Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 2301-7171 / 2541-092X
Current Publisher: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 380
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 96-104; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.96-104
Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a health problem in East Java. Opportunistic infections are one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in Indonesia. Purpose: This study aimed to describe the characteristics and opportunistic infections of AIDS patients in East Java Province, 2018. Methods: This study was conducted as observational descriptive research, and a survey was used as the research design. The research location was in East Java Provincial Health Office, and the study was carried out in August 2019. We used secondary data taken from the results of surveillance of AIDS patients in 2018. The sampling method of the study was total sampling, with 1,138 AIDS patients. The variables studied included the patients’ characteristics (sex, age, type of work, and risk factors) as well as the number and types of opportunistic infections. Results: The majority of the AIDS patients in East Java in this sample were male (70.74%), belonged to the adults (26–45 years old) group (62.65%), and worked as employees/laborers (46.08%). In terms of sexual orientation, the majority were heterosexuals (81.81%) or homosexuals (10.63%). The majority of patients experienced one type of opportunistic infection (46.08%), with histoplasmosis (48.77%) and tuberculosis (TB) (42.62%) as the most frequently experienced opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Characteristics that are risk factors for contracting AIDS in East Java include being male, being of adult age, working as an employee/laborer, and being heterosexual. There are also risks of opportunistic infections, particularly histoplasmosis and TB.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 18-25; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.18-25
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease caused by the occurrence of airflow limitation in the lungs and also causes 60% of all deaths in Indonesia. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the risk factors that affect the incidence of COPD in Indonesia. Methods: This study was conducted in July–August 2019 in Indonesia as an analytic research study with a cross-sectional design, using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey-5. The sample consisted of respondents aged >15 years, giving a total of 34,231 respondents. Data analysis was partially carried out using the chi-square test to analyze the relationships between the variables. Results: The majority of respondents were female, were aged 40 years (p = 0.02; PR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.02–1.41), male gender (p = 0.01; PR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.07–1.49), smoking (p = 0.01; PR = 1.22 ; 95% CI = 1.03–1.44), first smoking age < 40 years (p = 0.02; PR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.03–1.44), residence in urban areas (p = 0.01; PR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.20–1.70), being underweight (p = 0.01; PR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.66). Conclusions: The risk factors that affect the incidence of COPD include being aged >40 years, being male, smoking, taking up smoking when aged
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 54-61; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.54-61
Background: Pneumonia is an ongoing public health problem in Indonesia, ranking as the second most prevalent disease in South Tangerang. Purpose: This study aimed to examine the physical housing environment characteristics in relation to pneumonia occurrence rates among children under-five years of age in South Tangerang City. Method: This research was carried out as a quantitative study with a case-control study design. The population consisted of children under five who were diagnosed with pneumonia at Public Health Center (PHC) of Pamulang and PHC of Ciputat Timur between January 2017 and March 2018. The data were analyzed using the chi-square statistical test. Results: The following characteristics of the housing environment were shown to be associated with pneumonia are bad routines of opening windows (p = 0.00; OR = 11; 95% CI = 2.59–46.78), location of the kitchen is in similar area with other rooms (p = 0.04; OR = 4.03; 95% CI = 1.20–13.53), unqualified humidity in the house (p = 0.05; OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.18–12.60), unqualified light intensity in the house (p = 0.01; OR = 9.04; 95% CI = 1.74–46.89), unqualified ventilation area (p = 0.02; OR = 4.50; 95% CI = 1.38–14.82), and unqualified occupancy (p = 0.03; OR = 4.84; 95% CI = 1.29–18.26). Conclusion: The community needs to maintain the physical environment in their houses, such as by opening the windows in the morning so that light comes in and the house does not get damp.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 70-78; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.70-78
Background: Psoriasis Vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects patients’ quality of life. Methotrexate is the first-line and most effective systemic therapy in psoriasis vulgaris management. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical improvement after methotrexate therapy and any adverse effects of methotrexate therapy in psoriasis vulgaris management. Methods: The data for this descriptive, retrospective study were retrieved from the medical records of 22 psoriasis vulgaris patients who were treated with methotrexate therapy between January 2017 and June 2018 in the Child Kemuning Ward (IRNA), Dr. Soetomo General Hospital in Surabaya, East Java. Results: Data for a total of 22 subjects were collected for this study. The majority of the subjects were in the age group 25–59, and the average age was 40.50±17.20. Good clinical improvement (decrease in the body surface area of the lesion) was found in all patients. The adverse effects of methotrexate were evaluated based on the elevation of liver and renal function test levels. An elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels was found in 11 patients, and an elevation in alanine aminotransferase levels was found in 13 patients. Elevated blood urea nitrogen levels were found in eight patients, and elevated serum creatinine levels were found in four patients. Conclusion: Methotrexate is an effective treatment for severe psoriasis vulgaris management when administered with careful selection and regular monitoring of patients. Application of methotrexate therapy in accordance with the guidelines remains suitable for psoriasis vulgaris management with vigilance regarding methotrexate’s adverse effects.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 36-43; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.36-43
Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) remain one of the main occupational hazards among health care workers (HCWs) that lead to blood-borne pathogen exposure. Purpose: This study examined the risk factors for NSIs among HCWs at a tertiary referral hospital in Bali. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, involving 171 HCWs, divided into 81 cases and 90 control subjects. The sample was selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results: The majority of respondents had experienced NSIs once, in the morning shift, and had affected an individual’s hands. The most frequent activity leading to NSIs was giving an injection and most of the situations causing NSIs involved accidental self-action, and recapping needles. Factors associated with the incidence of NSIs were work career or experience of
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 44-53; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.44-53
Background: Health in the elderly does not merely refer to a condition free from disease but should also have elements regarding functionality and independence. Purpose: This study aimed to measure Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and to identify the factors affecting ADLs among the elderly population in Sleman District. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using secondary data from the Multidimensional Elderly Care project, nested on the Health Demographic and Surveillance System in Sleman, involving 549 elderly participants. The independence of these elderly people was measured using an Activities of Daily Living Scale questionnaire. Factors measured were cognitive (using the Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaire), psychological (using the Geriatric Depression Scale or Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia questionnaires), economic (using the Financial Management Behavior Scale questionnaire), and nutritional status (using the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire). The data were analyzed using the chi-square test, Fisher test, and Poisson test for bivariate analysis, while multivariate analysis using a logistic regression test. Results: The prevalence of elderly dependence was 14.03%. Elderly dependence was significantly related to age, job, residence, financial management, dementia, depression, malnutrition, and stroke disease in the bivariate analysis. However, after multivariate analysis, only age (>86 years) (PR = 4.31; 95% CI = 1.91–9.72), malnutrition (PR = 6.62; 95% CI = 3.79–11.57), and stroke (PR = 3.06; 95% CI = 2.03–4.61) were still shown to be related to elderly dependence. Conclusion: Increasing age, malnutrition, and stroke in elderly people lead to higher dependency in their ADLs.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 79-87; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.79-87
Background: Jombang District is an endemic area of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Purpose: The aim of this study was to spatially analyze various factors simultaneously (multivariate analysis) in relation to the incidence of DHF in Jombang District during the period 2014–2018. The factors studied were population density, larvae free index, rainfall, coverage of healthy homes, and healthy lifestyle coverage. Methods: The research was conducted as an observational study with an ecology research design. The data were secondary data from the Health Office and Statistic Central Bureau of Jombang District. The population consisted of 21 sub-districts in Jombang District in 2014–2018. The sample used the total population. The data analysis tool used in this study was GeoDa regression Moran's I software. Results: The bivariate analysis showed that there was a correlation between larvae free index (p = 0.04), healthy lifestyle coverage (p = 0.02), rainfall intensity (p = 0.20), population density (p = 0.07), and coverage of healthy houses (p = 0.22) with DHF incidence. According to Moran's I for spatial dependence (multivariate analysis), showed that there was a correlation between all the variables and DHF (p = 0.03). Conclusions: The variables of larvae free index and healthy lifestyle coverage related to the Incidence Rate (IR) of DHF cases. There was no correlation between IR and variable population density, rainfall, or coverage of healthy homes. Various spatial factors are simultaneously related to IR, even though only two variables are shown to be related to IR in the bivariate analysis.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 26-35; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.26-35
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most severe global health problems. The World Health Organization recommends the application of and compliance with infection control measures, one of which is cough etiquette to prevent transmission of pathogenic droplets. Purpose: The aim of the current research was to determine the effectiveness of cough etiquette counseling on changes in the knowledge, behavior, and awareness of patients with confirmed and suspected TB at Public Health Center (PHC) of C in K city. Methods: This research was designed as a pre-experimental study and was conducted in July 2018. The target population of the research comprised TB patients who were being treated in PHC of C in K city. The inclusion criteria were patients at PHC of C in K city with confirmed TB recorded between January and June 2018 and those with suspected TB reported between May and June 2018. This research was analyze based on univariable and bivariable analysis using T-testing and Wilcoxon testing. Results: There were significant differences in knowledge changes before and after cough etiquette counseling (mean difference = 3.72; p < 0.00). There was a significant difference in behavior before and after counseling (mean difference = 1.12; p = 0.04). There was also a significant difference in awareness before and after counseling (mean difference = 5.89; p < 0.00). Conclusion: Changes in knowledge, behavior, and awareness were observed in confirmed and suspected TB patients after cough etiquette counseling.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 88-95; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.88-95
Background: Based on the Indonesia basic health research report in 2018, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the productive age group in Indonesia had increased from the previous year, to 1.97%. This condition can cause various complications that contribute to the high morbidity, which affects quality of life and productivity, so risk factors for CKD need to be understood to prevent the occurrence of the disease. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with CKD in the Indonesian productive-age population. Method: This study used data sourced from Indonesian Family Life Survey 5 (IFLS-5) with a cross-sectional research design. The study population was composed of all Indonesian residents who were respondents of IFLS-5. The research sample was made up of respondents aged 15–64 for whom complete information was available. The sample size was 29,120 respondents. The variables analyzed in this study were diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, and CKD. The analysis method used was the chi-square test. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between CKD and diabetes (p = 0.01; prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.74–4.22), hypertension (p = 0.01; PR = 2.62; 95% CI = 2.08–3.30), obesity (p = 0.01; PR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.25–2.23), and smoking (p = 0.01; PR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.17–1.75) in the productive age group in Indonesia. Conclusion: Diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and smoking have a significant relationship with CKD in the productive age group in Indonesia.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 62-69; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i12021.62-69
Background: Immunization success rates can be determined by several factors. The factors that can cause occurrences of immunization preventable disease (PD3I) cases include the quality of the cold chain and invalid doses of immunization medicines. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze the implementation of cold chain management in the city of Surabaya. Methods: This research was conducted as a descriptive study with a cross-sectional research design. The population consisted of all primary health care centers in the city of Surabaya, and the data used were secondary data, guided by interviews with informants. Results: The majority of cold chain management personnel were found to have a medical education background of 98.42%, and primary health care workers have received cold chain-related training (100%). All primary health care equipment has a 100% cold chain. The completeness of cold chain reporting was 93.51%, and the accuracy of the cold chain reporting was 71.52%. Regarding the quality of the equipment, some vaccine refrigerators were found 12% of vaccine refrigerators were found not to be in optimal condition, and 14% of temperature monitoring devices was not activated. Conclusion: The implementation of cold chain management in public health center and the availability of equipment in the Surabaya City are going well, although there are still some problems such as undisciplined reporting and inadequate quality of tools for cold chain implementation as well as the discovery of vaccine refrigerators easily leaks, and their temperature can rise easily.