Journal of Biosciences and Medicines

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-5081 / 2327-509X
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 885
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Latest articles in this journal

Emmanuel C. Iyidobi, Osita Ede, Chinenye C. Obi, Violet O. Onwuekwe, Cajethan U. Nwadinigwe, Theclar O. Iyidobi, Oke R. Obadaseraya
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 116-121; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.94009

Background: Large breast is postulated to cause undue tension in the paraspinal muscles and may result in back pain. Improved pain score following mammaplasty supports this assertion. Such a question has not been evaluated in an indigenous black population. Objectives: To assess the correlation between the breast cup size and the severity of low back pain among women with mechanical low back pain. Method: This was a prospective cohort study. Eighty-four women with chronic backpain attending the Orthopaedic clinic participated excluding psychogenic back pain. The breast cup sizes were estimated from the difference between the bust and band sizes measured with an inelastic tape. The severity of pain was determined with the Oswestry disability index (ODI) data analysed with IBM SPSS version 26. Results: The mean age was 49.35 years. The predominant breast cup size was A, (88%), while the largest cup size was C. The mean duration of symptoms and ODI score was 3.33 months (SD = 2.63), and 42.30 (SD = 16.98) respectively. The breast cup size did not show a positive correlation with ODI score, r = ?0.021, p = 0.846. Conclusion: The severity of mechanical low back pain does not correlate with the breast cup size.
Rocío Adriana Martínez-Alpuche, Erick Mauricio Brindis-Fuentes, Crystel Guadalupe Guzmán-Priego, Francisco Valenzuela-Priego, Leonor Ivonne Parra-Flores, Jorge Elías Torres-López
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 67-75; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.96006

Background: Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that inflammatory pain intensity is increased under diabetes condition. Open cholecystectomy (OC) is a surgical procedure with predictable postoperative pain. However, the comparison of postoperative pain due to open cholecystectomy in diabetic and non-diabetic patients remains unknown. The research question to answer was whether diabetic patients undergoing OC development greater intensity of postoperative pain than non-diabetic patients. Methods: The study was conducted between June 2016 and February 2018 at the Regional Hospital of High Specialty “Dr. Juan Graham Casasús” of Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico. Seventy patients in two groups of 35 patients each scheduled for OC under general anesthesia were studied. Pain was assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). The primary endpoint was to know NRS pain scores after awaking of general anesthesia. Secondary outcomes included the time of onset of pain and comparing NRS scores between diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing OC. Results: Diabetic patients reported significantly greater intensity pain than non-diabetic patients. The mean overall pain score in the diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 7.2 ± 0.3 and 5.3 ± 0.3 (P = 0.0002), respectively. Furthermore, 60% of diabetic patients had severe pain (NRS ≥ 8) compared to 20% of non-diabetics (P = 0.006). The time to onset postoperative pain was about 35 minutes in both groups (P = 0.876). Conclusions: Diabetic patients undergoing OC have greater intensity postoperative pain and also more frequency of patients with severe pain scores compared with non-diabetic patients. Therefore, analgesic treatment in those patients should consider this point in order to provide a satisfactory postoperative analgesia.
Chinyere Ihuarulam Okoro, Francis Chukwuebuka Ihenetu, Kingsley Ihedioha Achigbu, Sonny Johnbull Ogboi, Kingsley Excel Dunga, Chidera Chisom Obasi, Chidinma O. Akanazu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 62-78; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.95007

There are a few investigations on malaria in pregnancy; however, examinations zeroing in on the discernment and current acts of malaria counteraction and treatment among pregnant women are scanty. This examination was pointed toward evaluating the information, recognitions about malaria anticipation with accentuation on information about placental malaria too consistence to utilization of LLIN and IPTP among pregnant women in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at an emergency department, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri using a pretested questionnaire from 200 randomly selected consenting pregnant women. Acknowledgment of malaria manifestations during pregnancy, information about IPTP and placenta malaria were things used to survey the degree of information about malaria in pregnancy. Their blood tests were additionally diagnosed for malaria parasitaemia. Malaria prevalence in the examination populace by microscopy was 13.5%. Additionally 62% of the respondents were learned about the conceivable impeding impacts of the existences of malaria during pregnancy. About 79.5% of the respondent decidedly related mosquitoes to malaria contamination while 31% and 14% related reason for malaria disease to messy encompassing and stale water individually. Malaria Prevention Mentality and Practice in this examination was acceptable (60%) while 18.5% had reasonable practice. All the more so and 15.5% of the respondents had been associated with helpless practice. About 34% of the pregnant ladies rested under a mosquito net frequently study watched factual criticalness between age, occupation and malaria counteraction rehearses (p = 0.014, 0.0089). There was likewise measurably huge relationship between respondent’s training and respondent mentality (p = 0.0034). Information with respect to the utilization of Sulphodaxine primethamine (SP) as medication of decision during pregnancy was restricted (12.0%) as utilization of chloroquine was positioned most elevated (48%). The study showed low peripheral malaria prevalence and furthermore exhibited that pregnant women’s knowledge, mentality and practice towards malaria avoidance was impressively all things considered. Be that as it may, there was helpless information about discontinuous preventive treatment of malaria (IPTP) or suggested antimalarial during pregnancy.
Gang Yang, Jianju Feng, Shaojun Yang, Junjie Lv, Donghai Yuan, Chenbing Wang, Feng Ding, Chao Gu, Gaofeng Shao
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 79-85; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.95008

Objective: This study is to observe the therapeutic effects of Shenmai injection on patients with hypertensive ICH and cerebrocardiac syndromes as well as its effects on prognosis. Methods: A total of 72 patients with severe hypertensive ICH and cerebrocardiac syndromes were selected and divided into the control group and the experimental group (Shenmai injection group) randomly, 36 patients in each group. The control group was treated by conventional therapy, while the experimental group was administrated by intravenous drip of the mixture of 50 ml Shenmai injection and 250 ml 5% glucose injection based on the treatment of the control group, once everyday, 2 weeks continuously. Results: Myocardial enzyme indexes of two groups at 3d, 7d and 14d were observed (Table 1). Myocardial enzyme index of the experimental group was improved quickly and significantly. Myocardial enzyme data of two groups at 3d, 7d and 14d were P < 0.05. According to the electrocardiographic examinations results, ECG anomalies of the experimental group at 7d and 14d were also improved quickly (P < 0.05). There are no evident anomalies in GCS scores of two groups at 7d, but GCS score of the experimental group at 14d of the medication was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Shenmai injection has some therapeutic effects on cerebral injuries and myocardial damages. It can treat brain and heart simultaneously, realize the goal of addressing both symptoms and root causes, and improve prognosis of patients with severe hypertensive ICH.
Rajwant K. Gill, Sikander S. Gill, Irina Gelimson, Maxim Slyadnev, Gabriel Martinez, Michelle Gaines, Ryan Nunley, Timea Majoros
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 94-119; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.95010

An RT-PCR based microchip test system for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 offers pre-loaded and lyophilized reagents in the microchip. However, the 30- and 48-microwell formats of the microchip being miniaturized and performing 1.2 μl reaction, seek visual attention during sample addition. Therefore, adding colorants as color indicator in the lyophilized matrix in the microchips or adding to sample or master mix can impart not only user-friendliness to the task of liquid handling but also precision, and color-codes for easy identification of multiple kits in the layout of the microchip without compromising PCR data quality. A panel of colorants was screened for their background intensity, spectral inertness towards detection channels of AriaDNATM analyzer, interference with the reporter dyes (FAM, Cy5 and ROX), and visibility of optimal concentration in the microwell. The concentration of the colorant displaying insignificant impact on the quality of the amplification (Ct, fluorescence, and sensitivity) in comparison to no-colorant control was chosen for inclusion in the test kit. Tartrazine, Acid Red, Brilliant Blue and FAST Green colorants lyophilized with the reagents in the SARS-CoV-2 microchips were found to be stable and suitable. Storage of microchips with Fast Green colorant was tested at 40°C, 22°C, 4°C, and -20°C for 70 days and was found to be suitable and compatible with different master mixes available as liquid or lyophilized. Additionally, the microchips pre-loaded with lyophilized reagents in the presence and absence of two colorants Tartrazine and Fast Green were validated with clinical samples of SARS-COV-2. No significant impact of these colorants both intra- and inter-microchips was observed on the Ct and intensity of amplification for the tested samples in comparison to no-colorant control. The data suggested that the tested colorants can be used to color the sample, or the master mix or PCR mix for user-friendly liquid handling in empty microchips. For the microchip with pre-loaded and lyophilized reagents, the colorant can be added to lyophilized mixture for precision liquid handling and color-coding of lyophilized kits in the microchips. The manufacturing quality of the lyophilized microchips can also improve with colorant loaded reagent mix.
Yunfei Xue
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 14-28; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.94002

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is one of the most common acute and critical illnesses in general wards and intensive care units. Its high morbidity and high fatality rate have become a major global public health problem. There are often serious lags in clinical diagnosis of AKI. Early diagnosis and timely intervention and effective care become critical. The use of electronic medical record data to build an AKI risk prediction model has been proven to help prevent the occurrence of AKI. However, in actual clinical applications, the distribution of historical data and new data will continue to vary over time, resulting in a significant decrease in the performance of the model. How to solve the problem of model performance degradation over time will be a core challenge for the long-term use of predictive models in clinical applications. Aiming at the above problems, this paper studies the classic Transfer-Stacking model migration algorithm. Aiming at the lack of this algorithm, such as the loss of a large amount of feature information of the target domain and poor fit when integrating the model of the target domain, the Accumulate-Transfer-Stacking algorithm is proposed to improve it. Improvements include: 1) Optimize the input vector and model integration algorithm of Transfer-Stacking’s target domain model. 2) Optimize Transfer-Stacking from a single-source domain model to a multi-source domain model. The experimental results show that for the improved algorithm proposed in this paper when the data is sufficient and insufficient, the average AUC value of the model on the data of subsequent years is 0.89 and 0.87, and the average F1 Score value is 0.45 and 0.36. Moreover, this method is significantly better than the unimproved Transfer-Stacking algorithm and baseline method, and can effectively overcome the problem of data distribution heterogeneity caused by time factors.
Shervin Assari
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 29-41; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.94003

Educational attainment and income are among major socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that are inversely associated with cigarette smoking. Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, are weaker protective effects of SES indicators for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to non-Hispanic White people. The aim is to test whether racial and ethnic differences exist in the effects of educational attainment and income on cigarette smoking of middle-aged and older American adults. This is a 26-year longitudinal study using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative study of middle-aged and older adults in the US. A total number of 11,316 middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 50) were followed for up to 26 years. The independent variables were educational attainment and income. The dependent variables were always smoking and being quitters over the follow-up time. Age, gender, self-rated health, and chronic medical conditions were the covariates. Race/ethnicity was the moderator. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Most participants were never smokers (n = 7950), followed by quitters (n = 1765), always smokers (n = 1272), and initiators (n = 329). Overall, high educational attainment (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90 - 0.95) and income (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99 - 0.99) reduced the odds of being always smoker. High educational attainment (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.08) was associated with higher odds of being a quitter. Ethnicity, however, showed significant interactions with education on both outcomes suggesting that the effects of educational attainment on reducing the odds of always being a smoker (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.14 - 1.35) and increasing the odds of quitting (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75 - 0.93) were smaller for Hispanics than non-Hispanics. In the United States, middle-aged and older Hispanic adults remain at high risk of smoking cigarettes despite high educational attainment. That is, high educational attainment may better help non-Hispanic than Hispanic middle-aged and older adults to avoid cigarette smoking. As a result, we may observe a more than expected burden of tobacco use in middle class Hispanic middle-aged and older adults. Policymakers should not reduce racial and ethnic tobacco inequalities to SES gap, as ethnic tobacco disparities may persist in high SES levels as well.
Irena Ivanova Gencheva-Angelova
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 110-115; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.94008

Against the background of a COVID-19 infection, the overlap of bacterial coinfection is associated with an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. A 76-year-old man was treated for ischemic stroke in the period of one week. During his hospital stay, he showed symptoms of a viral infection, due to which a PCR sample was taken for SARS-CoV-2. The test result was positive. Meningoencephalitis is suspected on the basis of the clinical symptoms shown and the initial blood test. K. pneumonia was detected by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiological examination. The risk of bacterial coinfection with COVID-19 remains unclear. Timely and rapid diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis, in the context of a proven COVID-19 infection, require a variety of biological tests and a multidisciplinary approach. In the early stages of acute bacterial and viral meningitis, the signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and it is not always possible to make a differential diagnosis. Laboratory tests, characterizing COVID-19, should determine the type, prognosis, and outcome of a bacterial coinfection. Refining the laboratory diagnosis of a bacterial infection with COVID-19 is a new challenge for doctors.
Marcus Vinicius De Mello Pinto, Aline Ronis Sampaio, Miriam Viviane Baron, Carolina Macedo Alves Moreira, Carolina Gonçalves Pinheiro, Michele Paula dos Santos, Andres Felipe Mantilla Santamaria, Cristine Brandenburg, Nathália Ken Pereira Iketani, Mara Alessandra Porto Dos Reis Oliveira, et al.
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 55-63; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.93007

This study aimed to understand the use of low level laser in the regeneration of injured tissues. Also to design our own opinion on the subject, as chemists. Laser is nothing more than a light with very special characteristics that grant it therapeutic properties. We can observe the existence of three different types of laser, being one of them the therapeutic laser, which is used in substitution for medications or along with them. Another type of laser is the surgical one and, in addition to these, there is a diagnostic type. A great advantage is that, instead of taking the medicine, the patient’s own body can be activated by the laser to produce certain substances that can often replace the drugs. This is a literature review emphasizing the use of low level laser. Thus, the reflections from this study can contribute to the amplification of the production of knowledge that aims at the resignification of the use of laser in therapy. Greater attention was given to two types of laser radiation: He-Ne and As-Ga, both presenting a high therapeutic potential in superficial and deep injures. However, the He-Ne laser excels in superficial lesions, whereas the As-Ga laser does so in deep injures, such as articular, muscular, etc.
Shahida Mullah, Muhammad Rafiqul Alam, Shamim Ahmed, Amanur Rasul Md. Faisal, Anirban Kishor Singha, A. K. M. Shahidur Rahman, Diwakar Manandhar, Asif Mahmud, Bikram Bir Bajracharya, S. M. Shamsuzzaman, et al.
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 09, pp 64-76; doi:10.4236/jbm.2021.93008

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