Surgical Neurology International

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ISSN / EISSN : 2152-7806 / 2152-7806
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 3,454
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Sarah Kawtharani, Shadi Abdelatif Bsat, Mohamad El Housheimy, Charbel Moussalem, Adham Halaoui, Tarek Sunna
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_756_2021

Abstract:
Background: Bertolotti’s syndrome (i.e., varying extent of fusion between the last lumbar vertebra and the first sacral segment) or lumbosacral transitional vertebrae is a rare cause of back pain. Notably, this syndrome is one of the differential diagnoses for patients with refractory back pain/sciatica. Case Description: A 71-year-old male presented with low back pain of 3 years duration that radiated into the right lower extremity resulting in numbness in the L5 distribution. He then underwent a minimally invasive approach to resect the L5 “wide” transverse process following the CT diagnosis of Bertolotti’s syndrome. Prior to surgery, patient reported pain that was exacerbated by ambulation that resolved post-operative. Conclusion: Bertolotti’s syndrome is one of the rare causes of sciatica that often goes undiagnosed. Nevertheless, it should be ruled out for patients with back pain without disc herniations or other focal pathology diagnosed on lumbar MR scans.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_658_2021

Abstract:
Background: Basilar invagination (BI) is a complex condition characterized by prolapse of the odontoid into the brain stem/upper cervical cord. This lesion is often associated with Chiari malformations, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment options for BI typically include cervical traction, an isolated anterior transoral odontoidectomy, anterior endonasal odontoidectomy, an isolated posterior fusion, or combined anterior/ posterior surgical approach. Case Description: A 45-year-old female with a Chiari I malformation and RA underwent a combined posterior C0-C5 posterior decompression/fusion, followed by an anterior odontoidectomy (i.e. endoscopic/endonasal under neuronavigation). Postoperatively, the patient’s symptoms and neurological signs resolved. Conclusion: BI in was successfully managed with a combined posterior C0-C5 decompression/fusion followed by an anterior endoscopic/endonasal odontoidectomy performed under neuronavigation.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_621_2021

Abstract:
Background: Intracranial intraparenchymal schwannomas (IS) are rare tumors that have mainly been described in case reports. Here, we report on a case of a brainstem IS and included a comprehensive literature review. Case Description: A 74-year-old man presented with progressive gait disturbances. CT- and MRI-imaging revealed a contrast-enhancing mass accompanied by a cyst in the dorsolateral pons. Hemangioblastoma was suspected and surgery was advised. During surgery, gross total resection of a non-invasive tumor was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Based on histopathological examination, the intraparenchymal brainstem tumor was diagnosed as schwannoma. Conclusion: Our extensive review illustrates that ISs are benign tumors that most often present in relatively young patients. Malignant cases have been described but form an extremely rare entity. Preoperative diagnosis based on radiological features is difficult but should be considered when peritumoral edema, calcifications, and cysts are noted. In benign cases, gross total resection of the lesion is curative. To adequately select this treatment and adjust the surgical strategy accordingly, it is important to include IS in the preoperative differential diagnosis when the abovementioned radiological features are present.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_601_2021

Abstract:
Background: Despite mainly benign, exophytic subcutaneous cranial masses present with a myriad of differential diagnosis possibilities, ranging from simple, superficial lesions to complex lesions involving the central nervous system. Although the gold standard imaging modality for the diagnosis of these lesions is magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler Ultrasonography can be a useful, inexpensive, and available tool for evaluation of lesions that could potentially be safely treated in the primary care setting, and lesions that would demand advanced neurosurgical care. Case Description: This patient presented with a complex exophytic plasmocytoma that was first diagnosed and erroneously approached as a subcutaneous lipoma with surgical resection in an outpatient surgical setting. This interpretive approach resulted in the failure of the procedure due to significant hemorrhage. The patient was immediately referred to neurosurgical care and transferred to our center. Admission doppler ultrasound imaging revealed absence of the frontal bone, the enriched and profuse vascularization, allowing further and proper diagnostic approach and treatment. Conclusion: Ultrasound could be a reliable, fast, and simple imaging method aiding practitioners to perform a better workup for patients with exophytic subcutaneous cranial masses.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_901_2021

Abstract:
Background: Complex spine surgery predisposes patients to substantial levels of blood loss, which can increase the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Case Description: A 29-year-old achondroplastic male required thoracolumbar deformity correction. However, he refused potential allogeneic blood transfusions for religious reasons. He, therefore, underwent pre-operative autologous blood donation and consented to the use of the intraoperative cell salvage device. Immediately prior to the incision, he underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution. Throughout the case, we additionally utilized meticulous hemostasis. Postoperatively, he was supplemented with iron and erythropoietin and recovered well. When he required a revision procedure 3 months later, similar strategies were successfully employed. Conclusion: Numerous strategies exist pre-operatively, intraoperatively, and post-operatively to optimize blood loss management for patients who refuse blood transfusions but warrant major spinal deformity surgery.
Kashif Majeed, Samuel Z. Hanz, Michelle Roytman, , Jeffrey P. Greenfield
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_539_2021

Abstract:
Background: CSF-venous fistulas (CVF) may cause incapacitating positional headaches resulting from spontaneous intracranial hypotension/hypovolemia (SIH). Their etiology remains unknown, although unrecognized local trauma may precipitate SIH. In addition, they are diagnostically challenging despite various imaging tools available. Here, we present CVF identification using magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) and elaborate on their surgical management techniques. Methods: Retrospective charts of confirmed and treated CVF patients with attention to their diagnostic imaging modalities and management techniques were further reviewed. Results: Six cases were identified of which three are presented here. There were two females and one male patient. All had fistulas on the left side. Two were at T7-T8 while the third was at T9-T10 level. Two underwent hemilaminotomies at the T7-T8 while the third underwent a foraminotomy at T9 level to access the fistula site. All CVF were closed with a combination of an aneurysm clip and a silk tie. On follow-up, all had complete resolution of symptoms with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Of the various imaging modalities available, MRM is particularly sensitive in localizing CVF spinal nerve level and their laterality. In addition, the technique of aneurysm clip ligation and placement of a silk tie is curative for these lesions.
, , Mansour A. Makia
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_290_2021

Abstract:
Background: Transpedicular screws are extensively utilized in lumbar spine surgery. The placement of these screws is typically guided by anatomical landmarks and intraoperative fluoroscopy. Here, we utilized 2-week postoperative computed tomography (CT) studies to confirm the accuracy/inaccuracy of lumbar pedicle screw placement in 145 patients and correlated these findings with clinical outcomes. Methods: Over 6 months, we prospectively evaluated the location of 612 pedicle screws placed in 145 patients undergoing instrumented lumbar fusions addressing diverse pathology with instability. Routine anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs were obtained 48 h after the surgery, while CT scans were obtained at 2 postoperative weeks (i.e., ideally these should have been performed intraoperatively or within 24–48 h of surgery). Results: Of the 612 screws, minor misplacement of screws (≤2 mm) was seen in 104 patients, moderate misplacement in 34 patients (2–4 mm), and severe misplacement in 7 patients (>4 mm). Notably, all the latter 7 (4.8% of the 145) patients required repeated operative intervention. Conclusion: Transpedicular screw insertion in the lumbar spine carries the risks of pedicle medial/lateral violation that is best confirmed on CT rather than X-rays/fluoroscopy alone. Here, we additional found 7 patients (4.8%) who with severe medial/lateral pedicle breach who warranting repeated operative intervention. In the future, CT studies should be performed intraoperatively or within 24–48 h of surgery to confirm the location of pedicle screws and rule in our out medial or lateral pedicle breaches.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_483_2021

Abstract:
Background: CSF rhinorrhea is a known complication that may occur after cranial base surgery, especially the trans-sphenoidal approaches to sellar tumors. It may occur following both microscopic and endoscopic procedures. Over a period, the balance has tilted toward endoscopy due to development of pedicled Hadad flap. Microscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) continues to be performed in our institute as well as many other centers across the world due to familiarity of technique and unavailability of endoscopic equipment. Despite the fairly widespread use of this surgery, literature is devoid of any description of a local mucosal flap for repair of the surgical defect in microscopic TSS. Methods: We herein described the procedure and our experience of harvesting such flap in 42 patients operated for pituitary adenomas in our department between September 2016 and February 2020, through microscopic sublabial TSS. Results: All 42 of the patients included in this study underwent excision of pituitary tumors (macroadenomas). Thirty-nine (n = 39) patients were undergoing 1st time surgery, while three (n = 3) of these patients were undergoing second surgery following an earlier trans nasal trans-sphenoidal route. None of our cases have reported CSF leak postoperatively. Conclusion: This study attempts to highlight to ardent/obligate microscopic surgeons that a local vascularized flap can be harvested for repair of skull base defect and prevent postoperative CSF leak in microscopic sublabial TSS.
Aleksey Krivoshapkin, Aleksey Gaytan, , , , , Evaldas Cesnulis, , , Roman Kiselev, et al.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_494_2021

Abstract:
Background: Intraoperative balloon electronic brachytherapy (IBEB) may provide potential benefit for local control of recurrent cerebral glioblastomas (GBMs). Methods: This is a preliminary report of an open-label, prospective, comparative cohort study conducted in two neurosurgical centers with ongoing follow-up. At recurrence, patients at one center (n = 15) underwent reresection with IBEB while, at the second center (n = 15), control subjects underwent re-resection with various accepted second-line adjuvant chemoradiotherapy options. A comparative analysis of overall survival (OS) and local progression-free survival (LPFS) following re-resection was performed. Exploratory subgroup analysis based on postoperative residual contrast-enhanced volume status was also done. Results: In the IBEB group, median LPFS after re-resection was significantly longer than in the control group (8.0 vs. 6.0 months; log rank χ2 = 4.93, P = 0.026, P < 0.05). In addition, the median OS after second resection in the IBEB group was also significantly longer than in the control group (11.0 vs. 8.0 months; log rank χ2 = 4.23, P = 0.04, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These hypothesis-generating results from a small cohort of subjects suggest putative clinical benefit in OS and LPFS associated with maximal safe re-resection of recurrent GBM with IBEB versus re-resection and standard adjuvant therapy, a hypothesis that deserves further testing in an appropriately powered clinical trial.
Surgical Neurology International, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.25259/sni_673_2021

Abstract:
Background: Radial tunnel syndrome arises due to compression of the radial nerve through the radial tunnel.[1,5] The radial nerve divides into superficial and deep branches in the forearm. The deep branch travels posteriorly through the heads of the supinator where compression commonly occurs.[3,9,7] This syndrome results in pain in the hand and forearm with no motor weakness.[8] This condition can be treated conservatively with splinting and anti-inflammatory medication.[2,4,6] For cases of refractory radial tunnel syndrome, surgical management can be considered. Herein, we have presented a step-by-step video guide on how to perform a radial nerve decompression with a review of the relevant anatomy and surgical considerations. Case Description: A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented to the Mayo Clinic (Scottsdale, AZ) with the right elbow pain which radiated to the forearm causing significant difficulties with daily tasks. She had been dealing with worsening symptoms for 4 months. The patient’s history of gardening and clinical presentation allowed for diagnosis of radial tunnel syndrome. After conservative measures failed and other differential diagnoses were excluded, surgical decompression was recommended to treat her symptoms. The patient’s right arm was marked preoperatively between the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscles. The posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm was identified which allowed for the determination of the interval between the brachioradialis and ECRL. Separation of the two muscles allowed for the identification of the radial sensory nerve. A nerve stimulator was used to confirm the sensory nature of this nerve. The nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) was identified and retracted with a vessel loop. Dorsal to the nerve to the ECRB is the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN), which was identified and retracted with a vessel loop. The fascia of the ECRB was divided both longitudinally and transversely and the supinator below was identified. The supinator muscle was carefully divided to further decompress the PIN. Informed consent for publication of this material was obtained from the patient. Conclusion: The patient tolerated the procedure well and reported significantly reduced pain at 7-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, video tutorials on this procedure have not been published. This video can serve as an educational guide for peripheral nerve specialists dealing with similar lesions.
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