Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 2301-7171 / 2541-092X
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 368
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.200-207
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Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 275-282; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.275-282
Background: A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection rates is followed by high rates of TB infection in children. The TB Preventive Treatment (TPT) for children with Isoniazid (INH) is one of the primary activities to improve TB cases by finding them early to prevent the transmission of TB to children. Purpose: This study aimed to describe the implementation of TPT with prophylactic INH among children in Surabaya. Methods: This research was a descriptive observational study with a case series design using secondary data on the provision of TPT in children, child TB cases in Surabaya City in 2016–2018, and a network of partnerships with hospitals/clinics/doctors’ private practices for the prevention and control of TB in the city of Surabaya in 2016–2018 as the population. The data were collected by in-depth interviews with the holders of the TB prevention and control program of Surabaya. The data were analyzed by comparing and describing the targets and achievements of the INH administration in children. Results: The implementation of INH for children in Surabaya is not optimal and has not reached the targets. The networking of health facilities with providers for the provision of TPT with INH for children is still low in Surabaya City. Conclusions: Delivery of INH for children in Surabaya has been implemented and has increased, however, it is not optimal because it has not reached the targeted districts/municipalities that determined.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 246-255; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.246-255
Background: The success of individual antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was determined by conducting a routine evaluation of the patients’ Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) count. The indicators used to measure the success of the HIV and AIDS treatment were mortality, mobility, and quality of life (QoL). Purpose: The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between clinical status (smoking status, duration of ARV therapy, the CD4 count, and body mass index [BMI]) and the QoL of patients with HIV and AIDS who were stable during treatment. Methods: This type of research was quantitative analytical research with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from September to November 2017. The study population was patients with HIV and AIDS in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. The research sample was taken by purposive sampling with the inclusion criteria being patients with HIV and AIDS who had been treated for ≥6 months with adherence ≥95% and who came directly to the hospital. Results: The majority of respondents were female (53.36%), junior/senior high school graduates (66.67%), married (62.22%), non-smoking (75.56%), had undergone ARV therapy for ±10 years (77.78%), and had a QoL in the adequate category (62.22%). The basic clinical status with a significant relationship with the respondents’ QoL were the CD4 count (p = 0.00) and BMI (p = 0.00). Conclusion: There was a relationship of the CD4 count and BMI with the QoL of the patients with HIV and AIDS.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 293-300; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.293-300
Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been occurring in Indonesia for more than 50 years, and there were 65,602 cases of it in 2018 alone. Sumenep District reported the 12th highest number of DHF cases (292) in East Java Province in 2018. Purpose: This research aims to describe DHF in Sumenep District in 2018. Methods: This research is a descriptive study employing a cross-sectional design. The data used in this research were secondary data gathered from the Sumenep Health Office in 2018. The variables observed in this research were the epidemiological characteristics included in the epidemiological triangle—people, place (region), and time. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the DHF case distribution, using a frequency table, among the people, place (region), and time variables. Results: Sumenep District is home to 1,085,227 citizens, with a population density of 518 people/km2. The number of DHF cases in Sumenep District was 292, with the highest concentration of cases in the age range of 5–14 years (47.30%); the most cases were also male (57.19%). DHF often occurred in sub-districts with high population density, and more commonly in January. Conclusion: Most of the Sumenep District’s DHF cases in 2018 were males in the age group of 5–14 years old.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 236-245; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.236-245
Background: Acne Vulgaris (AV) is one of the most common diseases in the field of dermatology and ranks as the eighth most prevalent disease worldwide. Early management of this potentially deforming skin disease may reduce the pathophysiological burden and improve the quality of life of patients. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pharmacotherapy for new patients with AV. Methods: This cross-sectional study used new patients with AV of the Cosmetic Division of the Outpatient Skin and Venereal Health Unit, Regional Public Hospital (RSUD) Dr. Soetomo, from January to December 2013 that were descriptively presented. The variable was the pharmacotherapy given. This study used secondary data collection by looking at the patients’ medical records. The variables studied were acne lesions and pharmacotherapy regimens, including the administration route and the medicine used. Results: The number of samples that met the inclusion criteria was 951 patients. Comedonal acne was most commonly given topical tretinoin. Papulopustular acne was most commonly given a topical combination of clindamycin and tretinoin, while acne conglobata was most commonly given a combination of topical clindamycin and tretinoin with oral doxycycline. Conclusion: The new patients with comedonal acne were mostly prescribed topical tretinoin pharmacotherapy. A pharmacotherapy combination of topical clindamycin and tretinoin was given to most new patients with papulopustular acne, whereas new patients with conglobata acne were given a pharmacotherapy combination of topical tretinoin and clindamycin with oral doxycycline.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 208-217; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.208-217
Background: Pandeglang, a district in Banten province, Indonesia, was the worst affected area of the Sunda Strait tsunami which occurred on 22nd December, 2018. Aside from threats of communicable disease outbreaks, the district faced the challenges of managing non-communicable diseases (NCD) in the community. Purpose: The aim of the study is to describe the post tsunami impact on cases of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the expected one-year projections of these diseases in the district of Pandeglang, Banten. Methods: In January 2019, we collected primary data from Pandeglang District Health Office (DHO) and 15 Public Health Centres (PHCs) that were heavily affected by the tsunami. Surveillance officers were also interviewed for their subjective opinions on disease projections in both the DHO and PHCs. Aggregated data of cases presenting to the PHCs for assistance were analysed in relation to the post tsunami period. The diseases of interest included hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Results: Reported cases of hypertension and diabetes mellitus increased a few days after the tsunami. For hypertension, the cases spiked on the 5th and 8th days, but for diabetes mellitus the spike came much later. Average cases of hypertension and diabetes mellitus per PHC were 62 and 3, respectively. At district and PHC level, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were considered as minor contributing factors to the morbidity and mortality in the affected communities. The projection of these diseases was optimistic after the first month. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volume of cases with hypertension and diabetes in the district of Pandeglang tended to be in the first few weeks post tsunami These diseases are projected to lessen in the second month after the disaster due to the recovery of local health services.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 228-235; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.228-235
Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death for children and is caused by pneumococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus bacteria. Exclusive breastfeeding and exposure to cigarette smoke are risk factors for pneumonia in children less than two years old. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding or exposure to cigarette smoke and pneumonia in children aged less than two years at Public Health Center (PHC) of Wates, Kediri District. Methods: This research employed analytic observational research using a case–control research design. The number of research samples used was 60, consisting of 30 case respondents and 30 control respondents. The samples were taken in the PHC of Wates, Kediri District’s working area in July 2019. The determination of the samples was carried out through simple random sampling. The data were analyzed using chi-square analysis. Results: The research variables related to pneumonia in children less than two years old at PHC of Wates, Kediri District were exclusive breastfeeding with Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.50 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.20–10.19), the age of the mothers of the two-year-old infants with OR = 0.19 (95% CI = 0.04–0.78), and the education of the mothers of children less than two years old with OR = 3.14 (95% CI = 1.07–9.27). Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding, maternal age, and mothers’ level of education are some of the risk factors for pneumonia. The suggestion from this research is to hold socialization in the form of pneumonia prevention, education on exclusive breastfeeding for mothers who have children under two years of age, and the dangers of smoking for children's health.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 256-264; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.256-264
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is still a global health problem. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in poor glycemic status, with factors that affect patients including long-term DM and medication compliance. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the risk factors of long-term DM and non-compliance with medication on the poor glycemic control status of patients with type 2 DM. Methods: This type of research used observational analysis with a case–control design. Samples were taken from patients with type 2 DM, with 40 cases and 40 controls. The criteria for sample inclusion were that the patients had a glycosylated hemoglobin level check, were willing to be research respondents, and could communicate well. The exclusion criterion was patients experiencing a drastic decline in health status during the study. The sampling technique used was consecutive sampling. This research was conducted at the Panti Wilasa Citarum Hospital in Semarang City from July to September 2019. The relationship and the risk of long-term DM and adherence to taking medication with glycemic status were tested using the chi-square test. Results: This study showed that a duration of DM >5 years (p = 0.01; Odss Ratio (OR) = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 < OR < 8.69) and non-compliance with taking medication (p = 0.02; OR = 3.15; 95% CI = 1.25 < OR < 7.93) are risk factors for poor glycemic status. Conclusion: Duration of DM >5 years and non-compliance with taking medication are risk factors for poor glycemic status in patients with type 2 DM.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 265-274; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.265-274
Background: Pinworm infection remains a global public health problem in Indonesia, with the highest prevalence in primary school–aged children. The government has made helminthiasis control efforts through annual deworming every six months, yet data on the enterobiasis prevalence and its risk factors are still limited. Purpose: This research aimed to determine the role of personal hygiene and anthelmintic or worm medicine consumption in the prevention of enterobiasis among primary school children. Methods: This research employed an analytic observational method with a cross-sectional design. The population used was primary school children in the Public Health Center (PHC) of Kaliwungu area, Kendal District, Central Java Province. The research sample was 150 students from first grade to third grade at 1 Primary Elementary School 1 Kutoharjo. The data sources were obtained from interviews of risk factors and perianal swab examinations. The data were analyzed by a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of pinworm infection among primary school children remains high (37.33%). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that there are three determinant variables of pinworm infections: not washing hands with soap before eating (p < 0.01; Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR) = 6.47; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.87 < POR < 14.59); not washing hands with soap after defecation (p = 0.01; POR = 3.36; 95% CI = 1.40 < POR < 8.05); and not consuming anthelmintic drugs within the past six months (p = 0.03; POR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.08 < POR < 5.50). Conclusion: Hand washing habits and annual deworming are important factors to prevent pinworm infections.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 8, pp 218-227; doi:10.20473/jbe.v8i32020.218-227
Background: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is one of the worst and most common complications of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). The mortality rate of HD patients with enterocolitis is still considered to be higher compared to that of those without enterocolitis. Purpose: This study aimed to identify and evaluate potential risk factors for HAEC development. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data from the medical records of HD patients treated from January 2015 to September 2018 at Regional Public Hospital (RSUD) Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya. The inclusion criteria were HD patients who had or had not experienced enterocolitis. The analysis was done by comparing the presence of risk factors between groups of HD patients with and without preoperative and/or postoperative HAEC. The results were presented as the median value and frequency. To evaluate further, a prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval was performed. The Mann–Whitney U test was also performed with a significance level of p < 0.05 for one factor: length of aganglionic intestinal segments. Results: This study showed that 12 of the 40 HD patients studied (30%) had experienced enterocolitis. The risk of developing HAEC was associated with patients who had a history of previous enterocolitis (PR 6.60 [2.94 < PR < 14.80]). Regarding surgical details, patients who had had surgery only once (31.30% compared to 14.30%), surgery with one surgical method (29.40% compared to 20.00%), and a primary procedure had a higher incidence of HAEC (29.40% compared to 27.30%). Conclusion: HD patients with a history of previous enterocolitis were found to have a higher risk of developing HAEC.