Latest articles in this journal
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 89-94; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2112
Lavender, an aromatic and medicinal plant, used in the extraction of essential oil, as an ornamental and meliferous plant, can be successfully propagated as long as the light, the nutrient medium and the growth regulators are adequate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA) associated to distinct light spectra, on the in vitro rooting of Lavandula angustifolia. The experiment consisted in the combination of two concentrations of indolebutyric acid in the growth medium (0 and 0.1 mg L-1) and two light spectra, using cellulose acetate filters (blue and red), besides the control (without filter), totaling six treatments with four repetitions. For each repetition five explants were used. After 30 days, the variables evaluated were: survival percentage, number of buds and leaves, shoot length, number of roots, length of the longest root, shoot fresh and dry matter weight. There was a significant interaction among the indolebutyric acid concentrations and the light filters for the variables number of buds, leaves and roots and shoot length. Except for leaf number, promising results were obtained when the explants were held under red filters and with a concentration of 0 mg L-1 of indolebutyric acid in the growth medium. From these results, it can be concluded that the best in vitro rooting of Lavandula angustifolia is obtained when there is no indolebutyric acid in the growth medium associated with the use of the red filter.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 77-88; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2041
Azalea (Rhododendron simsii Planch.) is an ornamental plant native to China, propagated commercially by cuttings and cultivated in Brazil due to the beauty of its flowers. However, it presents rooting difficulties, which can lead to a reduction in the commercial production of these seedlings. Thus, the application of plant regulators is necessary to achieve rooting success as well as of nutrients that are involved in biochemical and physiological plant processes. This work aimed to evaluate the rooting performance of Otto and Terra Nova azalea herbaceous cuttings treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) and boron. The experiments were conducted at a private property specialized in the production of potted azalea, located in Holambra County, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the evaluations were carried out at the Plant Seed Laboratory of the Crop Production Department, São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal. The experimental design for each experiment with each cultivar was completely randomized. The treatments were arranged in a 4x4 factorial scheme (IBA concentrations x boron concentrations) with four replications and 10 cuttings per replication. The evaluation was performed six weeks after experiment beginning. Auxin and boron did not influence rooting percentage of cuttings of both cultivars. However, Otto cultivar presented a better-quality root system when cuttings were treated with 2,000 mg L−1 IBA in the absence of boron.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 57-68; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2109
Rose is a plant of high nutritional requirement, susceptible to powdery mildew disease caused by fungus Oidium leucoconium, which causes leaf fall and losses in flower production. The objective of this study was to evaluate powdery mildew severity in rose cultivar ‘Grand Gala’ in response to organic fertilization and the application of alternative products to disease control. The first experiment was set in a factorial arrangement, with 5 alternative products: spraying with water as a control (PA), lime sulfur (CS), neem oil (ON), mixture of sodium bicarbonate and canola oil (BC) and coffee pyroligneous acid (APC) and 2 organic fertilizers: chicken manure (EA) and biofertilizer based on banana stalk (B). Disease severity was assessed at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days after the treatments. In the second experiment, asymptomatic leaves or with different powdery mildew severity levels were sprayed only once with the same alternative products mentioned above. Severity was assessed at 0, 7 and 14 days. The organic fertilizations did not influence the reduction in powdery mildew severity in rose. At 45 days, APC yielded a greater reduction in disease severity (81.6%), followed by treatments based on BC, ON and CS. Greater reduction in disease severity in experiment 2 occurred in the treatments of BC and CS, followed by APC. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that APC and the BC have the potential to control rose powdery mildew in an organic cultivation system.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 7-7; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2129
The study of historic gardens allows an understanding of the rich evidence of the relationship between the culture and the natural environment of a place (Andrade, 2008). Considering the Urban Green Areas, the use and appropriation are different for each local, since the climate and, mainly, the habits and culture are completely different in each site. This topic has been the aim of many studies in Europe and some Asian countries, where there are important heritage places that became, with time, important touristic sites. While, in other places in the world, besides the existence of many historic gardens, its history, importance, and relationship with the local community are still unknown.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 18-34; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2092
When propagated in vitro, explants receive all the nutrients needed for their growth, including carbohydrates, from the culture medium. However, it is not well understood how the type and concentration of carbohydrates can affect the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus (particularly photosystem II) of these plants. The aim was to assess the morphophysiological responses of Billbergia zebrina plants in function of sources and concentrations of carbohydrates during in vitro culture. Side shoots of plants previously established in vitro were individualized and transferred to a culture medium containing fructose, glucose or sucrose in four concentrations (0, 15, 30 or 45 g L−1). After growth for 55 days, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, leaf anatomy and growth were analyzed. The concentration and type of carbohydrate employed during in vitro culture did not decrease the photosynthetic apparatus performance. However, concentrations above 30 g L−1 led to anatomical modifications, revealing some degree of stress suffered by the plants. When grown in concentrations of 15 and 30 g L−1, irrespective of the carbohydrate used, the plants presented greater stomatal density. The supplementation of the culture medium with monosaccharides caused alterations in the development of the xylem vessels, such as increased number and diameter, allowing adjustment to the microenvironmental conditions. The in vitro conditions influenced the photosynthetic and anatomical responses of plants. The concentration interval from 15 to 30 g L−1 sucrose had a better effect by not causing large changes in the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and anatomy of plants.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 8-17; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2027
In order to suggest the best cultivars of gladiolus to grow in moderate regions of Iran, an experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design in three replications with five cultivars of Gladiolus grandiflorus (‘Oscar’, ‘Red Advance’, ‘White Prosperity’, ‘Rose Supreme’ and ‘Lemon Drop’) at the ornamental plants research center in Mahallat city of Iran. In reproductive and yields traits, ‘Red Advance’ were the highest. The highest vegetative traits were observed in ‘Oscar’. The highest spike length (84.6 cm), number of florets (18.00), vase life (9.33 days) and plant height (172.88 cm) were observed in ‘Oscar’. The highest corm weight (51.16 mm), numbers of cormlets (54.66) were observed in ‘Red Advance’. The results showed that the rate of propagation was high in ‘Red Advance’. The highest heritability in traits were estimated as plant height (98.67%), leaf width (98.66%), leaf length (98.12%), number of florets (98.55%), length of spike (98.90%) and diameter of stem (98.84%). There was a positive and significant correlation between the yield of corm and cormlets with the number of cormlet (r = 0.99) and diameter of cormlet (r = 0.96) and diameter of cormlet with the number of cormlet (r = 0.96). ‘Red Advance’ cultivar may be recommended for cultivation as alternative to some oldest cultivars (like ‘Oscar’), which showed potentiality for marketing both in domestic and foreign markets.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 51-56; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2043
Zoysia japonica grass has commercial importance to Brazil due to its use in golf courses and football stadiums. The main concern about its commercial cultivation is the unevenness on seed germination as well as the ideal seed harvesting time. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of temperature and potassium nitrate on dormancy overcoming, and of substrate and harvesting time on germination of zoysia grass seeds (Zoysia japonica Steud). There were three experiments: 1) temperature and potassium nitrate treatments, with six temperature conditions (constants at 20 ˚C, 25 ˚C, 30 ˚C, and 35 ˚C, and alternating at 20-30 ˚C and 20-35 ˚C), under absence or presence of potassium nitrate; 2) temperature and substrate treatments, with two temperature conditions (alternating at 20-30 ˚C and 20-35 ˚C) and three types of substrates (on paper, between paper, and on sand); and 3) harvesting time treatments, which seeds were obtained by manual harvesting comprising 11 harvesting periods. Seeds germinated more rapidly on the sand and paper, at the alternating temperature of 20-35 °C. The best period for seed harvesting was from 18 to 19 days after ear emergence in the production field.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 35-44; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2020
Campomanesia aurea is a sub-shrub species native to the Pampa Biome, popularly known as “guabirobinha-do-campo”. It has an ornamental potential for use in pots or gardens due to its small size, irregular shape, intense flowering and aroma. One of the main factors for production is an adequate use of fertilizers and balanced fertilizations. The objective was to evaluate the growth of seedlings and nutrient leaf accumulation of C. aurea submitted to doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF). C. aurea seedlings were transplanted to containers containing composted pinus bark and CRF doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g L−1. Height, chlorophyll index, number of stems, base diameter, leaf area, Dickson Quality Index, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and nutrient leaf accumulation were evaluated. For height, base diameter and number of stems, the point of maximum response was at the concentration 6.8, 6.6 and 6.9 g L−1 CRF, respectively. For shoot dry matter, leaf area and chlorophyll, we verified increase up to the concentration 8.1, 7.8 and 8.0 g L−1, respectively. There was a positive quadratic behavior for most nutrients, with the exception of Cu and Mn, which linearly increased with the increase of fertilizer dose. The application of CRF on C. aurea seedlings between 7 and 8 g L−1 substrate promoted an increase on the main growth characteristics of ornamental importance and provides superior results on nutrient leaf content.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 109-120; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2067
Since long lawns have been cultivated worldwide to perform a large variety of functions. Brazilian lawns have been constituted by a reduced number of species and cultivars. This work was developed with the purpose of estimating the potential of use as lawns presented by the members of a collection of accesses of native species of Paspalum and Axonopus (Poaceae). The following characteristics were evaluated: maximum vertical growth height, speed of soil cover, speed of regrowth, dry mass production, ornamental quality, weed encroachment and demand for mowing. Several accessions presented desirable characteristics and can therefore be included in programs aiming the development of cultivars for lawns intended for use in a variety of situations. The results here reported and discussed represent an experimental verification of the potential of the Brazilian flora to offer plants for use as lawns, reinforce the importance of native genetic resources and contribute to the continuity of research aimed at the development of this type of cultivars in Brazil.
Ornamental Horticulture, Volume 26, pp 45-50; doi:10.1590/2447-536x.v26i1.2108
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a cut flower has been an increasing demand in floral industry. However, its vase life is limited because of scape bending, abscission and early wilting of ray flowers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vase solutions on the vase life of cut sunflower ‘Sunrich Orange’. ‘Sunrich Orange’ was chosen because it is widely used in cut flower industry. Seven treatments were tested: with distilled water (control) as vase solution. The vase life, relative fresh weight, daily and total solution uptake were measured. The results showed that vase life of ‘Sunrich Orange’ sunflower was significantly affected by different vase solutions. The longest vase life was obtained from the STS (12.3 ± 0.3 days) which increased the vase life by 38.1% compared to the control (8.9 ± 0.5 days).