smoking, while least one was hiperlipidemia.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 163-171; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.163-171
Abstract:Background: During 2017 to 2018, 168 polio cases were found globally that caused an increase of awareness towards the emergence of poliovirus in Indonesia. AFP surveillance was the primary strategy to overcome global polio. Therefore, the understanding of the epidemiological characteristics becomes very important to improve the success of AFP surveillance systems. Purpose: This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics and types of diagnosis of AFP cases in Surabaya from 2014 to 2017. Method: This study was a descriptive study with a case series design. Data sources utilized was secondary data from AFP surveillance report of Surabaya City Health Office from 2014 to 2017. Results: Total AFP cases in Surabaya from 2014 to 2017 recorded 54 cases with annual AFP Non-Polio Incidence rate of approximately 3.85/100,000 children aged
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 129-136; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.129-136
Abstract:Background: Most women in Indonesia have experienced dysmenorrhea (54.89%). One of the factors that influence dysmenorrhea is low preventive measures carried out by women such as lack of exercise activity, genetic background, and consumption of fast food. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the correlation between exercise activity, genetic background, and fast food consumption and dysmenorrhea. Method: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional research design. The research population included the students of Public Health Faculty who had menstruated. The samples were 108 respondents chosen by random sampling technique. The variables examined in this study were genetic background, exercise activity, and fast food consumption and the occurrence of dysmenorrhea. Data collection was carried out in February 2019. The research location was at the Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya. The data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis based on the chi-square test results. Result: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea experienced by students of Public Health Faculty was 65.70%. The test results showed no correlation between exercise activity and dysmenorrhea (p = 0.47), there was a correlation between dysmenorrhea and genetic background (p = 0.01) and there was no correlation between consumption of fast food and dysmenorrhea (p = 0.53). Conclusion: The study shows the there is a correlation between genetic background and dysmenorrhea. On the other hand, there is no correlation between exercise activity and the consumption of fast food with the occurrence of dysmenorrhea.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 7, pp 120-128; doi:10.20473/jbe.v7i22019.120-128
Abstract:Background: East Java Province is the second highest province with pneumonia cases among under-five children totalling 69.17% of all the discovery target of pneumonia cases in 2016. One factor causing pneumonia is severe malnutrition (nutritional status with body weight index according to age which is equal to Zscore < -3 SD). Purpose: This study is aimed at analyzing the correlation between severe malnutrition number and pneumonia cases among under five-year old children per regency/city in East Java. Methods: This type of research was an analytical observational study using a population correlational design. This study used the total population of the number of pneumonia cases and severe malnutrition cases among under five-year old children from all regencies/cities in East Java in 2015-2017. The test used was the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as a data normality test and Spearman's correlation test to determine whether there was a correlation. Results: This study showed a positive correlation between the number of severe malnutrition and the number of pneumonia cases among under five-year old children per regency/city in East Java (p = < 0.01, p < 0.05) with a moderate correlation (Spearman’s correlation = 0.41). Conclusion: The number of severe malnutrition cases has a positive correlation with the number of pneumonia cases among under five-year old children per regency/city in East Java in 2015-2017. Effective countermeasures of severe malnutrition are likely to help reduce the number of pneumonia cases among children under five years of age per regency/city in East Java.