Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering

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ISSN : 0315-8977
Published by: Canadian Science Publishing (10.1139)
Total articles ≅ 1,751
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, Mubashir Ali Siddiqui, Usman Allauddin
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering;

The effectiveness of the parabolic dish system (PDS) is greatly affected by the heat losses associated with high temperatures. The complexity of flow and temperature patterns in and around the cavity receiver makes it a challenging task to determine the convective heat loss from the cavity. Various studies have been carried out to determine the convection heat losses from isolated cavities of different shapes. In the presence of dish structure, the free stream wind may affect the stability of structure and the heat losses from the PDS. In this study, effect of focal length on the performance of the coupled cavity-dish system was analyzed using numerical simulations. The loading and the convective heat loss from the cavity were examined with three different cavity positions and different operating conditions in the presence of the dish. The results showed that the shallow dish experienced higher local air velocities near the cavity receiver than in the case of the deep dish. It was concluded that the heat loss is a stronger function of tilt angle rather than focal length, and in essence, the heat losses due to variation of this are negligible.
Xinsheng Yang, Kuanyu Liu, , Weijin Zhu
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering;

Titanium alloy is an important class of aerospace material due to its high specific strength, excellent anti-corrosion and anti-oxidation. In this paper, a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupled simulation was carried out to predict the formation characteristics of TC4 titanium alloy self-locking nut during the upset forging process. The stability of the upset forging was analyzed, and the influences of initial temperature and deformation velocity on the formation quality were investigated. The results show that if length-diameter ratio of the sample less than 3.27, the upset forging formation tends to be stable, and here, the length-diameter ratio of 2.89 was selected. Additionally, the forming quality of TC4 self-locking nut improves with the increase of initial temperature and decreases with the increase of the velocity of the upper die. The analysis results can provide a theoretical guidance for the upset forging formation of TC4 titanium alloy nuts.
Arina Braganca Moraes, , Line Tremblay, Moriah Thorpe, Francis Theriault
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering;

Gross motor skills assessment is important for children, youth and adults and can be beneficial in the study and diagnosis of different health conditions. Classical tools are administered mainly by operators. A computerized system using sensors to assess the gross motor skills would enhance these tools, providing consistency of measurements, reduced human error and automated data collection. As part of a computerized system to measure gross motor skills using the KinectTM , we present the details of development of the algorithms to test the horizontal jump (HJ) skill. These algorithms were developed by translating the performance criteria into equations of the coordinates of anatomical landmarks describing an expected kinematic behaviour of relevant body parts. Testing of the algorithms showed that they were successful in correctly evaluating the performance criteria.
Ming Li, Gaolin Hou, Lei Shu, Changhua Wei,
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering;

The noise reduction of air-conditioning systems has gradually become an urgent problem with the comfortable requirement of driving, and the muffler is a commonly used noise reduction equipment for air-conditioning pipeline. In this article, the transmission loss of prototype muffler is co-simulated at different speeds. For optimizing the muffler, a new method that combines orthogonal optimization and detailed optimization is proposed. In orthogonal optimization, the multi-objectives orthogonal test is used to analyze the effect of four structural parameters (the shoulder height, the length of the cavity, the diameter of cavity, and the length of intubation) on the average transmission loss, the transmission loss at 1120Hz, and the frequency band width below 4dB. The influence of different factors on the transmission loss is studied at different speeds, and it found that the length of intubation has a significant impact on the transmission loss. In detailed optimization, the method is characterized by rapidity in the design of air conditioning system of vehicle, and the final optimization model is determined. The results show that the optimized structure is better than the original structure. The maximum reduction of average noise can reach 11.99dB, and the maximum noise reduction at 1120Hz reach 8.58dB.
Yao Wang, Dagang Sun, Zhanlong Li, Yuan Qin, Bao Sun
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 355-362;

Traditional viscoelastic constitutive models encounter the problems of massive parameters and ambiguous physical meanings. A new concept variable-order viscoelastic constitutive (called VOVC) model is put forward based on the constant fractional-order constitutive model and viscoelastic theory. The determination methods of the two parameters in the VOVC model, including the material coefficient and viscoelastic coefficient, are discussed both in the tensile and resilient processes. Comparisons are made between the VOVC model and traditional constitutive models, i.e., the constant fractional-order Kelvin–Voigt (CFKV) model, the Zhu–Wang–Tang nonlinear thermo-viscoelastic constitutive (ZWT) model, and the Ogden nonlinear hyper-elastic (Ogden) model. The results show that the VOVC model with the constant material coefficient and the variable viscoelastic coefficient predicts the whole evolution of the constitutive behavior of the viscoelastic material under the constant strain rate more precisely. The constant material coefficient in the VOVC model means the stiffness of the viscoelastic material. The variable viscoelastic coefficient in the model means the distribution of the elasticity and viscosity. The proposed VOVC model contains a simpler structure, fewer parameters, clearer physical meanings, and higher precision.
K. Logesh, M. Nagaraj, G. Mageshwaran, R.B. Durairaj, D. Christopher
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 496-499;

The use of biofuels, namely alcohols and biodiesel, leads to lower efficiency and higher nitric oxide (NO) emissions compared with the use of diesel. The objective of this study was to reduce the emissions and enhance the performance from neat coconut oil biodiesel. To begin, the diethyl ether (oxygenated additive, OA) was blended with transesterified coconut oil biodiesel (CBD100). The OA was varied in CBD at 5% and 10% on a volume basis. The results revealed that the addition of the OA to CBD resulted in no phase separation in all working conditions. Further, adding 10% OA to CBD resulted in lower carbon monoxide (1.7%), smoke (2.1%), NO (2.7%), and hydrocarbon (1.9%) emissions than neat CBD. In addition, efficiency increased (1.2%) and fuel consumption lowered (1.3%) by blending the OA with CBD at all loads.
Jie Li, Yuanjun Huang, Xin Zhang, Ye Sun, Jingbo Guo
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 384-395;

As the main rock-breaking tool of the tunnel boring machine, wear of the disc cutter is affected by geological conditions, equipment factors, and tunneling parameters when it interacts with rock. Because of the complex factors affecting disc cutter wear, it is difficult to accurately predict the wear of the disc cutter. In this study, the rock-breaking mechanism and the force of the disc cutter were analyzed, and a theoretical prediction model of disc cutter wear was established based on the friction work principle. The parameters in the disc cutter wear prediction model were determined by simulation, and a prediction method of disc cutter wear is proposed. Finally, the wear prediction model of the disc cutter was verified by field wear data. The results show that the average error between the predicted value of the disc cutter and the actual wear data from the field is 16.1%. The wear prediction model of the disc cutter has high accuracy and adaptability. The research results provide an effective method for wear prediction of the disc cutter, which is of great significance and engineering value for cutter replacement and construction management.
Zhiqiang Wang, Zhenyu Lei
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 411-420;

There are few systematic researches on the dynamic characteristics of a wheelset–track system under different corrugation excitations. To study the influence of different corrugations on the wheelset–track dynamic characteristics, a three-dimensional wheelset–track rolling contact model is established, and the model rationality is analyzed. Then, the wavelength and wave depth of the initial corrugation irregularity for simulation analysis are determined according to the measured data. Finally, the wheel–rail vertical force and wheel vertical vibration acceleration are selected as the output variables, and the wheelset–track dynamic responses under excitations are studied. The results show that comparing with the middle/long-wavelength irregularity, the short-wavelength irregularity will not increase the amplitude of wheel–rail dynamic action but will increase the frequency of wheel–rail dynamic action. The initial irregularity wave depth will not affect the frequency of wheel–rail dynamic action but will affect the amplitude of wheel–rail dynamic action, and the greater the amplitude of the wave depth is, the greater the impact on the dynamic responses of the wheelset–track system is. The main characteristic frequencies of output variables are close to the initial irregularity passing frequency, and the other peak frequencies are in a frequency multiplication relationship with the initial irregularity passing frequency.
V. Srinivasan, P. Karuppuswamy, T. Velmurugan, G. Suganya Priyadharshini
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 421-428;

NiCr metal is deposited on martensitic stainless steel using an atmospheric plasma spray method. To enrich the metallurgical properties of the NiCr metallic coating, a standard heat treatment process is adopted. From the investigation, it has been shown that the voids and porosity developed during the thermal spray have been controlled through heat treatment. Electron image analysis reveals that the coating has reduced porosity with strong and dense bonding strength. With reference to the surface hardness, the post-processed coating yields a maximum of 140 Hv compared with the coated (129 Hv) and base metal (115 Hv). Subsequently, the sliding wear behaviour of post-processed NiCr coating has a minimum wear of 25 μm for an applied load of 5 N and 57 μm for an applied load of 15 N. Owing to the high metallurgical bonding, the coating has sustained the heavy loads, and the wear formation is controlled. However, the base metal has an adhesive wear mechanism caused by the high frictional force on the sliding friction. Therefore, it is recommended that post-processed thermal barrier coatings possess good metallurgical bonding and withstand heavy load causing minimum wear.
, M. Sekar
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Volume 45, pp 473-478;

With the depletion of conventional energy sources, the need for unconventional energy is focused on solar energy as it is avail plentiful. Converting solar energy into thermal energy is an effective way of utilizing solar energy rather than the conversion of electrical energy. This paper compared the behavior of a solar collector at 30° and 45° angles with a black chrome coated absorber plate without and with glass reflectors. In view of the performance enhancement of the collector, the reflector was adjusted to maximize the incident ray for every hour. It was found that the collector fixed at a 30° inclination to the ground heats the water better, and again the performance can be increased by the reflector.
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