The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 2071-7296 / 2658-5626
Total articles ≅ 336
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V. A. Nikolaiev
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-30-41

Abstract:
Introduction. A continuous action unit for the formation of an underlying layer is designed to increase productivity in the construction of roads and other facilities, for which it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil. In the bucket of the continuous action unit to form an underlying layer of roads provides the use of working bodies, cutting the ground with blades of knives. The cut-off soil enters the buckets. The forces attached to the bucket are considered. Theoretically reasonable total energy costs for ground cutting of one cubic meter by buckets of continuous action unit to form an underlying layer of roads requires 109 kilojoules. Based on the calculations carried out, it is possible to determine the torque, the power required for the lower drive, the transmission ratio from the hydraulic motor to the stars, to develop the design of many elements of the continuous action unit to form the underlying layer of the road. The method of research. To determine the torque, the power required for the lower drive, the transmission ratio from the hydraulic motor to the asterisks, to the projection of the bucket on the horizontal plane attached all forces are applied directed along the bucket. As a result of their addition, the total maximum traction force of moving all the boilers during their filling with soil was revealed. On the basis of this, the method of calculating the parameters of the required is given. There is a danger of the ground being poured out of the bucket when it is rotated on the leading stars of the lower drive. To check the parameters received, the bucket is rotated by 90 degrees on the leading stars of the lower drive. The forces acting on the ground, located in the bucket, at the moment of the beginning of the turn of the bucket were revealed. A system of equations has been created, on the basis of which the condition of inadmissibility of the dumping of soil from the bucket at its turn on the leading stars has been established. Results. As a result of the addition of forces directed in the course of the bucket, the total maximum traction force of moving all the boilers during their filling with the ground, traction force on the right chain and left chain is defined. Traction chains are chosen by destructive load. The torque of the lower drive, the angular speed of the drive stars, the power required for the lower drive, the transmission ratio from the hydraulic motor to the asterisk are calculated. Based on the transferable power, a gerotor motor is chosen for the lower drive of the unit. On the basis of the calculations the design of chains, support rink, chain suspension have been developed. Conclusion. Based on the calculations made, the maximum traction force of all the buckets during the period when they are filled with soil is 11,870 newtons, the torque of the lower drive is 2,362 newtonometers, the speed of the chains is 1,686 meters per second, the angular velocity of the drive stars is 8,47 radians per second, power required for lower drive is 20 kilowatts. Based on the transferable power, it is advisable to use MT-160 gerotor motor and a single-stage planetary gearbox with a transmission ratio from the hydraulic motor to the stars 7,674. The calculations made it possible to develop the design of many elements of the continuous action unit to form an underlying layer of roads.
A. I. Fadeev, S. Alhusseini
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-52-71

Abstract:
Introduction. The methods used today for determining the demand on public transport come with a big waste of time, resources and a need for great effort. In this regard, a special perspective is to study the transit demand based on the collection, integration and analysis of large and diverse data, which were generated by various sources of human life: Urban computing, Big data, Internet of things. Materials and methods. This article presents a method for determining (restoring) the correspondence of transit passengers by means of intelligent analysis of validation operations data of electronic travel tickets (smart card, transport card, magnetic card, mobile phone or other electronic devices (electronic gadgets)), which are recorded in the automated transportation management system during validation. Results. The algorithm for calculating passenger correspondence is implemented in a computer program using the relational DBMS MS SQL Server. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was verified by calculating the passenger correspondence of public transport in the city of Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Discussion and conclusion. The described method for calculating passenger flows, based on analyzing the data of validation operations of electronic tickets and data from the transit dispatch control system, makes possible to determine the route and passengers correspondence and, to carry out an objective assessment of the demand for public transport and the technical and operational indicators of the transit system.
V. N. Kuznetsova, R. V. Romanenko
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-12-29

Abstract:
Introduction. The use of an electromechanical transmission in the design of a tracked vehicle allows an increase in the complex indicator of mobility, an increase in the range, fuel efficiency, maximum speed, a decrease in acceleration time, etc. The improvement of these indicators is achieved mainly due to the different performance characteristics of the internal combustion engine and the energy characteristics of electrical machines. The latter fact makes it possible to ensure the operation of the power plant of the tracked vehicle in such a way as to avoid unfavorable operating modes of both the internal combustion engine and the elements of the electromechanical transmission (a generator, a traction electric motor, an energy storage) from the point of view of energy efficiency, and to realize the high efficiency of the entire system. Research methods. To improve the mobility and implement a rational strategy for electromechanical transmission control, it is necessary to have an idea of the effective modes of operation of the main elements of the power plant. As a way to solve this problem it is proposed to study the energy characteristics of the main elements of an electromechanical transmission using the developed mathematical model for various modes of movement of a tracked vehicle. Results. Modeling the motion of a tracked vehicle with an electromechanical transmission makes it possible, in addition to determining the transmission parameters, to formulate preliminary requirements for its characteristics. Discussion and conclusion. To solve these problems, it is necessary to simulate the process of movement of a tracked vehicle, taking into account the initial data that are adequate to real operating conditions.
V. S. Lesovik, , I. L. Chulkova, A. E. Zhuravleva
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-120-134

Abstract:
Introduction. Methodological approaches and validation of the emergence of a new transdisciplinary area -geonics, which is considered as the art of applying knowledge of the inorganic world, are presented. Materials and methods. The concept of technogenic metasomatism as a stage in the evolution of building materials, characterized by the adaptation of the composite to changing conditions is formulated. The Law of affinity of structures, which consists in the selection of raw materials for a composite with similar physical and mechanical characteristics, is described. Results. The examples of non-traditional raw materials use in the areas of construction materials science (intelligent composites, restoration mixtures) and architecture (the building of the Belarusian Potash Company in Belarus, the 'Reflection of the mineral’ building in Japan, the design concept of the monument to the Kursk magnetic anomaly) are presented. Discussion and conclusions. It is proved that the development of a transdisciplinary approach to geonics will improve the comfort of human stay in the environment.
A. S. Kadyrov, B. K. Sarsembekov, A. B. Kukisheva
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18, pp 86-92; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-86-95

Abstract:
Introduction. The article deals with the protection of the environment from harmful components of the exhaust gases of a motor vehicle. In order to solve this problem, it is proposed to develop an additional device to the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine, based on the ultrasonic coagulation cleaning method. Materials and methods. Due to the need for an environmentally friendly vehicle exhaust system, an experiment is planned to determine the particle gas settling rate on the ultrasonic stand. The correct setting of the experiment requires a preliminary theoretical analysis and a reduction in the number of parameters influencing the experiment. At the time of the experiment, the number of parameters considered should reflect the main processes and their interactions fairly accurately. However, ultrasonic coagulation depends on most parameters, such as particle settling velocity, ultrasonic wave pressure, oscillation amplitude, ultrasonic frequency, particle radius, dynamic viscosity, gravity acceleration and particle mass, which can complicate and increase the time for experimentation. The method of similarity theory and dimensional analysis was used to reduce the set of variables. This method reduces the number of experiments and saves time, costs and other resources spent on the experiment with a large number of parameters. Results. As a result, a minimum number of dimensional criteria were obtained to improve the efficiency of the ultrasonic screen processing of experimental data. Conclusion. Thus, the dimensionless criteria obtained make it possible to draw up a plan for an experiment to determine the settling rate of car exhaust gas particles on an ultrasonic stand and confirm the applicability of the ultrasonic coagulation treatment method.
E. A. Safronov, K. E. Safronov
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-96-104

Abstract:
Introduction. One of the important problems in the Russian Federation is road safety improvement (RS). This is due to the enormous damage that accidents inflict on the national economy. The Russian Federation lags behind the leading countries of the European Union in the field of road safety in terms of key indicators by 3.5 times. To close the gap, in January 2018, we adopted the 'Strategy for road safety in the Russian Federation for 2018 - 2024’ (Strategy). The goal of the Strategy is to strive for zero mortality in road traffic accidents (RTA) by 2030, and in 2024 to reduce the social risk to 4 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants. Materials and methods. The developments are based on a new theory developed at SibADI - this is the cyclical dynamics of road accidents on a national scale, subordinate to the level of the economy. During crisis, there is a decrease in the number of accidents; this is influenced by a number of factors, the main one is a decrease in the total mileage of vehicles. During such periods, the effectiveness of measures to reduce road accidents is often confused with the real cause, which leads to a decrease in funding and the curtailment of work to improve road safety, which should not be done. When the economy recovers, the level of road accidents recovers and even begins to grow due to the loss of qualifications of drivers who are idle during the crisis. Results. There are two different approaches to achieving this goal. At the federal level, there is a programmatic approach, while in the regions the project method is used within the framework of the 'Safe and High-Quality Highways’ national project (BKAD). A similar project was adopted in the Omsk region. A feature of the road safety project implementation in the Omsk region is the involvement of science. Research is carried out at the Organization and Traffic Safety Department and is introduced into the educational process and implemented at the Federal Training Center for advanced training of workers involved in the training of drivers, created in SibADI. Discussion and conclusion. The scientific approach guarantees the identification and quality solution of the main problems of the road safety project. This applies to recommendations for stabilizing project financing, justifying the development of public transport, using new technologies, improving the regulatory and legislative framework in all areas of urban planning and infrastructure.
I. S. Kuznetsov
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-42-50

Abstract:
Introduction. The pipeline transport of the Russian Federation makes up a significant share in the economy of our country. However, the service life of many pipelines at the moment is several decades. In this regard, the number of emergency situations is increasing. Moreover, the degree of their impact on infrastructure and the environment is increasing from year to year. It is important to solve the problem of timely repair of the pipeline system using modern and effective methods. The use of mechanization means can significantly reduce the time of repair work and their cost. Materials and methods. As a result of the research, a mathematical model of the interaction of the cutter of the milling working equipment of a hydraulic excavator with the excavated soil has been developed. It takes into account the physical and mechanical properties of the soil and the speed of penetration of the cutter at the point of contact with the soil. Results. The dependence is obtained, which allows determining the force of penetration of the cutter of the milling working equipment into the soil. Discussion and conclusions. It is recommended to use the results of the performed theoretical studies for calculating the design and operating parameters in the design and creation of milling working equipment.
S. A. Azemsha, I. N. Kravchenia
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-72-85

Abstract:
Introduction. One of the quality indicators of urban passenger transport services is regularity of route vehicles, which directly depends on a well-designed schedule. An urgent task is to optimize urban passenger transport schedule in response to the improvement in passenger service quality. The purpose of this work is to develop alignment technique of time intervals between consecutive vehicles of different routes on duplicate sections and efficiency assessment of its application. Materials and methods. Optimization technique includes some steps: analysis of public transport network, determining a lot of duplicate sections and their characteristics, calculation the optimal time intervals among arrivals of route vehicles and alignment this intervals among consecutive route vehicles on duplicate sections, analysis of the quality of adjusted schedule of route vehicles and calculating the effect. The simulation model of urban passenger transport within simulation modelling system GPSS World is realized. It allows testing optimization technique of route vehicle scheduling. Conclusions. Adjusting technique of urban passenger transport schedule allows to increase movement steadiness of consecutive vehicles of different routes on duplicate sections, adjust traffic intervals for each route, shorten the traffic load on stations, reducing idle time and queue lengths of route vehicles in front of transport stops and also minimize waiting time for route vehicle by those passengers, who can be transported along several routes. Application. The described technique was tasted in the existing transport network of Gomel. Value. The obtained optimization results can be used by carriers and transport operators to improve the quality of services provided.
S. I. Tsekhosh, B. V. Zhuravsky
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 18; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2021-18-1-106-119

Abstract:
Introduction. The article is devoted to a current issue of improving the quality of road surface cleaning and increasing the resource of brush working equipment. Improving the quality of cleaning and the resource of the brush working equipment will reduce the cost of operating a communal machine. In the process of operation, the pile of the cylindrical brush is worns out, while its elastic characteristics change, which is reflected in the required pressing force to maintain the most favorable value of the width of the contact spot from the condition of ensuring high quality cleaning and minimal intensity of pile wear. Materials and methods. The results of studies of the interaction of the pile of a cylindrical brush with the surface to be cleaned are presented at various degrees of wear of the brush pile. The research results are presented in analytical and graphical forms. The calculations were carried out using the Microsoft Excel software product and the Mathkad software environment for mathematical calculations. Results. The paper shows the dependence of the degree of wear of the pile of the brush working equipment on the actual radius of the cylindrical brush. The relationship between the width of the contact spot and the deformation of the cylindrical brush at different degrees of wear and tear is shown as a graph.The influence of the degree of wear on the elastic characteristics of the brush working equipment is considered. The dependences of the average stiffness coefficient on the degree of wear of the pile of a cylindrical brush, as well as the required pressing force on the degree of wear at different values of the width of the contact patch of the cylindrical brush are given.
A. Р. Scherbakov
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal, Volume 17, pp 664-675; doi:10.26518/2071-7296-2020-17-6-665-675

Abstract:
Introduction. The experimental studies of the heat treatment effect on the properties of welded joints in working mechanisms of road-building machines are carried out in the work. Studying the structures of the metal itself, as well as welded joints and considering their heterogeneity, the author analyzes the strength characteristics of these objects. Materials and methods. By means of metallographic analysis, as well as using boron-containing steel 30MnB5, which is used for the manufacture of structures for construction machines, as a research material, the author examined its microstructure, which took place in certain zones of welded joints. In particular, welded jointss, fusion zones with an overheating area, a complete recrystallization area and the base metal were studied. We also studied the features of cold plastic deformation of the specified steel sample. Results. It was determined that the mechanical inhomogeneity of the steel at these joints is the cause of the structural inhomogeneity of the welded joints. As a result of this process, some dangerous zones of acting voltages concentration are formed. These conclusions predetermine the need to identify some certain zones that concentrate stresses in themselves, while it is mandatory to strengthen the metal in such zones to standard indicators. An increase in the strength properties of the steel under study is possible by applying cold plastic deformation and subsequent thermal cycling (STC). This is achieved by obtaining a fine-grained metal structure with higher strength. The author defines the welded joints and the zone of its fusion with the base metal and the overheating area as the most dangerous areas subject to loading. To control this process, it is recommended to use the passive fluxgate method in the work, while the fusion zone with the overheating section should be inspected first, and then the weld. Discussion and conclusion. The author comes to the conclusion that the experimental studies carried out can contribute to an increase in the efficiency of the process of reducing the stress concentration (SC) in the elements of construction machines made of steel and subjected to intensive operation by reducing the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of welded joints.
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