Journal of Biosciences and Medicines

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-5081 / 2327-509X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,163
Current Coverage
Archived in

Latest articles in this journal

Donatus Onukwufor Onwuli, Helen Waribo-Anthony, Okwuchi Eberechukwu Anyalebechi, Chioma Ugochukwu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 105-116;

Background: HIV infection results in depletion of immunocompetent cells such as CD4+ T-cells. Trace elements such as Copper, Zinc and selenium are known to be involved in immune function. In recent times, HIV-positive patients are treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), with significant progress. This study was aimed at evaluating CD4+ T-cells levels, serum Copper, Zinc and Selenium levels in HIV seropositive subjects on ART and ART naive subjects (HIV positive subjects that have not started ART treatment) in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: 150 subjects aged 20 to 79 years were recruited after informed consent. 70 subjects were HIV-positive on ART, 30 subjects were HIV-positive ART naïve subjects, while 50 subjects were apparently healthy subjects. Ten (10) milliliters of blood was collected using a standard venipuncture technique from each subject for the analysis of CD4 T-cells using BD fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACSC count), serum Copper and Zinc were analyzed colorimetrically using semi auto-analyzer WP 21E, while selenium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer ELICO, SL173. Data generated were analyzed using Graph-Pad Prism version 8.0.2 and p + T-cell level respectively (p = 0.0006; 0.0001; 0.0001) in HIV-Positive subjects on ART and ART naive. There was also a significant increase in mean serum copper level in the HIV-positive subject as compared to control subjects (p = 0.0001). ART treatment improved the CD4+ T cell count and serum levels of selenium and zinc; however, ART did not correct the imbalance. Furthermore, female subjects on ART have a significantly higher CD4+ T-cell count than the males (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selenium and Zinc deficiency are associated with HIV disease despite the role of ART hence micronutrient supplementation is advised for HIV-positive subjects on ART.
Wynford Robert Williams
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 86-94;

Tumor promoters, apoptosis and autophagy modulators, chemotherapy drugs, and endogenous steroids demonstrate molecular similarity relative to cyclic nucleotide structure. This study explores relative molecular similarity within established human carcinogen structures using computational chemistry software. Molecular structures of conventional carcinogenic drugs and industrial agents demonstrate molecular similarity with a focus on the guanine base and nucleotide cyclized ring. Structures of volatile and gaseous anesthetic carcinogens do not conform to conventional 3-point pharmacophore-based fits characteristic of receptor-binding drugs. The results of this study provide some insight into how carcinogen structures may interact with endogenous compounds to disrupt cyclic nucleotide-driven homeostatic mechanisms.
Modesta Ifeoma Mbah, Hembafan Emmanuel, Mohammed Sani Samari, Bakari Tinyang Boshi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 152-163;

This cross-sectional study was aimed to determine the incidence and the significant risk factors to neonatal jaundice in FMC, Jalingo. Four hundred and thirty three neonates admitted to special baby care unit (SBCU) FMC, Jalingo with their mothers were surveyed. Data were collected through a data extraction format looking on the medical records of the neonates (from 1st January, 2021 to 31st August, 2021) and interviewing the mothers. Data were transferred to an Excel data sheet and results were summarized by frequencies and percentages (categorical variables). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the risk factors to neonatal jaundice while the significance was tested at p-value ≤ 0.05. The findings revealed that the incidence of neonatal jaundice in FMC Jalingo was 40.18% while the significant risk factors were age group 41 - 50 years (I = 15.01%, OR: 2.970 at 95% CI: 1.566 - 5.634, p = 0.000), spontaneous vaginal delivery (I = 18.01%, OR: 1.382 at 95% CI: 0.940 - 2.033, p = 0.000), premature rupture of membrane (I = 24.94%, OR at: 2.252 at 95% CI: 1.520 - 3.337, p = 0.000), hypertension in pregnancy (I = 21.02%, OR: 1.831 at 95% CI: 1.240 - 2.703, p = 0.002). Others were breech fetal presentation (I = 23.33%, OR: 2.689 at 95% CI: 1.809 - 3.995, p = 0.000), birth asphyxia (I = 22.40%, OR: 3.469 at 95% CI: 2.3105.210, p = 0.000), significant bruising (I = 22.86%, OR: 1.705 at 95% CI: 1.157 - 2.513, p = 0.007), neonatal sepsis (I = 21.02%, OR: 1.688 at 95% CI: 1.145 - 2.488, p = 0.008) and congenital hemolytic anemia (I = 21.71%, OR: 1.723 at 95% CI: 1.169 - 2.540, p = 0.006). Therefore, the need for all concerned to ensure the incidence is reduced and the risk factors identified early and tackled.
Jialu Mo, Jiao Hu, Xianglin Cheng
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 182-191;

Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome caused by highly synchronized abnormal discharges of neurons in the brain. It is a common disease of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of epilepsy has not been fully understood yet. The main pathological changes after seizures are programmed neuronal death and glial proliferation. Autophagy is a catabolic process. Moderate autophagy is critical to maintain the homeostasis and cell health, while abnormal autophagy can lead to disease. A number of studies have proved that abnormal autophagy mechanism can lead to epilepsy, and there are also literatures that autophagy induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress can reduce the neuronal damage triggered by epilepsy, thus playing a protective role in neurons. This article reviews the relationship between autophagy and epilepsy in order to provide basis for further study of autophagy pathway and pathophysiology of epilepsy.
Elhadi Abdalla Ahmed, Abdelrahman Eldaw Mohammed, Mubarak Ahmed Elshafia, Bakri Yousif Mohamed Nour
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 173-181;

Introduction: Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) through the blood is a significant risk, especially in poor countries with high endemicity. Occult transmission of HBV (OBI) is an important acquisition scenario. Objective: A cross-sectional laboratory-based study followed to detect OBI in blood of accepted donors admitted to Mad Medani Blood Bank, Sudan. Methods: During the study, 200 accepted blood units were examined for HBsAg by ELISA technique and negative samples were tested for total anti-HBc antibodies using electroluminescence immunoassay (ECLIAS). HBV DNA amplification was performed for units that showed total anti-Hbc positivity. Results: Of the 200 blood units, 3 appeared positive by ELISA. Total anti-HBc antibodies were present in 34% (67/197) of blood units. HBV DNA was successfully amplified in 52.2% (35/67) of total anti-HBc positive samples. A significant association was observed between reactive total anti-HBc and age group (p < 0.001), marital status (p < 0.001) and HBV vaccination (p-value 0.012) of blood donors. Conclusion: OBI was recorded at a high rate in the blood of donors, which necessitates the implementation of detection methods to protect the recipients.
Zongying Liang, Jingtao Huang, Guangri Sun
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 210-220;

Objective: To investigate the effect of Tip60 gene silencing on the ABCE1 acetylation level and cell proliferation, migration and invasion in TE-1 cells of oesophageal cancer. Methods: The siRNA sequence of Tip60 was transfected with esophageal cancer TE-1 cells. Transfected siRNA vector cells were used as experimental group (si-T), siRNA no-loaded somatic cells were transfected as control group (si-NC), and untransfected TE-1 cells were used as blank group (Group N). ABCE1 mRNA was detected by qRT-PCR, the expression of ABCE1 protein, proliferation-related protein β catenin (β-catenin), GSK3β, and c-myc by Western blot, the protein acetylation level by immunoprecipitation, MTT assay for cell viability, scratch healing and Transwell compartment assay for migration and invasion ability. Results: After 48 h downregulation of the Tip60 gene, TE-1 cells showed no significant changes in the ABCE1 mRNA and protein expression. The acetylation level of ABCE1 decreased significantly, compared with the control group and the blank group. After Tip60 gene silencing, the expression of β-catenin and c-myc protein decreased, while the expression of GSK-3β protein increased. Cytofunctology experiments showed that the proliferative activity, migration and invasion ability of TE-1 cells in the experimental group were significantly inhibited. Conclusion: Down regulation of Tip60 gene can deacetylate ABCE1 protein and inhibit the proliferation activity, migration and invasion ability of esophageal cancer by blocking the conduction of Wnt signaling pathway.
Habib E. Ashoor
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 56-71;

Nanotechnology applications, which aid radiotherapy and chemotherapy, have revolutionized diagnosis, treatment planning, imaging, and medical machinery. The ability of nanoparticles to kill or freeze cancer cells by raising heat locally is a prominent application of nanoparticles. This paper will review the research on clinical applications of hyperthermia using nanoparticles stimulated by an alternating magnetic field and electromagnetic waves such as microwave and laser, as well as the foundation of the theoretical model used in bio-thermal applications.
Allageya Yousif Khailfa Ahmed, Enaam Abdelrhman Abdelgader, Nasr Eldeen Ali Mohammed Gaufri
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 72-81;

Background: Heamatological problems have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hypercoagulability, in particular, thrombosis is becoming more common in HIV-positive patients. Aim: The goals of this study were to determine levels of plasma fibrinogen, protein C, Hemoglobin, and ESR among Sudanese HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study, for this investigation, a total of 100 participants were recruited for this study. Fifty people were diagnosed with HIV, 25 of whom were males (50 percent) and 25 of whom were females (50 percent), with an average age of 35.5 years. Further fifty healthy people, 26 (52%) of whom were men and 24 (48%) of whom were women, with a mean age of 37.1 years, matched the case group. Fresh Poor Plasma was obtained by centrifuging citrated venous blood samples at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. The fibrinogen level was determined using an automated coagulation analyzer. Total protein C level was measured by a fully-automated blood coagulation analyzer (SYSMEX CA-500’JAPAN). The haemoglobin parameter was measured from EDTA anticoagulant samples using the Sysmex KX 21-N automated haematological analyzer. In one hour, the ESR was done using a Westergren tube. Data was collected using a structured direct questionnaire. SPSS version 21 was used to analyse the data. Results: The current study discovered that in Sudanese HIV infection, the mean and standard deviation of plasma fibrinogen levels were statistically substantially higher than in the normal control group (370.5 ± 67 vs 214.7 ± 21 with P value 0.001). Protein C levels were statistically significantly lower in HIV positive patients compared with control group (0.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.3 ± 0.2 with P value 0.001). In HIV positive patients, haemoglobin was statistically substantially lower than in healthy people (10.8 ± 1.8 vs 13.7 ± 1.9, P value 0.01). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was statistically significantly higher in HIV positive patients than in the control group, with (58.00 ± 27 vs 7.68 ± 3 with P value 0.00). Conclusions: HIV infected patients had higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower haemoglobin levels than normal healthy control groups. In 16 percent of HIV positive patients, protein C deficiency was discovered. HIV-positive patients had significantly greater ESR.
E. E. Owowo, L. E. Udofia, S. Wisdom, I. E. Okon
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 82-89;

A total of 282 outpatient pregnant antenatal and non-pregnant women from internally displaced camps attending the Poly Health Clinic (PHC) and the Enwang Health Centre (EHC) were examined for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Direct wet mount microscopy and Giemsa staining techniques were used on High Vaginal Swab (HVS) specimens collected on sterile swab sticks. A prevalence of 20 (57.1%) was recorded using both methods; 12 (7.2%) in PHC and 08 (6.2%) in EHC Mbo local government area, Akwa Ibom State respectively. Differences among pregnant and non-pregnant women used were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Women in the age group 15 - 19 years had the highest prevalence of infection 03 (10.5%), closely followed by those of age group 20 - 24 years 6 (6.8%). A total number of 14 (6.7%) infections were recorded among married women followed by single women with 06 (10%). A higher prevalence rate of 01 (24%) was recorded among women who attended Quranic level of education and 04 (16.7%) with uneducated women, this may be due to small sample size within this group of women. 12 (6.5%) in women with primary school education and 03 (4.7%) in women with secondary school level of education. The need for improved personal hygiene in IDP camps and other effective intervention programmes among these vulnerable groups of women is advocated.
Shravan Singh Rathore, Hem Singh Gehlot, Gyan Prakash, Jayashree S. Nandi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Volume 10, pp 90-96;

More than 60% human infectious diseases have zoonotic origin. Cross species transmission of pathogens is a continuous, dynamic process that occurs throughout the world, giving rise to epizootic (temporary, limited infection), endemic (on-going infection limited to a defined geographic region) and pandemic viral infections (infection spreading to every part of the world) like the current COVID-19 pandemic, which depends on the existing conditions on the ground. In Nov 2021, sudden mortality of numerous migrating demoiselle cranes was reported from their resting site near Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The symptomatic cranes became gradually weak and were unable to fly. They eventually fell dead which caused concern locally, given the current prevailing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic situation the world over. By the end of Dec 2021, the number of cranes with mortality and morbidity reduced, making it a temporary “epizootic infection”. Molecular diagnosis carried out at a specialized laboratory identified the etiological agent to be the highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 (HPAIV), which has been responsible for morbidity of avian species from different parts of the world. There was no report of spreading the H5N1 AIV infection from the infected migratory cranes to nearby chicken farms or pig farms for now. In the absence of vaccines against the highly pathogenic H5N1 AIVs, and the inherent ability of influenza viruses, both avian AIV and human IAVs to constantly mutate its envelope gene or the surface antigens, resulting from the error-prone nature of the viral RNA Polymerase enzyme are the roadblocks for development of a universal, broad-spectrum influenza vaccine. Even when such a universal vaccine against H5N1 is available, vaccinating a large number of wild migratory cranes would be difficult. However, it is possible and indeed necessary to vaccinate chickens in poultry farms and pigs in farms that raise pigs for human consumption.
Back to Top Top