ACM Computing Surveys

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ISSN / EISSN : 0360-0300 / 1557-7341
Total articles ≅ 2,277
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Azzedine Boukerche, Mingzhi Sha
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.1145/3460770

Abstract:
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enable transportation participants to communicate with each other by sending and receiving messages, so that they can be aware of their surroundings and facilitate efficient transportation through better decision making. As an important part of ITS, autonomous vehicles can bring massive benefits by reducing traffic accidents. Correspondingly, much effort has been paid to the task of pedestrian detection, which is a fundamental task for supporting autonomous vehicles. With the progress of computational power in recent years, adopting deep learning–based methods has become a trend for improving the performance of pedestrian detection. In this article, we present design guidelines on deep learning–based pedestrian detection methods for supporting autonomous vehicles. First, we will introduce classic backbone models and frameworks, and we will analyze the inherent attributes of pedestrian detection. Then, we will illustrate and analyze representative pedestrian detectors from occlusion handling, multi-scale feature extraction, multi-perspective data utilization, and hard negatives handling these four aspects. Last, we will discuss the developments and trends in this area, followed by some open challenges.
Fei Chen, Duming Luo, Tao Xiang, Ping Chen, Junfeng Fan, Hong-Linh Truong
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.1145/3447625

Abstract:
Recent years have seen the rapid development and integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing. The market is providing various consumer-oriented smart IoT devices; the mainstream cloud service providers are building their software stacks to support IoT services. With this emerging trend even growing, the security of such smart IoT cloud systems has drawn much research attention in recent years. To better understand the emerging consumer-oriented smart IoT cloud systems for practical engineers and new researchers, this article presents a review of the most recent research efforts on existing, real, already deployed consumer-oriented IoT cloud applications in the past five years using typical case studies. Specifically, we first present a general model for the IoT cloud ecosystem. Then, using the model, we review and summarize recent, representative research works on emerging smart IoT cloud system security using 10 detailed case studies, with the aim that the case studies together provide insights into the insecurity of current emerging IoT cloud systems. We further present a systematic approach to conduct a security analysis for IoT cloud systems. Based on the proposed security analysis approach, we review and suggest potential security risk mitigation methods to protect IoT cloud systems. We also discuss future research challenges for the IoT cloud security area.
Abdus Salam, Rolf Schwitter, Mehmet A. Orgun
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1145/3447581

Abstract:
This survey provides an overview of rule learning systems that can learn the structure of probabilistic rules for uncertain domains. These systems are very useful in such domains because they can be trained with a small amount of positive and negative examples, use declarative representations of background knowledge, and combine efficient high-level reasoning with the probability theory. The output of these systems are probabilistic rules that are easy to understand by humans, since the conditions for consequences lead to predictions that become transparent and interpretable. This survey focuses on representational approaches and system architectures, and suggests future research directions.
H. M. Dipu Kabir, Abbas Khosravi, Subrota K. Mondal, Mustaneer Rahman, Saeid Nahavandi, Rajkumar Buyya
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-30; https://doi.org/10.1145/3447583

Abstract:
The rapid growth of the cloud industry has increased challenges in the proper governance of the cloud infrastructure. Many intelligent systems have been developing, considering uncertainties in the cloud. Intelligent approaches with the consideration of uncertainties bring optimal management with higher profitability. Uncertainties of different levels and different types exist in various domains of cloud computing. This survey aims to discuss all types of uncertainties and their effect on different components of cloud computing. The article first presents the concept of uncertainty and its quantification. A vast number of uncertain events influence the cloud, as it is connected with the entire world through the internet. Five major uncertain parameters are identified, which are directly affected by numerous uncertain events and affect the performance of the cloud. Notable events affecting major uncertain parameters are also described. Besides, we present notable uncertainty-aware research works in cloud computing. A hype curve on uncertainty-aware approaches in the cloud is also presented to visualize current conditions and future possibilities. We expect the inauguration of numerous uncertainty-aware intelligent systems in cloud management over time. This article may provide a deeper understanding of managing cloud resources with uncertainties efficiently to future cloud researchers.
Peter Kietzmann, Thomas C. Schmidt, Matthias Wählisch
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-38; https://doi.org/10.1145/3453159

Abstract:
Random numbers are an essential input to many functions on the Internet of Things (IoT). Common use cases of randomness range from low-level packet transmission to advanced algorithms of artificial intelligence as well as security and trust, which heavily rely on unpredictable random sources. In the constrained IoT, though, unpredictable random sources are a challenging desire due to limited resources, deterministic real-time operations, and frequent lack of a user interface. In this article, we revisit the generation of randomness from the perspective of an IoT operating system (OS) that needs to support general purpose or crypto-secure random numbers. We analyze the potential attack surface, derive common requirements, and discuss the potentials and shortcomings of current IoT OSs. A systematic evaluation of current IoT hardware components and popular software generators based on well-established test suits and on experiments for measuring performance give rise to a set of clear recommendations on how to build such a random subsystem and which generators to use.
Harley Vera-Olivera, Ruizhe Guo, Ruben Cruz Huacarpuma, Ana Paula Bernardi Da Silva, Ari Melo Mariano, Maristela Holanda
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1145/3457608

Abstract:
Modeling is one of the most important steps in developing a database. In traditional databases, the Entity Relationship (ER) and Unified Modeling Language (UML) models are widely used. But how are NoSQL databases being modeled? We performed a systematic mapping review to answer three research questions to identify and analyze the levels of representation, models used, and contexts where the modeling process occurred in the main categories of NoSQL databases. We found 54 primary studies where we identified that conceptual and logical levels received more attention than the physical level of representation. The UML, ER, and new notation based on ER and UML were adapted to model NoSQL databases, in the same way, formats such as JSON, XML, and XMI were used to generate schemas through the three levels of representation. New contexts such as benchmark, evaluations, migration, and schema generation were identified, as well as new features to be considered for modeling NoSQL databases, such as the number of records by entities, CRUD operations, and system requirements (availability, consistency, or scalability). Additionally, a coupling and co-citation analysis was carried out to identify relevant works and researchers.
Thomas Plötz
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1145/3459666

Abstract:
With the widespread proliferation of (miniaturized) sensing facilities and the massive growth and popularity of the field of machine learning (ML) research, new frontiers in automated sensor data analysis have been explored that lead to paradigm shifts in many application domains. In fact, many practitioners now employ and rely more and more on ML methods as integral part of their sensor data analysis workflows—thereby not necessarily being ML experts or having an interest in becoming one. The availability of toolkits that can readily be used by practitioners has led to immense popularity and widespread adoption and, in essence, pragmatic use of ML methods. ML having become mainstream helps pushing the core agenda of practitioners, yet it comes with the danger of misusing methods and as such running the risk of leading to misguiding if not flawed results. Based on years of observations in the ubiquitous and interactive computing domain that extensively relies on sensors and automated sensor data analysis, and on having taught and worked with numerous students in the field, in this article I advocate a considerate use of ML methods by practitioners, i.e., non-ML experts, and elaborate on pitfalls of an overly pragmatic use of ML techniques. The article not only identifies and illustrates the most common issues, it also offers ways and practical guidelines to avoid these, which shall help practitioners to benefit from employing ML in their core research domains and applications.
Panagiotis Oikonomou, Anna Karanika, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Kostas Kolomvatsos
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-42; https://doi.org/10.1145/3456630

Abstract:
Nowadays, we are witnessing the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) with numerous devices performing interactions between them or with their environment. The huge number of devices leads to huge volumes of data that demand the appropriate processing. The “legacy” approach is to rely on Cloud where increased computational resources can realize any desired processing. However, the need for supporting real-time applications requires a reduced latency in the provision of outcomes. Edge Computing (EC) comes as the “solver” of the latency problem. Various processing activities can be performed at EC nodes having direct connection with IoT devices. A number of challenges should be met before we conclude a fully automated ecosystem where nodes can cooperate or understand their status to efficiently serve applications. In this article, we perform a survey of the relevant research activities towards the vision of Edge Mesh (EM), i.e., a “cover” of intelligence upon the EC. We present the necessary hardware and discuss research outcomes in every aspect of EC/EM nodes functioning. We present technologies and theories adopted for data, tasks, and resource management while discussing how machine learning and optimization can be adopted in the domain.
Routa Moussaileb, Nora Cuppens, Jean-Louis Lanet, Hélène Le Bouder
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.1145/3453153

Abstract:
Ransomware remains an alarming threat in the 21st century. It has evolved from being a simple scare tactic into a complex malware capable of evasion. Formerly, end-users were targeted via mass infection campaigns. Nevertheless, in recent years, the attackers have focused on targeted attacks, since the latter are profitable and can induce severe damage. A vast number of detection mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. We provide a systematic review of ransomware countermeasures starting from its deployment on the victim machine until the ransom payment via cryptocurrency. We define four stages of this malware attack: Delivery, Deployment, Destruction, and Dealing. Then, we assign the corresponding countermeasures for each phase of the attack and cluster them by the techniques used. Finally, we propose a roadmap for researchers to fill the gaps found in the literature in ransomware’s battle.
Xiaoxuan Lou, Tianwei Zhang, Jun Jiang, Yinqian Zhang
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 54, pp 1-37; https://doi.org/10.1145/3456629

Abstract:
Side-channel attacks have become a severe threat to the confidentiality of computer applications and systems. One popular type of such attacks is the microarchitectural attack, where the adversary exploits the hardware features to break the protection enforced by the operating system and steal the secrets from the program. In this article, we systematize microarchitectural side channels with a focus on attacks and defenses in cryptographic applications. We make three contributions. (1) We survey past research literature to categorize microarchitectural side-channel attacks. Since these are hardware attacks targeting software, we summarize the vulnerable implementations in software, as well as flawed designs in hardware. (2) We identify common strategies to mitigate microarchitectural attacks, from the application, OS, and hardware levels. (3) We conduct a large-scale evaluation on popular cryptographic applications in the real world and analyze the severity, practicality, and impact of side-channel vulnerabilities. This survey is expected to inspire side-channel research community to discover new attacks, and more importantly, propose new defense solutions against them.
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