Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
ISSN / EISSN : 2301-7171 / 2541-092X
Current Publisher: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 392
Latest articles in this journal
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 140-147; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.140-147
Background: Malaria has caused high morbidity and mortality rates and has decreased the productivity of human resources and national development. Malaria is endemic in several districts in South Kalimantan. Purpose: This study aims to describe the malaria situation in South Kalimantan by examining the malaria cases, Case Fatality Rate (CFR), Annual Parasite Incidence (API), and Slide Parasite Rate (SPR) in the South Kalimantan Province during the period of 2010–2018. Method: This research was a descriptive study with the South Kalimantan population, who were at risk of getting malaria. This study adopted a total participation technique and included all the cases of malaria recorded in the electronic- Surveillance Information System of Malaria (e-SISMAL) data of South Kalimantan province in the period 2010–2018. The study used secondary data from the South Kalimantan Provincial Health Office during 2010–2018. The data included the number of malaria cases, morbidity, and the mortality rate of malaria. The data collected was analyzed using CFR, API, and the SPR formulae. Results: The number of malaria cases in South Kalimantan from 2010 to 2018 fluctuated. The highest number of malaria cases occurred in 2011, while a decreasing trend was observed up to 2018. At the same time, the number of deaths during 2012–2018 increased. The death rate from 2010–2018 decreased in South Kalimantan. Conclusion: The number of cases as well as deaths caused due to malaria in South Kalimantan continues to decrease. By 2025, all districts in South Kalimantan could be free from malaria.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 202-210; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.202-210
Background: The relationship between Tuberculosis (TB) and nutritional status is a significant one. Patients with TB who are underweight face a higher risk of death. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the factors related to the occurrence of being underweight among TB patients at the Public Health Center (PHC) in Perak Timur, Surabaya. Method: This was an analytical observational study and used a cross-sectional design. The sample for this research was 41 respondents, who were TB patients and were undergoing treatment at the PHC in Perak Timur, Surabaya. Data collection was done from March 2020 to June 2020. Primary data was collected by conducting interviews using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using a chi-square test. Results: The results indicated that, out of the 41 respondents, there were 21 respondents who were underweight (51.22%). Descriptively, underweight TB patients were more likely to be in the intensive phase of treatment (90%), have a low income (56.76%), have a low education status (65.38%), and be unemployed (59.38%), with PR=0.43 and 95%CI=0.76–9.38. The results of this research indicated a link between the treatment phase and TB patients being underweight (p=0.01; PR=2.33; 95% CI=1.43–3.79), the level of education attained by underweight TB patients (p=0.04; PR=0.41; 95% CI=0.17–0.99), and the income of underweight TB patients (p=0.04; PR=0.43; 95%CI=0.30–0.63). The results of this research indicated that there was a correlation between the work status and TB patients being underweight (p=0.07; PR=2.67; 95%CI=0.76–9.38). Conclusion: The treatment phase, education level and income are significantly related to TB patients being underweight.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 157-165; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.157-165
Background: Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection and the second leading cause of toddler deaths in Indonesia. Nutritional status, immunization status, and humidity in the house constitute risk factors for the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia. Purpose: The objective of this research is to analyze the determinants of nutritional status, immunization status, and air humidity against the incidence of pneumonia in toddlers in Jambi City. Methods: This was an observational study. A case-control design approach was adopted. The research location was the Public Health Center of Talang Bakung in Jambi City, which has the highest prevalence of pneumonia cases. This study was conducted from January 2019 to August 2019. The number of samples in this study was 66 toddlers, with a 1:1 ratio of cases. Data was collected using a multistage random sampling technique. Primary and secondary data obtained was analyzed with a logistic regression test method. Results: The highest proportion of pneumonia cases was observed in toddlers between the ages of 12 and 35 months (75.76%). The proportion of female toddlers was 57.58%, with the number of siblings being ≥1 (93.94%). The proportion of people who completed secondary level maternal education was 60.61%, which was higher than the proportion of people who completed secondary level paternal education (54.55%). The employment status of fathers was 96.97%. Underweight status was associated with pneumonia (AOR=5.81; 95%CI=1.07–31.68). Inadequate air humidity was associated with the incidence of pneumonia (AOR=7.37; 95%CI=1.80–30.13). Conclusion: Nutritional status and air humidity were identified as determinants of pneumonia in toddlers in Jambi city.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 175-183; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.175-183
Background: Hypertension is still a major health problem in the world. One of the factors causing hypertension is exposure to cigarette smoke. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and the incidence of hypertension in housewives in houses in Dampit village. Methods: This research adopted an analytical observational approach. This was a cross-sectional design study. The population for this study was all housewives in Dampit village in March 2020. A total number of 115 housewives was selected using the cluster proportional random sampling technique. The dependent variable was the incidence of hypertension; the independent variables were the duration of cigarette smoke exposure in houses, the number of instances contact was made by being in close proximity to smokers, and the contact duration with smokers. Data collection was done by interviewing respondents using a questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using frequency tables and Epi Info. Results: The study indicated that there was a relationship between the duration of cigarette smoke exposure (over 33 years) in houses with the incidence of hypertension in housewives (p=0.01; OR=3.52; 95%CI=1.53–8.05). Similarly, there was a relationship established between the number of occasions contact was made by being in close proximity to smokers every day (over three times every day) (p=0.01; OR=36; 95%CI=7.64–168.76) and the contact duration with smokers (p=0.01; OR=8.09; 95%CI=3.13–20.87) with the incidence of hypertension in housewives. Conclusion: There was a link between the duration of cigarette smoke exposure in houses, the number of instances of being in close proximity to smokers every day, and the contact duration with smokers with the incidence of hypertension in housewives in Dampit village.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 115-122; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.115-122
Background: Asthma is ranked 16th among the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLD) and ranks 28th among the causes of global burden of disease (GBD). Various potential factors can cause asthma, which include body mass index (BMI) and gender. Purpose: This research aimed to determine the relationship between BMI and gender in people living with asthma in Indonesia. Methods: This research employed secondary data obtained from the Indonesian family life support (IFLS) 5th edition. This research used an observational analysis technique with a cross-sectional approach. The number of respondents in this research were 30,713. In this study, the BMI category was based on WHO’s classification for Asians. Data was analyzed using logistic regression tests and chi square. Statistical significance was set at a value of p<0.05. Results: As many as 17,175 respondents had a normal BMI range (56.92%), out of which the majority were women—16,001 respondents (52.10%). After controlling the other variables, statistical test results with logistic regression indicated that male respondents had 1.23 times the odds of experiencing asthma compared to females (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.44; p=0.02). Again, after controlling the other variables, underweight respondents had 1.31 times the odds of experiencing asthma compared to respondents who had a normal BMI (AOR=1.31; 95%CI=1.07–1.59; p=0.01). Conclusion: A relationship between gender and the category of people who were underweight after determining their BMI could be established. Health counseling can be provided to help improve the respiratory conditions of these individuals.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 123-129; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.123-129
Background: Dermatophytosis is one of the most common skin diseases that affects cats and dogs. Geographic factors play an important role in determining prevalence, showing high rates of prevalence in warm and humid environments. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the macroscopic and microscopic identification of different types of dermatophytes present on stray dogs. Methods: The design of this study was laboratory-based research. Each sample was collected from an infection site (nail, hair, or skin) that was identified by conducting a physical examination of a stray dog that was infected with fungi. The skin scraping, nail clipping, and fur cutting samples were collected from infected dogs and then cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The cultures were incubated at 26°C for five weeks. The isolates of fungi were then examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) staining technique was used for fungi morphology identification. Results: Overall, the most common type of dermatophytes that affected the dogs were Trichophyton spp. (64.70%), Aspergillus spp. (10.10%), Microsporum spp. (7.20%), and Curvularia spp. (5.60%). Conclusion: This study revealed the most common dermatophyte infections found on stray dogs in Selangor, Malaysia. This study can assist investigators in understanding the prevalence of the dermatophyte burden in stray dogs and help prevent further complication, such as the spread of illness, especially zoonotic infection.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 105-114; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.105-114
Background: The earthquake that hit the Jailolo sub-district in 2015 caused massive damage and loss. This catastrophic event affected not only impacted the local government's economy but also affected many communities, households and individuals living in these communities. Purpose: Aim of this study is to assess the economic resilience of communities in the Jailolo sub-district in response to earthquakes. Methods: This research was based on a descriptive observational study and employed a survey method to assess the economic resilience of communities in the Jailolo sub-district. The study was conducted in five villages, namely Tedeng, Payo, Saria, Matui, and Buku Maadu. The cut-off point for each indicator was classified as very high criteria (>1.05), high (0.95–1.05), moderate (0.85–0.94), low (0.74–0.84), and very low (≤0.73). Results: The proportion of community home ownership was found to be 100% (Resilience Factor Index (RFI)=1.67). The proportion of community work was 33.75% (RFI=0.68). The proportion of dual-income sources of communities in the Jailolo sub-district was 50.89% (RFI=1.02). The proportion of community income that exceeded the provincial minimum wage (PMW) was 8.71% (RFI=0.10). Based on the results of these indicators, the economic resilience of people in the Jailolo sub-district, which was obtained by considering the average RFI of each indicator, was 0.86. Conclusion: Community economic resilience in the Jailolo sub-district was found to be in the medium category. The highest and lowest resilience factors resulted from home ownership and income, respectively.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 184-191; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.184-191
Background: Over the last decades, the number of new diabetic cases and the prevalence of diabetes have tended to increase. The diabetes prevalence rate in Indonesia in 2020 reached 6.20%. Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of age, level of education, smoking status, and Body Mass Index (BMI) and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban areas. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and used secondary data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS 5) in 2015. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and simple logistic regression. The dependent variable in this study was Diabetes Mellitus (DM); the independent variables were age, education level, smoking status, and BMI. Results: In terms of the respondents’ characteristics, individuals were mainly over 35 years of age (130 respondents, 83.87%). The highest level of education was attained by 93 respondents (60.00%). There was a correlation between respondents who were over 35 years of age, with p=0.01; prevalence ratio (PR)=5.60; 95%Cl=3.64–8.62) and the level of education (p=0.01; PR=1.69; 95%Cl=1.22–2.34) with the incidence of diabetes in urban areas in Indonesia. There was no correlation between the smoking status (p=0.55; PR=0.67; 95%Cl=0.01–2.73) and the BMI of respondents with the prevalence of diabetes in urban areas in Indonesia. Conclusion: The age and the level of education were linked to the incidence of diabetes in urban areas in Indonesia.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 192-201; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.192-201
Background: Internet addiction has become a serious problem in the world, especially for adolescents. Temperament plays an important role in influencing internet addiction in adolescents. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between students’ characteristics and temperament with their internet addiction levels in one of the junior high schools in Surabaya, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which used primary data that was obtained from students who filled out a questionnaire. The study sample included 114 students in one of the junior high schools in Surabaya. The dependent variable was the internet addiction level; the dependent variables were gender, age, student grade, and temperament. An Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and an Early Adolescents Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) were the tools used for data collection. Data was collected in November 2019. The sample selection was done through the stratified random sampling technique. The data was subsequently analyzed using the Fisher’s exact and Spearman correlation tests. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between age (p<0.01), student grade (p<0.05), negative affectivity (p<0.01), and surgency (p<0.05) toward internet addiction levels. There was a significant negative correlation observed between effortful control (p<0.05) and internet addiction levels. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between age, student grade, negative affectivity, surgency, and effortful control and adolescents’ internet addiction levels.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi, Volume 9, pp 166-174; doi:10.20473/jbe.v9i22021.166-174
Background: Cerebral palsy is non-progressive disorder that can cause limited movement and lead to postural deformity in children, which can affects all the psychosocial aspects and, thus, impacts children’s’ quality of life as well. Assessment of quality of life is important to evaluate suitable intervention measures for children with cerebral palsy. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the domains and determine the quality of life in children with cerebral palsy between ages 2 and 18. Methods: This was a descriptive study that employed a cross-sectional design approach. Primary data was obtained through a questionnaire. This study used the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL)TM 3.0 cerebral palsy module. The study was conducted from November 2019 to February 2020. The data was collected at the Department of Medical Rehabilitation at the Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Peduli CP Foundation, and the Happy CP Community. This study involved 52 subjects, aged 2–18 years. Results: Almost all of the subjects (76.90%) had an impaired or poor quality of life. From the seven existing domains, only one domain received a good score: the domain of movement and balance. Conclusion: Based on the PedsQLTM 3.0 cerebral palsy module, parents reported that the quality of life in children (ages 2–18 years) having cerebral palsy was still low. Only the movement and balance domain got a good score.