Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 23017171 / 2541092X
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 356
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 156-163; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.156-163
Background: Dental caries in children is a common multifactorial dental health problem. There are some important risk factors in the incidence of dental caries in children. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of dental caries and the relationship between risk factors and dental caries in 7th grade students in Rembang, Central Java. Method: An observational research design was applied, through the use of a cross-sectional study. The study population was 574, with a total sample of 75 respondents. The research sample was determined using a random sampling method. The locations of this research are SMPN 1 Lasem and SMPN 2 Rembang, Rembang, Central Java. This study was conducted between May and August 2018. Data collection techniques included dental examination for dental caries and a questionnaire to determine the risk factors. Analysis of the study was conducted via a chi-square statistical test. Results: Of the respondents, 46.67% had active caries. There was a relationship between a history of caries and a current caries incidence (p = 0.01) and between the time of toothbrushing and caries incidence in grade 7 junior high school students in Rembang Regency, Central Java (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A previous history of caries and the time of toothbrushing have a relationship with the incidence of dental caries in 7th grade junior high school students in Rembang Regency, Central Java.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 100-108; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.100-108
Background: The percentage of cesarean deliveries in Indonesia increased from 12% in 2012 to 17% in 2017. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the factors that influenced the rate of cesarean deliveries in Indonesia in 2017. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design, gathering secondary data from the Indonesian Health Demographic Survey (IDHS) in 2017. The sample included mothers who gave birth to their last child in Indonesia in the last five years; a survey was conducted after respondents with missing data were excluded. The selection of samples was based on the availability of data in the IDHS 2017 dataset (8,683 respondents). A stratified two-stage sampling method was used. Data were gathered through a household questionnaire and a women of childbearing age questionnaire. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using the chi-squared test and a simple logistic regression. Results: The factors that influenced the rate of cesarean section deliveries in Indonesia in 2017 were birth attendants (p value = 0.01; PR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.88–3.38), number of Antenatal Care (ANC) visits (p=0.02; PR=1.23; 95%CI=1.03–1.47), low wealth index (p=0.02; PR=0.89; 95%CI=0.81–0.98), place of delivery (p=0.01; PR=0.87; 95%CI=0.81–0.94), and ANC provider (p=0.01; PR=0.57; 95%CI=0.53–0.62). The results of the analyses also obtained confounding factors; namely, parity and birth interval. Conclusion: Factors that influenced cesarean delivery in Indonesia in 2017 were a low wealth index, number of ANC visits, ANC provider, place of delivery, and birth attendants.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 117-124; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.117-124
Background: Low public awareness of the impact of smoking makes the implementation of smoke-free areas (KTR) difficult. Smoke-free areas aim to protect the public from the direct and indirect effects of smoking. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the application of smoke-free areas and the prevalence of active and ex-smokers in Indonesia. Method: This study implemented a cross-sectional design, using secondary data from the Riskesdas 2018 on active and ex-smokers. KTR application data were obtained from the Profile of Non-Communicable Diseases in 2016. A Pearson product-moment test was conducted by a computer application to determine the correlation coefficient (r). This coefficient was used to describe the level of correlation between the two variables; significance was determined as a p value of 5%. Results: This study showed that the average application of KTR throughout Indonesia was 50.83%, active smokers comprised 23.49% of the population, and ex-smokers comprised 4.94%. Most active smokers were in Java and Sumatra, while the majority of ex-smokers were in Java and Sulawesi and the majority of KTR was in Java. This study shows that there is a positive correlation between KTR application and the percentage of ex-smokers (r = 0.46; p value = 0.01). Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between the application of KTR and an increase in ex-smokers. The government needs to increase the application of KTR policies.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 181-189; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.181-189
Background: Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is a type of disease that is still not widely understood, but is often experienced by tobacco farmers. The duration and frequency of contact, the work procedures associated with wet tobacco, and individual vulnerability are risk factors for GTS. Purpose: This study aimed to measure the factors associated with incidences of GTS in tobacco farmers in Jember, Indonesia, to contribute to the prevention of GTS. Method: The research design used case-control. This research was conducted in Jember District, within a group of tobacco farmers. The case group included farmers who experienced GTS and the control group included farmers who did not experience GTS. The study measured age, sex, nutritional status, passive smoking status, alcohol consumption status, subjective complaints, individual hygiene, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) attitudes, OHS actions, use of personal protective equipment, principal occupation, extra work, type of tobacco leaf, length of service, length of work-rest period, and workload. The study population were tobacco farmers. The sample size was determined using the Lemeshow sampling formula for case-control. The sampling technique was simple random sampling. Data analysis was conducted using chi-squared tests. Results: Variables related to GTS cases in tobacco farmers were sex (p = 0.01) and nutritional status (p = 0.03). There were no significant occupational factors. Conclusion: Factors that influence GTS are sex and nutritional status.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 149-155; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.149-155
Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that can cause death. Ambon City is a city in Indonesia with a fairly high dog population of 62,613; we found 3,444 bite cases and 747 positive results from dog brain specimens between 2014 and 2018. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the knowledge of dog owners and the role of health workers in preventing rabies in Ambon City. Method: This research used a quantitative design within a cross-sectional study. There were two groups of respondents: the dog owner population and the health worker population. The population of dog owners was 4,509 and the sample was 113. The health worker population and sample size was 22. The research began with the preparation, implementation, and writing stages. The data sources were both primary and secondary. Primary data were obtained at the time of the study and secondary data were obtained from the Ambon City Health Office, Ambon City Agriculture and Food Security Service, and Ambon City Health Centers. Results: There was a relationship of statistical significance between dog owner knowledge and rabies prevention (p = 0.01) and a significant relationship between the role of health workers and rabies prevention (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Dog owner knowledge and the role of health workers have a relationship with efforts to prevent rabies.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 109-116; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.109-116
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients are vulnerable to a decreasing nutritional status. Nutritional status is one of the factors that can affect body mass, which correlates with handgrip strength. Purpose: This study aims to describe the body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength profiles of HIV and AIDS inpatients. Method: A cross-sectional design was used in this observational study. The population were HIV and AIDS inpatients between August and September 2018. The patients were selected using a purposive sampling technique; 16 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. Primary data were collected via questionnaire and measuring handgrip strength, while secondary data were collected from the patients’ medical records. A descriptive test was used for the analysis. Results: Most of the HIV and AIDS inpatients were male (81.25%), were between 20 and 39 years old (75.00%), were employed (50.00%), had a middle education level (62.50%), had been hospitalized for four to five days (categorized as a short length of stay; 75.00%), had been diagnosed with HIV for five years or more (87.50%), and were in the third HIV clinical stage (68.75%). The HIV and AIDS inpatients had an average BMI of 19.19±2.48 kg/m2; with 18.75% severely underweight patients, 25% mildly underweight patients, and no overweight patients. The average handgrip strength was 20.58±10.6 kg and 43.75% of patients were classified as having a low handgrip strength. Conclusion: Malnutrition still leads to nutritional problems in HIV and AIDS inpatients.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 164-171; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.164-171
Background: West Sumatra is a target area for malaria elimination in 2020; the Annual Parasite Incidence (API) in Padang City increased from 0.12 per 1000 inhabitants to 0.13 per 1000 inhabitants between 2015 and 2016. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effect of factors contributing to malaria events based on the environmental and behavioral conditions of people in Padang City. Method: This is a quantitative study using a case-control approach. The research was conducted in Padang from August 2017 until January 2018. The case-control study was conducted on a sample of 62 people, consisting of 31 cases and 31 controls. Cases were identified through random sampling and controls were selected by purposive sampling. Data collection was via observation and questionnaires and both univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Descriptively, malaria patients were more likely to live in at-risk physical conditions at home (74.12%), had a history of visiting endemic areas (41.90%), did not use mosquito repellent equipment (58%), and had the habit of being outdoors at night (32.28%). Statistical tests showed the risk factors for the incidence of malaria were the physical condition of the house (OR = 3.43; 95% CI 1.20–9.20) and a history of visiting endemic areas (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.20–394). Conclusion: Environmental and behavioral factors affect the incidence of malaria. It is recommended that the Padang City Health Office provide counseling through health promotion officers about healthy homes and advise people not to go to endemic areas.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 125-133; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.125-133
Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms consisting of physical, psychological, and behavioral disorders that can occur in women before menstruation and can be triggered or aggravated by factors such as their degree of stress and physical activity. Purpose: This research aimed to analyze the relationship between degree of stress and physical activity and premenstrual syndrome occurrence in female students. Method: This study used analytical observational research with a cross-sectional research design. Female students of the S1 Public Health class of 2016-2019 were used as the sample (n = 93) in this research. Sampling was conducted via the simple random sampling technique. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square testing. The research was conducted between August and September of 2019 at the Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga. Results: Severe to extreme symptoms felt most often by respondents were muscle and joint pain, abdominal pain, and irritability. The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome with moderate to severe symptoms in female students of the S1 Public Health class was 46.24% and the prevalence of stressed female students was 70.97%. Statistical test results showed a relationship between the degree of stress and premenstrual syndrome occurrence (p = 0.01) and a relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome occurrence (p = 0.04). Statistical tests also showed no relationship between the age of menarche and premenstrual syndrome occurrence (p = 0.50). Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between degree of stress and physical activity and premenstrual syndrome occurrence.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 190-199; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.190-199
Background: Healthy houses in developing countries are a critical factor in human health, as the increase in population is not balanced by improvements in local community welfare. This has negative impacts on the environment and human health. Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify unhealthy houses in Kerinci, Indonesia. Method: This research used a descriptive cross-sectional approach. A survey of 122 houses was conducted to determine the characteristics of houses in Kerinci District, Jambi Province, Indonesia. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain representative healthy house data, by using four repetitions on each single question to minimize errors. Results: The results showed that 90% of respondents had a high occupant density. A high number of diseases were already experienced by residents in the area. These diseases were an indication that the area could be classified as unhealthy and included diarrhea (20%), acute respiratory infections (ARI; 13%), malaria (10%), skin diseases (15%), and other diseases (29%). Only 12% of the total respondents reported having no diseases. Conclusion: In the Kerinci District, 98% of houses were classified as unhealthy and as having potentially negative impacts on the health of residents. We recommend the government establish regulations to improve the health of houses and increase economic growth in Kerinci District, Indonesia.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 134-140; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i22020.134-140
Background: Over the past two decades, a high body mass index (BMI) has become the world’s largest public health concern. There have been numerous studies suggesting that breakfast patterns and lifestyle choices are associated with an individual’s BMI. Purpose: This research aims to describe the distribution of breakfast patterns and lifestyle choices according to BMI in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Method: This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. The respondents in this study are people who live in Shah Alam, Malaysia, and are between the ages of 18 and 35 years old. The instrument used is a questionnaire. Results: The data shows that the majority of respondents who were obese (28.24%) were non-smokers (14.62%), never drank alcohol (15.95%), had not exercised in the past two weeks (17.28%), slept six to eight hours per day (17.28%), and had a pattern of skipping breakfast (23.92%). On other hand, the majority of respondents who were in the normal BMI range (34.55%) were non-smokers (29.57%), never drank alcohol (30.56%), slept six to eight hours per day (18.94%), and had a pattern of eating breakfast (20.60%). Conclusion: Obesity is more common in people who skip breakfast, as weight gain occurs because of unhealthy food choices made to replace breakfast. An unhealthy lifestyle also contributes to a high BMI, including smoking, alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle.