Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2585-6626 / 2585-6634
Current Publisher: OU Scientific Route (10.21303)
Total articles ≅ 64
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Liliya Babinets, Iryna Halabitska
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 21-23; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001488

Abstract:
The study of the functional capacity of the pancreas in chronic pancreatitis (CP) in comorbidity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and primary osteoarthritis (OA) is also relevant given that patients with this combination are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the state of functional capacity of the pancreas in patients with comorbid chronic pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoarthritis. Material and methods. 117 patients with CP with OA with concomitant DM2 and without it were studied. The main group consisted of 92 outpatients with CP with OA in combination with diabetes in the phase of stable or unstable remission, the comparison group – 25 patients with isolated CP with primary OA, and the control group – 30 healthy individuals. Diagnoses of OA, CP and DM2 were established according to generally accepted criteria and protocols Results. Analysis of the data showed that on average in the contingent of studied patients with comorbid OA, CP and DM2 excretory insufficiency of pancreas was significantly more severe than in the group of patients with isolated CP with OA. Conclusions. In the combined course of CP and DM2 with OA, the correlation between fecal α-elastase-1 and glycosylated hemoglobin was statistically significantly stronger than in the group of patients with isolated CP, indicating a mutually aggravating effect of CP and DM2.
, Larysa Nazarenko
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 17-20; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001480

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to clarify obstetric and perinatal risk in women born with low or overweight. Materials and methods. 343 women with birth weight abnormalities were examined. From them 3 groups are made, according to criterion “weight of the woman at a birth”: I – 107 women with low weight at a birth, II – 126 with excess, III – 110 people with normal weight. The anamnesis, in particular, family and own perinatal, as well as nutritional support, anthropometric data, the structure of pregnancy complications, the rate of growth and development of the fetus, perinatal results were determined. Levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were determined as markers of nutritional support of the organism, as indicators of angiogenesis were determined – concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor in blood, morpho-functional studies of placenta were performed. Results. Women born underweight are more likely to have menstrual disorders (every 4), infertility (every 10), miscarriage (every 5) and gynecological diseases. The pathology of gestation in such women and their mothers is similar in spectrum, which is an example of intrauterine programming. The implementation of this program is facilitated by negative factors of nutritional provision: inadequate breastfeeding, economical type of nutrition in favor of restricting protein foods and deviations in the process of angiogenesis. Conclusions. The importance of perinatal history as a factor that determines the increased risk of menstrual disorders, the frequency of infertility, the pathological course of gestation during pregnancy, the predisposition to placental insufficiency and the birth of a child with low weight. Women born with low birth weight and overweight are a contingent of increased perinatal risk, which is associated with a complicated own perinatal history on the background of obstetric pathology in their mothers. This fact complements the concept of intrauterine programming.
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 14-16; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001478

Abstract:
The aim of the study.Analysis of tactics of antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis b in pregnant women. Methods. Theoretical analysis of scientific literature; analysis and generalization. Statistics and comparisons. Classification of theoretical material and development of recommendations. Research results.Today, there are about 2 billion people in the world ill with a chronic infection caused by the hepatitis B virus, 350 million of whom suffer from chronic hepatitis B, and most are asymptomatic carriers of the Australian antigen (HBsAg). Up to 50 % of all new cases of hepatitis B virus infection are due to vertical infection. Despite the lack of increase in viral load during pregnancy, alanine aminotransferase tends to increase in late pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A sharp drop in postpartum corticosteroids may create favourable conditions for hepatitis B virus activation. It is emphasized that the current treatment of hepatitis B virus includes the use of antiviral drugs, where Peg-IFN is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy, lamivudine and entecavir are classified by the FDA as category C, and tenofovir and telbivudine are classified as category B. During pregnancy, it is recommended to use mainly category B drugs. Conclusions. The use of antiviral therapy in combination with immunoprophylaxis of new-borns is the optimal strategy for implementation as a universal program, as the success of such an intervention can make a significant contribution to achieving the ultimate goal of global elimination of hepatitis B virus.
Pavlo Ivanchov, , Anton Kurbanov
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 28-30; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001492

Abstract:
The aim is to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with gastric malignant tumors, complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding, by developing and implementing in clinical practice a new treatment tactic. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of the Kyiv City Center for Emergency Care of Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleedings and at the Kyiv City Clinical Ambulance Hospital (Ukraine) for the period from 2010 to 2020. A comprehensive examination and analysis of reatment’s results of 140 patients with malignant gastric tumors complicated by acute gastrointestinal bleeding, which amounted to 2.2 % of all reated patients with gastrointestinal bleeding during this period. Results. Radical operations were performed in 97 (69.3 %) patients, palliative and symptomatic – in 43 (30.7 %). Comparing the frequency of complications in the two periods of treatment of patients, a decrease in the second period, compared with the first period, the frequency of complications from 27.2 % to 11.4 % due to a decrease of 1.8 times (from 68.8 % to 37,5 %) complications after emergencies and related fatalities from 36.4 % to 0 and 2.2 times (from 20.8 % to 9.6 %) the incidence of complications after early delayed operations with a decrease in frequency fatalities from 20.9 % to 18.2 %. Conclusions. Operations at the height of acute bleeding in patients with gastric cancer are too dangerous due to the high postoperative mortality. The optimal standard is the use of a set of minimally invasive methods of endosurgical hemostasis to stop active bleeding and prevent its recurrence and operate on patients in the early delayed period. Adherence to such tactics is expedient from the point of view of reduction of risk for a life of the patient and possibility of carrying out radical operations.
, Sergey Khilko
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 43-46; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001449

Abstract:
Reproduction is a crucial issue at the present stage in the pig husbandry development. Infertility of breeding sows leads to excessive use of feed, increased costs associated with failed inseminations, insufficient breed and early culling of sows. Aim of the research. Study of infertility types and prevention of postpartum diseases in sows in order to develop methods to control them. Methods. A two-stage experiment was carried out in 2019–2020 at the LLC "Ryasnyanske" farm in Sumy region, Ukraine. The first stage involved development of a method for prevention and control of infertility in sows. The second stage focused on the method of postpartum pathology prevention. Results. The conducted research established that surfagon and vitamins manifested the highest efficiency in case of alimentary infertility as they increased fertilization by 20.8 %. In terms of symptomatic infertility, the best results were achieved through a combined use of surfagon and gonadotropic hormone for both primary and multiple fertilization of sows, especially considering extremely low values ​​in the control group - 15 % and 6.5 % of piglets, respectively. Aminazine proved to be the most effective remedy for immune infertility, the obtained results were 17.2 % higher than in the control group. Surfagon at a dose of 5 ml together with estrofan twice a day fully prevented inflammatory postpartum pathologies in sows. Conclusions. Pathologies of the reproductive organs in sows are widespread at pork-producing farms. Individual use of surfagon was justified for treatment of alimentary, symptomatic and immune infertility of sows and prevention of postpartum pathologies. A combined use of tissue therapy and biologically active drugs proved to be the most effective. The treatment regimens described above reduce infertility and prevent postpartum pathologies in sows.
Roman Kulynych, Olena Soloviuk, Oleksandr Soloviuk
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 24-27; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001490

Abstract:
The relationship of visceral obesity and excess body weight (EBW) with the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and effect on quality and duration of life determine the relevance of studying this problem. The aim: to assess omentin-1 metabolism and pathophysiological relationship between its level and the severity of lesions in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries in type 2 DM in combination with EBW and obesity. Materials and methods. We examined 98 people with DM, the first group consisted of 64 people with EBW and obesity, second group consisted of 34 people with normal body weight, control group – 28 healthy individuals. The concentration of omentin-1 was investigated by ELISA by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in vitro. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries was performed in the lying position of the patient on the device MyLab50X with a linear sensor of 7 MHz with a slight deviation of the patient's head in the opposite direction. Results. Evaluation of the correlation matrix showed the presence of a positive rather strong negative connection between IMT, especially the right carotid artery and the level of omentin-1 in the blood (Rs = –0.55; p = 0.002). The largest number of individuals with omentin-1 levels from 5–10 ng / ml had significant disorders of the vascular wall (IMT from 1.0 to 1.2 mm). Conclusion. Obtained data indicate a statistically significant associative relationship between the dynamics of the predictor of cardiovascular risk – IMT with the degree of impaired expression of omentin-1.
, Tetiana Nedzheria
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 47-50; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001448

Abstract:
G. duodenalis is the most widespread among the six generally recognized species of giardiasis affecting the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Destruction of Giardia intestinalis oocysts in the environment mitigates the risk of infection for animals and humans. The objective of the study. The research is aimed at establishing the effectiveness of disinfectants against Giardia intestinalis cysts. Methods. The research involved twelve farms in Ukraine. Fecal samples were taken from the tested calves aged from 1 to 3 weeks. Giardiasis was diagnosed on the basis of laboratory tests of calf feces by the Fulleborn's method. The object of study was represented by cysts of Giardia intestinalis obtained from the feces through combined flotation methods. After exposure for a period of 30 and 60 minutes, the supernatant was drained and the precipitate applied to a glass slide to be stained with Lugol's solution. Cysts were subject to evaluation in terms of their morphological features. Their shape, size, color, nuclei location and axon were determined under a microscope at a magnification of about 10x400. Yodosol, Kontavir, Biocontact and Bioluft were used as a disinfectant. Results. The study carried out at dairy farms of various forms of ownership revealed that 25–50 % of calves at the holdings and 50–75 % of those at the farms were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Experiments established that Kontavir at a concentration of 1 %, as a disinfectant, produced a cytotoxic effect (compressed the cyst membrane) on Giardia intestinalis for 60 minutes. If the drug concentration increases to 2–3 %, Kontravir destroys the cyst shell releasing its contents within 30-60 minutes. Conclusions. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis has been established through studying dairy farms in four regions of Ukraine. As a disinfectant, Kontavir at a concentration of 1 % produces a cytotoxic effect (compresses the cyst membrane), at a concentration of 2–3 %, it completely destroys the cyst membrane.
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 34-36; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001502

Abstract:
Children frequently are admitted to pediatric intensive care units due to acute respiratory failure and up to 64 % of them need to be mechanically ventilated and later weaned. The aim was to develop strategy of weaning from mechanical ventilation in children with different types of respiratory failure. Materials and methods. The work was based on results of treatment of 237 patients aged from 1 month to 18 years old, who were divided into control and study group. Patients of study group were randomized into group I (83 patients) and received traditional ICU monitoring and treatment and group II (79 patients), where was used proposed by us methods of monitoring and treatment. Results. There was supplemented data on the etiology of respiratory failure in children with taking into account function of diaphragm, changes in hemodynamics, nutritional status, electrolyte balance and central nervous system function. It was established new mechanisms of inadequacy of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation and found causes of unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation. In addition, it was developed a weaning strategy with goal-directed therapy for disorders treatment according the type of respiratory failure and children`s age. As a result, important scientific problem was solved and the results of treatment of children with respiratory failure was improved. Conclusions. It was found that proposed strategy of weaning from mechanical ventilation allowed to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and the frequency of complications (reintubations). There were no significant differences in the frequency of tracheostomy among patients of I and II groups.
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 7-9; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001487

Abstract:
Cognitive functions and their disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases are an urgent problem of modern neurology. Such functions include memory, attention, praxis, gnosis, language, thinking, control functions. The study of the neuropsychological profile allows a more accurate picture of the involvement in the pathological process of various brain structures and thus facilitate the differential diagnosis. The aim of the research: on the basis of studying of cognitive features of patients with neurodegenerative (demyelinating) pathology to consider possibilities of their psychoneurological adaptation. Materials and methods. The survey data of 104 patients with remitting type of multiple sclerosis, who were treated at the state institution “Institute of Neurology, Psychiatry and Addiction of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine” are presented. To study the disorders of verbal memory, the method of A. R. Luria “Memorization of 10 words” was used, which allows to estimate such parameters as the amount of direct memory and the strength of delayed memory (i.e. indicators of short-term and long-term memory). The Schulte Table method was used to study arbitrary attention disorders. This technique allows you to evaluate such characteristics of random attention as volume, functions of concentration distribution and switching of attention. Results. The data obtained indicate that, depending on the severity of relapses, there are significant differences in the course of mnestic processes. It was found that in severe variants of remissions in women with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) more pronounced than in men, there is a lack of ability to work and exhaustion. Conclusions. It is concluded that the assessment of cognitive deficit out of connection with personal characteristics and emotional and volitional disorders significantly reduces the informativeness and ability to correct cognitive dysfunction. Timely detection of cognitive and emotional-personal changes can not only improve the quality of life of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, but also act as an independent part of the psychoneurological model of adaptation of this category of patients.
Volodymyr Maramukha
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine, Volume 4, pp 31-33; doi:10.21303/2585-663.2020.001491

Abstract:
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly. The aim of the study. To study apoptotic processes and their role in the formation of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and to develop new treatment regimens with a specific neuroprotective effect on the dopaminergic system. Materials and methods. The study was carried out on 90 Wistar rats at the age of 6 months weighing 220–290 grams. Parkinsonism was induced by the administration of the neurotoxin MPTP (N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) to experimental rats with neuroprotective treatment: I – Intact (passive control); II – animals with experimental Parkinson's disease (PD, active control); III – PD + Amantadine (AM) IV – PD + AM + Cerebrocurin; V – PD + AM + Pramistar; VI – PD + AM + Gliatilin; VII – PD + AM + Noofen; VIII – PD + AM + Pronoran; IX – PD + AM + Melatonin. Results. The obtained data indicate that neuroprotective therapy of PD with drugs such as melatonin, cerebrocurin, pronoran and gliatilin in combination with amantadine leads to an increase in the expression of the HIF-1α, HIF-3α, HSP70 genes, bcl-2 proteins and decrease c-fos proteins with caspase-3 as markers of apoptosis and can also serve as a molecular marker for the activation of endogenous neuroprotection mechanisms under the conditions of an experimental PD. Conclusions. The study experimentally demonstrated a new target of neuroprotection in PD conditions – apoptosis of dopamine-producing neurons and substantiated modulators of this process – drugs for combined therapy with amantadine (melatonin, cerebrocurin, pronoran and gliatilin) ​​as promising drugs for the treatment of PD.
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