Journal of Vestibular Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0957-4271 / 1878-6464
Published by: IOS Press (10.3233)
Total articles ≅ 1,668
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Michael Strupp, Alexandre Bisdorff, Joseph Furman, Jeremy Hornibrook, Klaus Jahn, Raphael Maire, David Newman-Toker, Mns Magnusson
Published: 11 June 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, pp 1-18;

This paper describes the diagnostic criteria for Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy (AUVP), synonymous for vestibular neuritis, as defined by the Committee for the Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society. AUVP manifests as an acute vestibular syndrome due to an acute unilateral loss of peripheral vestibular function without evidence for acute central or acute audiological symptoms or signs. This implies that the diagnosis of AUVP is based on the patient history, bedside examination, and, if necessary, laboratory evaluation. The leading symptom is an acute or rarely subacute onset of spinning or non-spinning vertigo with unsteadiness, nausea/vomiting and/or oscillopsia. A leading clinical sign is a spontaneous peripheral vestibular nystagmus, which is direction-fixed and enhanced by removal of visual fixation with a trajectory appropriate to the semicircular canal afferents involved (generally horizontal-torsional). The diagnostic criteria were classified by the committee for four categories: 1. “Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy”, 2. “Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy in Evolution”, 3. “Probable Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy” and 4. “History of Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy”. The specific diagnostic criteria for these are as follows: “Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy”: A) Acute or subacute onset of sustained spinning or non-spinning vertigo (i.e., an acute vestibular syndrome) of moderate to severe intensity with symptoms lasting for at least 24 hours. B) Spontaneous peripheral vestibular nystagmus with a trajectory appropriate to the semicircular canal afferents involved, generally horizontal-torsional, direction-fixed, and enhanced by removal of visual fixation. C) Unambiguous evidence of reduced VOR function on the side opposite the direction of the fast phase of the spontaneous nystagmus. D) No evidence for acute central neurological, otological or audiological symptoms. E) No acute central neurological signs, namely no central ocular motor or central vestibular signs, in particular no pronounced skew deviation, no gaze-evoked nystagmus, and no acute audiologic or otological signs. F) Not better accounted for by another disease or disorder. “Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy in Evolution”: A) Acute or subacute onset of sustained spinning or non-spinning vertigo with continuous symptoms for more than 3 hours, but not yet lasting for at least 24 h hours, when patient is seen; B) - F) as above. This category is useful for diagnostic reasons to differentiate from acute central vestibular syndromes, to initiate specific treatments, and for research to include patients in clinical studies. “Probable Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy”: Identical to AUVP except that the unilateral VOR deficit is not clearly observed or documented. “History of acute unilateral vestibulopathy“: A) History of acute or subacute onset of vertigo lasting at least 24 hours and slowly decreasing in intensity. B) No history of simultaneous acute audiological or central neurological symptoms. C) Unambiguous evidence of unilaterally reduced VOR function. D) No history of simultaneous acute central neurological signs, namely no central ocular motor or central vestibular signs and no acute audiological or otological signs. E) Not better accounted for by another disease or disorder. This category allows a diagnosis in patients presenting with a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit and a history of an acute vestibular syndrome who are examined well after the acute phase. It is important to note that since there is no definite test for AUVP. Therefore, its diagnosis requires the exclusion of central lesions as well as a variety of other peripheral vestibular disorders. Finally, this consensus paper will discuss other aspects of AUVP such as etiology, pathophysiology and laboratory examinations if they are directly relevant to the classification criteria.
Fatemeh Hassannia, Priyanka Misale, Shaleen Sulway, Gabriela Vergara Olmos, Sasan Dabiri, Paul Ranalli, John Alexander Rutka
Published: 6 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, pp 1-7;

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) in the management of patients with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia with bilateral vestibulopathy (iCABV). BACKGROUND: iCABV is a hindbrain degenerative disorder with impairment of both central and peripheral vestibular pathways. There is combined failure of four compensatory eye movement systems including the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), optokinetic reflex, smooth pursuit and the visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR). Phenotypic presentation includes postural and gait instability, oscillopsia and dizziness with active head movement. The benefit of VRT in iCABV patients has not been established. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of twelve patients diagnosed with iCABV in a multidisciplinary neuro-otology clinic. All participated in VRT and completed their suggested course of VRT. The following clinical measures were assessed before starting and after finishing VRT: 1) Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), 2) Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, 3) Catastrophization scale, 4) Positive Affective Negative Affective Score (PANAS), 5) Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and 6) Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction in Balance (mCTSIB). The number of falls historically was recorded in addition to gait speed (ft./sec). RESULTS: Following VRT, patients were found to have improved balance on mCTSIB (condition 4 : 7 vs 18 seconds, P = 0.04) and a better postural stability with a reduced number of falls (p = 0.01). No statistically significant improvement was seen in the DHI, ABC, Catastrophization scale, DGI, PANAS and gait speed (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: iCABV patients who underwent VRT were found to have a better postural stability and reduced risk of falls. VRT was not found to significantly improve patients’ overall subjective perception of their symptoms or their psychological status.
Kristen L. Janky, Megan Thomas, Sarah Al-Salim, Sara Robinson
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 245-260;

BACKGROUND: In adults, vestibular loss is associated with cognitive deficits; however, similar relationships have not been studied in children. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of vestibular loss on working memory and executive function in children with a cochlear implant (CCI) compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). METHODS: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential, video head impulse, rotary chair, and balance testing; and the following clinical measures: vision, hearing, speech perception, language, executive function, and working memory. RESULTS: Thirty-eight CNH and 37 CCI participated (26 with normal vestibular function, 5 with unilateral vestibular loss, 6 with bilateral vestibular loss). Children with vestibular loss demonstrated the poorest balance performance. There was no significant reduction in working memory or executive function performance for either CCI group with vestibular loss; however, multivariate regression analysis suggested balance performance was a significant predictor for several working memory subtests and video head impulse gain was a significant predictor for one executive function outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CCI with vestibular loss did not have significantly reduced working memory or executive function; however, balance performance was a significant predictor for several working memory subtests. Degree of hearing loss should be considered, and larger sample sizes are needed.
Jayson Lee Azzi, Michel Khoury, Jeanne Séguin, Ryan Rourke, Debora Hogan, Darren Tse, Daniel A. Lelli
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 285-293;

BACKGROUND: Persistent Postural Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD) is a newly defined condition which was added to the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders in 2017. Little is known about its impact on patients. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze the symptomology, epidemiology and impact of PPPD on patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was done to identify patients who attended the Multidisciplinary Dizziness Clinic (MDC) and were diagnosed with PPPD. Responses to demographic questions, health-related quality of life surveys and several well-validated questionnaires commonly used to assess dizziness severity were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred patients were diagnosed with PPPD between March 2017 and January 2019, of which 80%(80/100) were females. The average Dizziness Handicap Index score was 60.3±19.0. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire classified 53 patients (53/99;53.5%) as moderately to severely depressed. Sixty-four patients (64/100;64.0%) were minimally or mildly anxious according to the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. The average Vertigo Symptom Scale score was 24.1/60. The average Situational Vertigo Questionnaire score was 2.00. Forty-nine (49/100;49.0%) patients had migraine symptoms according to the Migraine Screen Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with PPPD display important handicap and an elevated risk of depression, anxiety and migraines.
Friedrich Ihler, Ivelina Stoycheva, Jennifer L. Spiegel, Daniel Polterauer, Joachim Müller, Ralf Strobl, Eva Grill
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 271-283;

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Menière’s disease (MD) is made according to diagnostic criteria, the last revision of which was in 2015. For diagnosis, symptoms are weighted with audiometric findings and this can be challenging in individual patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze patient’s characteristics and symptoms in a real-life cohort of 96 patients with diagnosed MD regarding sociodemographic parameters, clinical specifics, and audiometry. METHODS: Prospective clinical patient registry containing demographic and socioeconomic parameters, symptoms, as well as pure-tone audiometry data. RESULTS: 31 patients with definite MD, and 36 with probable MD were identified. 29 patients showed typical clinical signs of MD, but did not meet the full diagnostic criteria, and were considered separately. Mean duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 3.9±4.6 years. Significant differences between categories were found regarding aural fullness, tinnitus, and fluctuating hearing. If multiple audiograms were available, 28.6 % (6/21) documented fluctuating hearing. CONCLUSIONS: Current diagnostic criteria probably do not represent patients with monosymptomatic presentation or an early stage very well. Long-term follow-up with repeated audiometry is advisable.
Ji-Soo Kim, David E. Newman-Toker, Kevin A. Kerber, Klaus Jahn, Pierre Bertholon, John Waterston, Hyung Lee, Alexandre Bisdorff, Michael Strupp
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 205-222;

This paper presents diagnostic criteria for vascular vertigo and dizziness as formulated by the Committee for the Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society. The classification includes vertigo/dizziness due to stroke or transient ischemic attack as well as isolated labyrinthine infarction/hemorrhage, and vertebral artery compression syndrome. Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Vascular vertigo/dizziness may be acute and prolonged (≥24 hours) or transient (minutes to < 24 hours). Vascular vertigo/dizziness should be considered in patients who present with acute vestibular symptoms and additional central neurological symptoms and signs, including central HINTS signs (normal head-impulse test, direction-changing gaze-evoked nystagmus, or pronounced skew deviation), particularly in the presence of vascular risk factors. Isolated labyrinthine infarction does not have a confirmatory test, but should be considered in individuals at increased risk of stroke and can be presumed in cases of acute unilateral vestibular loss if accompanied or followed within 30 days by an ischemic stroke in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. For diagnosis of vertebral artery compression syndrome, typical symptoms and signs in combination with imaging or sonographic documentation of vascular compromise are required.
Kim E. Hawkins, Elodie Chiarovano, Serene S. Paul, Ann M Burgess, Hamish G. MacDougall, Ian S. Curthoys
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 261-269;

BACKGROUND: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common multi-system neurodegenerative disorder with possible vestibular system dysfunction, but prior vestibular function test findings are equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To report and compare vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain as measured by the video head impulse test (vHIT) in participants with PD, including tremor dominant and postural instability/gait dysfunction phenotypes, with healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Forty participants with PD and 40 age- and gender-matched HC had their vestibular function assessed. Lateral and vertical semicircular canal VOR gains were measured with vHIT. VOR canal gains between PD participants and HC were compared with independent samples t-tests. Two distinct PD phenotypes were compared to HC using Tukey’s ANOVA. The relationship of VOR gain with PD duration, phenotype, severity and age were investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in vHIT VOR gain for lateral or vertical canals. There was no evidence of an effect of PD severity, phenotype or age on VOR gains in the PD group. CONCLUSION: The impulsive angular VOR pathways are not significantly affected by the pathophysiological changes associated with mild to moderate PD.
Rachel D. Wellons, Sydney E. Duhe, Sara G. MacDowell, April Hodge, Sara Oxborough, Elizabeth E. Levitzky
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 223-233;

BACKGROUND: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapists (VRT) utilize outcome measures to quantify gait and balance abilities in individuals with vestibular disorders (IVD). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in gait and balance outcome measures for IVD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to estimate the MCID of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and Gait Speed (GS) using distribution and anchor-based methods relative to the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) in IVD. METHODS: Data were collected using a retrospective chart review from two outpatient Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) clinics. Data included demographic characteristics, diagnosis, VR course, and pre and post outcome measures including DHI, ABC, FGA, and GS. The DHI was used to classify subjects as “responders” or “non-responders” in order to calculate MCID values. RESULTS: The total number of subjects analyzed for each outcome measure was 222 for the ABC, 220 for FGA, and 237 for GS. Subjects made statistically significant improvements in ABC, DHI, FGA, and GS (p < 0.001) from pre to post VR. The MCID calculated for ABC, FGA, and GS using the anchor-based approach was 18.1%, 4 points, and 0.09 m/s respectively. The MCIDs calculated using distribution-based approach for the ABC ranged between 7.5–23.5%, FGA ranged between 1.31–4.15 points, and GS ranged between 0.07 m/s–0.22 m/s. CONCLUSIONS: The anchor-based calculations of the MCID of 18.1%, 4 points, and 0.09 m/s for ABC, FGA, and GS respectively for IVD should be used over distribution-based calculations. This is due to strength of DHI as the anchor and statistical analysis. VRT and researches can use these values to indicate meaningful changes in gait and balance function in IVD.
Daniel H. Verdecchia, Daniel Hernandez, Mauro F. Andreu, Sandra E. Salzberg, Susan L. Whitney
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 235-243;

BACKGROUND: Visual vertigo (VV), triggered by environmental or dynamic visual stimuli and repetitive visual patterns, can affect daily life activities. The Visual Vertigo Analogue Scale (VVAS) is a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire to assess VV, which has been culturally adapted to the Argentine population but has not been validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Argentine version of VVAS (VVAS-A) by confirming its psychometric properties in patients with vestibular disorders. METHODS: Vestibular patients (n = 82) completed the VVAS-A and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory Argentine version (DHI-A) during their initial visit and one week later. The VVAS-A's internal consistency, test retest reliability, ceiling and floor effects, and construct validity were determined. Test-retest data (n = 71) was used to calculate reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1). RESULTS: A ceiling effect was observed in 12 patients (14.6%). Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.91). The reliability was r = 0.764 [CI 95%: 0.7 –0.86]). Correlations were observed between the VVAS-A and the total DHI-A score (rho = 0.571), the DHI-A physical subscale (rho: 0.578), and DHI-A functional and emotional subscales of the DHI-A (rho: 0.537 and 0.387, respectively). CONCLUSION: The VVA-A is a valid, reliable tool to evaluate VV in patients with vestibular disorders.
Michelle Truong, Christo Bester, Kumiko Orimoto, Maria Vartanyan, Debra Phyland, Hamish MacDougall, Sylvia Tari, Alex Rousset, Ian Curthoys, Stephen O’Leary
Published: 2 May 2022
Journal of Vestibular Research, Volume 32, pp 295-304;

BACKGROUND: Dizziness is a common perioperative complication after cochlear implantation (CI). To date, the exact cause behind this phenomenon remains unclear. There is recent evidence to suggest that otolith function, specifically utricular, may be affected shortly after CI surgery, however whether these changes are related to patient symptoms has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CI surgery and perioperative dizziness is associated with changes in utricular function. METHODS: We performed an observational study on patients undergoing routine CI surgery. Utricular function was assessed using the Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV), and perioperative dizziness was determined using a questionnaire. The study followed patients before surgery and then again 1-day, 1-week and 6-weeks after implantation. RESULTS: Forty-one adult CI recipients participated in the study. The SVV deviated away from the operated ear by an average of 2.17° a day after implantation, 0.889° 1 week and –0.25° 6 weeks after surgery. Dizziness contributed to a tilt of 0.5° away from the implanted ear. These deviations were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: CI surgery causes utricular hyperfunction in the operated ear that resolves over 6 weeks. SVV tilts were greater in participants experiencing dizziness, suggesting that utricular hyperfunction may contribute to the dizziness.
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