Journal of Nanomaterials
ISSN / EISSN : 1687-4110 / 1687-4129
Published by: Hindawi Limited (10.1155)
Total articles ≅ 4,936
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2270472
Recycling wastes and providing their use in useful fields attract attention every day. In our study, with the extract prepared from the parts of the Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) plant that is not suitable for human consumption, silver nanoparticles were easily synthesized in an ec-friendly, energy-free way. Characterization of the obtained nanoparticles was done with a UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis.), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zeta potential analysis data. In these data, it was determined that AgNPs have a maximum absorbance at 458.8 nm wavelength, a crystal nanosize of 28.78 nm, and a spherical appearance. The zeta potential of (-) 16.9 mV indicates that silver nanoparticles exhibit a stable structure. Particles show antimicrobial effects on pathogenic species at concentrations of 0.03-0.25 μg/ml, and it was determined by using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) microdilution method. By examining their cytotoxic effects on U118, CaCo-2, and Skov-3 cancer cell lines and healthy HDF cell lines by the MTT method, concentrations of inhibitive effects on survival were determined.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8053120
This study proposed a sequential redox process to partially degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) within a reactor to a great extent. After 72 hours in an anoxic environment, 20 ppm of TBBPA could be effectively degraded by sulfurized zerovalent iron nanoparticles (S-nZVI) at concentrations of 2 g L-1 and 4 g L-1. Biphenol A (BPA) together with tri-, di-, and monobromobisphenol A was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggesting that TBBPA was debrominated by S-nZVI in a stepwise manner. Following the S-nZVI treatment, a persulfate-advanced oxidation process (PS-AOP) system with persulfate concentrations varied from 5 to 20 mM was incorporated to degrade the final debrominated byproduct, BPA, for 2 hours. The two-stage anoxic/oxic reactions at the same reactor with initial conditions (0.037 mM TBBPA, 4 g L-1 of S-nZVI, pH 6 in anoxic stage, 20 mM of PS in the latter oxic stage) were investigated. The sulfurized layer played an important role in such a system and hypothetically contributes to increasing electron transfer from Fe0 core as well as hydrophobicity of the NP surface. It was demonstrated that the S-nZVI/PS-AOP system could effectively remediate TBBPA and BPA and consequently provide a promising strategy to remedy brominated organic pollutants in the environment.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4145010
In this paper, a capillary coated with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PGMA NPs) was prepared and applied to construct a capillary electrophoresis (CE) enantioseparation system with glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (Glu-β-CD) as a chiral selector. The PGMA NP coating can be easily introduced through a simple ring-opening reaction. Two basic drugs were used as models to evaluate the separation performance of the PGMA coating. Under the optimal conditions selected, the separation of the two enantiomers was obtained.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8082522
The molten salt approach was used to convert CuAl2O4 nanoparticles to CuO nanorods in this study. Molten hydroxide (NaOH) synthesis was chosen over molten salts (NaCl/KCl) for removing aluminium oxide from copper aluminate at low temperatures. The molten salt process is environmentally beneficial. Polymeric precursors were used to make nanosized copper aluminates. Alginic acid polymer is used to gel aqueous solutions of copper acetate and aluminium nitrate, yielding precursor after further heating. The precursor provides 14 nm nanosized copper aluminates after being heated at 900°C for 5 hours. XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM were used to characterize the nanosized copper aluminate powder. Solid state mixing and solution technique were used to investigate molten hydroxide treatment of spinel CuAl2O4. The products of the reaction were identified using XRD. FTIR and SEM are also used to analyze the sample. Using UV-DRS absorbance spectrum analysis, the optical characteristics of CuAl2O4 and CuO nanorods were examined. Using the Tauc plot method, the band gaps of CuAl2O4 and CuO were calculated to be 4.3 and 3.93 eV.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3190877
We report, in this work, our study of the thermal conductivity of high-viscosity nanofluids based on glycerol. Three nanofluids have been prepared with different thermal contrasts, by suspending graphene flakes, copper oxides, or silica nanoparticles in pure glycerol. The nanofluids were thermally characterized at room temperature with the 3ω technique, with low amplitudes of the temperature oscillations. A significant enhancement of the thermal conductivity is found in both the glycerol/copper oxide and the glycerol/graphene flake nanofluids. Our results question the role played by the Brownian motion in the microscopic mechanisms of the thermal conductivity of high-viscosity glycerol-based nanofluids. A similar behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of the nanoparticle volume fraction was found for all three glycerol-based nanofluids presently investigated. These results could be explained on the basis of fractal aggregation in the nanofluids.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8901541
This research manuscript addresses the study of the performance of a flat tube having a 90° bend under the flow of three different nanofluids such as copper oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum oxide/water nanofluids at different inlet fluid temperatures and Reynolds numbers. The performance of the flat tube is analyzed under the Reynolds number between 5000 and 11000 and a fluid inlet temperature range of 35°C–50°C. The results obtained in this study show that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in volume concentration as well as Reynolds number. The maximum heat transfer coefficient is obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes followed by copper oxide and then aluminum oxide. This study also illustrates that the friction factor increases with the increase in volume concentration and decrease in Reynolds number. The results of the numerical study have been validated with the help of an experimental study. The study has proved that the use of nanofluids instead of the conventional fluid can lead to reducing the size of the tube for the same amount of heat transfer which can prove the reduction of the size in heat transfer equipment. Furthermore, it is also observed in this study that the presence of the 90° bend in the flat tube improved the heat transfer performance due to the increased turbulence at the bent section of the tube.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1280338
In this paper, a novel method for manufacturing flexible microfluidic chips without bonding process is proposed, which combines 3D printing technology and material dissolution technology. The manufacturing process of the microfluidic chip is as follows: a soluble HIPS mold with a preset shape is manufactured by 3D printing and placed in a molten PDMS solution for solidification. Soak in the limonene material to dissolve the mold and form a microchannel in the cured PDMS. Experimental studies have shown that the temperature and concentration of the limonene solution have an important effect on the dissolution rate. A 0.62 cm3 HIPS mold has the fastest dissolution rate at 100°C and 50% concentration. The proposed method provided a new idea for fabricating flexible microfluidic chip. Compared to bonding process, it has the characteristics of not relying on complicated processing conditions and low manufacturing cost.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3039761
Nanotechnology from titanium dioxide has been deposited, and its application in desalination and water treatment has been investigated by using sol-gel methods. Homogeneously dispersed sphere shapes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were observed from scanning electron microscope micrographs and decrease in size as aging time increases from 40 min to 60 min. SEM micrographs of highly transparent nanopowders show that they are detected in the visible region from UV/visible and that their red shift around maximum wavelength increases with increasing aging time due to an increase in water quality. The energy band gap of the generated nanosheet has narrowed as the aging time has increased, which is related to the red shift of the absorption spectrum edge in the sheet. The structural behaviors of deposited nanoparticles have also been investigated, which confirms the existence of anatase as well as rutile levels in the liquid phase. The findings of the PL allowed us to determine the total strength of the intensity. This shows that applying photodegradation by a solar absorber could play a vital role in desalination and water treatment.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2992335
Medicinal plants are composed of a rich pool of biomolecules and have been increasingly recognized for their antimicrobial properties; however, increasing concerns have been put on the bioavailability features. Thus, this study is aimed at exploring the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Chenopodium album L. leaf extract and assessing the antifungal activity against Aspergillus terreus Thom. Plant extract was prepared in methanol to synthetize silver nanoparticles, which were then characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and particle size analysis. UV-Visible analysis indicated maximum absorption at 378 nm, and an average particle size was observed as 25.6 nm. Oval to hexagonal shape was observed by SEM. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5%) was addressed against A. terreus biomass. At 3.5%, silver nanoparticles revealed to be highly effective, leading to 92% retardation in fungus growth. In next phase, various organic fractions, viz., chloroform, n-butanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate, were obtained from plant methanol extract, and the corresponding silver nanoparticles were prepared. These fractions were also assessed for antifungal activity, and n-hexane fraction led to 64% inhibition in A. terreus biomass. Following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 18 compounds were identified, namely, 1,3-cyclopentadiene-5-(1 methylethylidene and o-xylene), ethyl benzene, octadecane, nonane, decane, 2-methylheptane, n-hexadecane, 2-methylheptane, and eicosane, along with carbonyl compounds (4,4-dimethyl-3-hexanone) and phenols, like stearic acid, propionic acid hydrazide, and 2,4-di-T-butylphenol. These findings proved that C. album silver nanoparticles are highly effective against A. terreus.
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3913601
Copper (Cu) metal matrix composite (MMC) was developed with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as reinforcement by using powder metallurgy (PM) technique. The composition of the composites is Cu, Cu-4 wt% MWCNT, Cu-8 wt% MWCNT, and Cu-12 wt% MWCNT. The Cu and MWCNTs were blended for 6 hours in a ball mill and compacted at a 6 ton pressure to form green compacts using a 10 ton hydraulic press. Using a tubular furnace, the heat was applied at 900°C for 1.5 hours to impart strength and integrity to the green compacts. Milled composite blends were studied to analyze its characterization through SEM and EDAX analysis. Characterization studies such as SEM and EDAX confirm the presence and even dispersion of Cu and MWCNT constituents. The relative density, hardness, and ultimate compressive strength have been studied, and a remarkable improvement in properties has been obtained by the inclusion of MWCNTs. The composites reinforced by 8 and 12 wt% MWCNT were recorded with low thermal conductivity than the Cu composite reinforced by 4 wt% MWCNT. A wear study was analyzed using Taguchi technique for determining the effect caused by the wear test parameters and MWCNT content on wear rate. The optimized parameter that contributes minimum wear rate was identified as 12 wt% MWCNT content, 10 N applied load, 2 m/s sliding velocity, and 500 m sliding distance. Based on the obtained results, it could be understood that the produced composites can be utilized for various applications like relay contact springs and switchgear, rotor bars, and bus bars.